2º DE BACHILLERATO INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
THE GERUND    functions
<ul><li>Subject of the sentence  :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing  is believing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking and dri...
<ul><li>Complement of a verb.  </li></ul><ul><li>It often comes after the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Admit </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The thief  admitted  stealing the money. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you  go  shopping every week? </li></ul><ul><li>A do...
As complement of some phrases: Can't help  Can't stand Spend (time) Feel like Don't mind/would mind Be/get used to  <ul><l...
THE INFINITIVE   functions
Subject of a sentence: <ul><li>It is sometimes the subject of a sentence, but then it refers to a single occasion (not in ...
<ul><li>Complement of a verb.  </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive usually comes after the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Agree ...
<ul><li>John always  manages  to get what he wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Sylvia  hoped  to find a job in advertising, but she...
Verb +  object  + infinitive <ul><li>Advise </li></ul><ul><li>Allow </li></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage </li...
<ul><li>I don’t  permit   my employees  to be late. </li></ul><ul><li>My sister  wanted   me  to help her with her homewor...
Some verbs are followed by gerund/infinitive with no change of meaning: <ul><li>She  started  to make a cake/making a cake...
Infinitive or gerund with change of meaning. <ul><li>Regret </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I  regret  upsetting my boyfriend, and I...
<ul><li>Forget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'll never  forget  seeing George Clooney in Cannes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't...
Other structures with the infinitive <ul><li>Following many adjectives (happy, sad, glad, afraid, busy, tired, easy, nice....
Verbs followed by infinitive without “to” (base form) <ul><li>Verbs of perception: see, feel, hear, notice, watch .  </li>...
Additional points: the noun followed by the infinitive: <ul><li>Some nouns can take infinitive as complement:  chance, hop...
<ul><li>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license,...
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Infinitives and gerunds

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Infinitives and gerunds

  1. 1. 2º DE BACHILLERATO INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS
  2. 2. THE GERUND functions
  3. 3. <ul><li>Subject of the sentence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing is believing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking and driving is really dangerous. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complement of a preposition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She came in without greeting anyone . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check the petrol before travelling. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Complement of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>It often comes after the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Admit </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Consider </li></ul><ul><li>Deny </li></ul><ul><li>Detest </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike/like </li></ul><ul><li>enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul><ul><li>Go + leisure activity </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Involve </li></ul><ul><li>Love/hate </li></ul><ul><li>Mean </li></ul><ul><li>Miss </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone </li></ul><ul><li>Practise </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>suggest </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The thief admitted stealing the money. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you go shopping every week? </li></ul><ul><li>A dog can’t avoid barking to strangers, it’s in its nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a student involves putting in a lot of time revising lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d never risk cheating in a test for fear of being caught. </li></ul><ul><li>Just imagine travelling all around the world! That would be amazing. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve never enjoyed reading a book so much. It’s been both interesting and great fun! </li></ul><ul><li>The waiter suggested ordering lobster. He was right; expensive, but really delicious! </li></ul>
  6. 6. As complement of some phrases: Can't help Can't stand Spend (time) Feel like Don't mind/would mind Be/get used to <ul><li>It's no use </li></ul><ul><li>It's worth </li></ul><ul><li>Look forward to </li></ul><ul><li>I'm looking forward to hearing from you. </li></ul><ul><li>I can't help feeling sorry for him. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s no use crying over past errors. </li></ul><ul><li>I' m not used to driving in Manhattan traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind opening the window, please? </li></ul><ul><li>She spent seven hours making Christmas dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the film worth seeing? </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE INFINITIVE functions
  8. 8. Subject of a sentence: <ul><li>It is sometimes the subject of a sentence, but then it refers to a single occasion (not in general): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To marry you is the best thing I've ever done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To divorce would be stupid. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Complement of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive usually comes after the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul><ul><li>Afford </li></ul><ul><li>Appear </li></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul><ul><li>Beg </li></ul><ul><li>Choose </li></ul><ul><li>Dare </li></ul><ul><li>Decide </li></ul><ul><li>Expect </li></ul><ul><li>Fail </li></ul><ul><li>Hate </li></ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul><ul><li>Hesitate </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Learn </li></ul><ul><li>manage </li></ul><ul><li>Offer </li></ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend </li></ul><ul><li>Promise </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse </li></ul><ul><li>Seem </li></ul><ul><li>Used to </li></ul><ul><li>Want </li></ul><ul><li>wish </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>John always manages to get what he wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Sylvia hoped to find a job in advertising, but she refused to work long hours, so she decided to quit. </li></ul><ul><li>Will you agree to leave Madrid and come to live in Toledo? </li></ul><ul><li>There appears to be a mistake in these calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>She helps to do the laundry and the ironing. </li></ul><ul><li>Did you learn to drive in that driving school? </li></ul><ul><li>I wish to help you, and I promise to do my best to get on with you. </li></ul><ul><li>We used to eat grilled bread with a sprinkle of olive oil for breakfast for many years. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Verb + object + infinitive <ul><li>Advise </li></ul><ul><li>Allow </li></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage </li></ul><ul><li>Forbid </li></ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul><ul><li>Invite </li></ul><ul><li>Like </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Remind </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Request </li></ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Tell </li></ul><ul><li>Want </li></ul><ul><li>Warn </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I don’t permit my employees to be late. </li></ul><ul><li>My sister wanted me to help her with her homework. </li></ul><ul><li>If you forbid everybody to smoke in public areas, more people will stop smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>The boss persuaded me to remain in the company. </li></ul><ul><li>I recommend everybody to take exercise regularly. It makes you feel great. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like the company to be successful, but the sales keep going down. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctor advised the patient to stay in bed for three days. </li></ul><ul><li>If you ask David to lend you money, he’ll probably say no. </li></ul><ul><li>Sally reminded Bob to brush his teeth. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some verbs are followed by gerund/infinitive with no change of meaning: <ul><li>She started to make a cake/making a cake for the party. </li></ul><ul><li>I prefer to climb/climbing in the mountains after it has snowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why don't you continue to make/making plans after dinner? </li></ul><ul><li>Most of my classmates intend to take/taking a scientific degree </li></ul><ul><li>As the temperature fell, the baby began to shake/shaking . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Infinitive or gerund with change of meaning. <ul><li>Regret </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I regret upsetting my boyfriend, and I hope he’ll forgive me soon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I regret to tell you that you no longer work here, you are fired. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She tried taking an aspirin, but the pain didn't stop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to concentrate or you will fail the answers. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Forget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I'll never forget seeing George Clooney in Cannes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't forget to bring your passport. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please remember to send Mary my regards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She didn't remember meeting us last summer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why don't we stop to have a coffee? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I'm going to stop smoking one of these days. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Other structures with the infinitive <ul><li>Following many adjectives (happy, sad, glad, afraid, busy, tired, easy, nice...) </li></ul><ul><li>In the structure adj. + enough + to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>In the structure too + adj. + to + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>In the phrases would like, would love, would prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy was happy to get his ice-cream. </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna was too tired to run the marathon. </li></ul><ul><li>It's never too late to master a new skill. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is not hot enough to boil. </li></ul><ul><li>I' d like to eat some plain yoghurt with honey for dessert. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you prefer to stay overnight and leave tomorrow? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Verbs followed by infinitive without “to” (base form) <ul><li>Verbs of perception: see, feel, hear, notice, watch . </li></ul><ul><li>These verbs can also go with a gerund to signal that the peception doesn’t last. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I haven't seen Selena Gomez dance in her latest videoclip . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We heard Coldplay sing in Madrid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can't you hear a wolf howling in the distance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With the verbs let and make. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dad made us learn five new words every day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let me play in the garden, please! </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Additional points: the noun followed by the infinitive: <ul><li>Some nouns can take infinitive as complement: chance, hope, promise, wish,intention, refusal , etc. or we can use the infinitive with nouns when we want to say the purpose or the effect that they will have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have no intention to go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They made a promise to change for the better. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you got a key to open this cabinet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We all need a friend to trust. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA. </li></ul>

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