“For communication to be successful, the
receiver must understand the message that
sender intended to send, and both the sender
and receiver must agree that the receiver has
understood the message”
Clark, H.H. and Wilkes Gibbs, D. "Referring as a Collaborative Process,"
Cognition, 22, 1986, 1-39.
“We believe that the key to effective use of media is to match media
capabilities to the fundamental communication processes required to perform
Because most tasks require individuals to both convey information and
converge on shared meanings, and media that excel at information
conveyance are often not those that excel at convergence. Thus choosing one
single medium for any task may prove less effective than choosing a medium
or set of media which the group uses at different times in performing the task,
depending on the current communication process (convey or converge).
Media switching may be most appropriate.”
From: Denis, A and Valacich, J. Rethinking Media Richness.
Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 1999
From: Learning and collaboration at a distance
By Mark Childs.
• Negotiation of meaning
• Relative advantage
• Social presence
Social presence is “the ability
of participants to identify with
the community (e.g., course of
purposefully in a trusting
environment, and develop
inter-personal relationships by
way of projecting their
Kearney et al, Research in Learning Technology Vol 20, 2012