Success in language AcquisitionOr how can I get a good grade?
The “good language learner”• ..has a wider repertoire of language learningstrategies which they use more frequentlythan their peers• Uses monitoring strategies (Vandegrift, 2003)• Use of appropriate language learningstrategies often results in improvedproficiency or achievement overall or inspecific skill areas (Oxford et al., 1993;Thompson & Rubin, 1993).
A language learning strategy is..• “ steps or actions consciously selected bylearners either to improve the learning of asecond language, the use of it, or both”(Cohen, 1998)• “tools for active, self-directed involvement”(Oxford, 1990)
3 key areas:• CognitiveLearn and use new language/skills• Social/socio-affectiveRegulate emotions, motivation and attitude• MetacognitivePlan, monitor, evaluate
DIRECT STRATEGIESI. MemoryA. Creating mental linkagesGrouping, Associating/elaborating, Contextualizing wordsB. Applying images and soundsImagery, Semantic Mapping, Keywords, Sounds in MemoryC. Reviewing wellReviewing after increasingly longer intervals of timeD. Employing actionPhysical response or sensation, mechanical techniquesII. CognitiveA. PracticingRepeating, Formally, Formulaics, Recombining, NaturalisticallyB. Receiving and sending messagesGetting the idea quickly, Using resourcesC. Analyzing and reasoningDeductive, Expression analyzing, Contrastively acrosslanguages, Translating, TransferringD. Creating structure for input and outputTaking notes, Summarizing, HighlightingIII. Compensation strategiesA. Guessing intelligentlyUsing linguistic and other cluesB. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writingMother tongue, Help!, Gesture, Avoidance, TopicSelection, Approximating, Coining words, Circumlocution
INDIRECT STRATEGIESI. Metacognitive StrategiesA. Centering your learningOverviewing and linking, Paying attention, Just listeningB. Arranging and planning your learningMeta-linguistics, Organizing, Setting goals, Identifyingpurposes, Planning for a task, Seeking times to practiceC. Evaluating your learningSelf-monitoring, Self-evaluatingII. Affective StrategiesoA. Lowering your anxietyRelaxation/meditation, Music, LaughteroB. Encouraging yourselfPositive statements, Wise risk-taking, Rewarding yourselfoC. Taking your emotional temperatureBody awareness, Emotion checklist, Diary, Sharing feelingsIII. Social StrategiesoA. Asking questionsClarification/verification, CorrectionoB. Cooperating with othersPeer support, Interaction with native speakersoC. Empathizing with othersDeveloping cultural understanding, Becoming aware ofothers’ thoughts and feelings