Structures

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STRUCTURES

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Structures

  1. 1. Structures What can you see here?
  2. 2. IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE <ul><li>Can you identify the following structures? </li></ul>
  3. 3. IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE    1. Match each building with the corresponding fact and country. 2. Differentiate between the present and past tense. <ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><li>Eiffel tower </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Big Ben </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Guggenheim Bilbao  </li></ul>Facts It was a present from France. It was made for the Universal Exposition of 1889.   It is the largest four-faced chiming clock in the world.   It was built as a masoleum.    It is covered in titanium panels. Country Spain France U.S.A United Kingdom India
  4. 4. STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Why do we need bridges? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Could you think of other kinds of structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you see any structures in the class? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you think of any structures that you use every day? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  DEFINITION OF STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>A structure is a group of elements that can support weights  </li></ul><ul><li>without breaking or deforming. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROPERTIES OF A STRUCTURE RIGIDITY -A structure maintains its form STABILITY -A structure cannot turn over. RESISTENCE -A structure doesn't break easily. 
  7. 7. Types of structures <ul><li>We can find different kinds of structures in our surroudings. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Structures created by nature are called natural structures . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: Skeletons, rock formations, shells of an animal </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of structures <ul><li>Others have been designed and built by man to meet their needs during their evolution. These man-made structures are called artificial structures .  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The most common examples of such structures are bridges and buildings. </li></ul>
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS <ul><li>Column  - A column is a vertical element that has to support the weight of a structure.  It transfers weight to the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>GRAMMAR REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>-When do you use have to ? </li></ul>
  10. 10. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS <ul><li>Beam- A beam is a horizontal element that has to support the weight of a structure.  It transfers weight to a column. </li></ul>
  11. 11. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS <ul><li>Brace-  A brace is an element that improves the rigidity of a structure. </li></ul>
  12. 12. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS <ul><li>Arch- An arch is an element that transfers weight to other structural elements, like columns and beams.  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Forces in Structures <ul><li>A structure must be able to support, besides its own wheight, other forces and external loads acting on them.  </li></ul><ul><li>  http://www.galileo.org/tips/structures/forces.html </li></ul><ul><li>These forces are: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Torsion </li></ul><ul><li>Shear </li></ul>
  14. 14. TENSION FORCES <ul><li>Forces which cause a member to &quot;stretch&quot;. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Compression Forces <ul><li>Forces than can cause a member to be &quot;squashed&quot;. </li></ul>
  16. 16.   <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>  </li></ul>

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