Word order


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Word order

  1. 1. W O R D O R D E R
  2. 2. BASIC WORD ORDER IN ENGLISH <ul><li>(TIME) SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT(S) + ADVERBIAL PHRASE(S) </li></ul>thing + to + person person + thing place + time Susan went to school on Monday . I eat bananas twice a week . My father gave me a present for my birthday . We will send this letter to Peter tomorrow morning. Last week, I didn’t enjoy Sam’s party.
  3. 3. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>They can be part of the predicate after some verbs: be, look, feel, sound … </li></ul><ul><li>She looks beautiful today. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be part of a noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In a noun phrase, they should be placed after the determiner ( articles, demostratives, quantifiers, possessives, etc) and before the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>When there’s more than one adjective before the noun, the correct order is: </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER + OPINION + SIZE + AGE + SHAPE + COLOUR + ORIGIN + MATERIAL + PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul><ul><li>1- Numbers: ordinal ( first, second, third …) + cardinal ( one, two, three …) ; </li></ul><ul><li>2- O pinion  adjectives: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult </li></ul><ul><li>3- S ize  adjectives: large, tiny, enormous, little </li></ul><ul><li>4- A ge  adjectives: ancient, new, young, old </li></ul><ul><li>5- S hape  adjectives: square, round, flat, rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>6- C olour  adjectives: blue, pink, reddish, grey </li></ul><ul><li>7- Origin  adjectives: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek </li></ul><ul><li>8- M aterial  adjectives: wooden, metal, cotton, paper </li></ul><ul><li>9- P urpose  adjectives: sleeping (as in &quot;sleeping bag&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you will write the noun in apposition (as in “ car keys ”) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>NUMBER + OPINION + SIZE + AGE + SHAPE + COLOUR + ORIGIN + MATERIAL + PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul><ul><li>This is a huge three-year-old car. “three-year s -old car” is incorrect! </li></ul><ul><li>He was a difficult , stubborn child. </li></ul><ul><li>I bought a wonderful old Italian clock. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s got lovely long wavy brown hair. </li></ul><ul><li>He is an extraordinary tall thirty-nine-year-old well-built Italian actor. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the first two cars to reach the end. </li></ul><ul><li> ordinal + cardinal </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Philology students must enter this room. </li></ul><ul><li>noun in apposition </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve found a disgusting pink plastic ornament. </li></ul><ul><li>In my nice big flat </li></ul><ul><li>There's an old round box </li></ul><ul><li>For my green Swiss hat </li></ul><ul><li>And my woolly walking socks. </li></ul>Use commas to coordinate adjectives from the same group.
  5. 5. ADVERBS <ul><li>BEGINNING OF SENTENCE (before the subject ): </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting adverbs : Then, next, however, suddenly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly the door opened. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, a ghost floated into the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment adverbs: Luckily, unluckily, fortunately, surprisingly, stupidly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Stupidly, I forgot my keys. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately, she has decided to help us. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency adverbs (special emphasis, indefinite frequency ) : usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally (NOT: always, ever, rarely, seldom and never ). </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes I think I’d like to live somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually I get up early. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adverbs of certainty : maybe, perhaps. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe I’m right. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps her train is late. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Adverbs of place (special emphasis ): here, there, at the end, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Here comes your bus. The word order changes in this sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>There she is. </li></ul><ul><li>On the bus sat a pretty girl with a blue hat. The word order changes here. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of time (special emphasis ): today, in 1956, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, I’m going to London. </li></ul><ul><li>In June we went to Cornwall. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>MID-POSITION (before the main verb, after an auxiliary verb or after “be” ) : </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of certainty : certainly, definitely, clearly, obviously, probably; </li></ul><ul><li>He probably thinks you don’t like him. </li></ul><ul><li>There is clearly something wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>It will certainly rain today. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, often, usually, always, ever, seldom, etc </li></ul><ul><li>We usually go to Scotland in August. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m seldom late for work. </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing adverbs : even, only, also, mainly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She’s also my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>We are only going for two days. </li></ul><ul><li>Some adverbs of time: already, still, finally, eventually, soon, last, just; </li></ul><ul><li>She’s still working in the office. </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve just arrived. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adverbs of manner (when they are not important): slowly, suddenly, happily, etc </li></ul><ul><li>I slowly started to feel better again. </li></ul><ul><li>We will happily start moving to London next month. </li></ul><ul><li>Some a dverbs of degree: almost, greatly, mostly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She’s almost finished. </li></ul><ul><li>He totally agrees with you. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>END OF SENTENCE (after the verb ): </li></ul><ul><li>A dverbs of manner: slowly, suddenly, badly, quietly, etc </li></ul><ul><li>He drove off angrily . </li></ul><ul><li>You speak English well. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of place: upstairs, around, here, to bed, from school, etc </li></ul><ul><li>The children are playing upstairs . </li></ul><ul><li>Come and sit here . </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency expressions (definite frequency) : once a month, every week, etc </li></ul><ul><li>She buys the newspaper twice a week . </li></ul><ul><li>I visit my grandma every day . </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of time: today, finally, soon, yet, etc </li></ul><ul><li>I’m going to Paris today . </li></ul><ul><li>She’ll be coming soon . </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of purpose: to + infinitive, in order to + infinitive, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I will use this new red pen to mark the exams . </li></ul><ul><li>You have to study in order to pass the school year . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>If there’s more than one adverb after the </li></ul><ul><li>verb, the correct order is: </li></ul><ul><li>Manner + place + frequency + time + purpose </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Beth swims enthusiastically in the pool every morning before lunch to keep in shape . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>He is very talkative. Mark is exceptionally bright . </li></ul><ul><li> adverb adjective adverb adjective </li></ul><ul><li>He speaks too slowly. Tom ran extremely fast. </li></ul><ul><li> adverb adverb adverb adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Commas with adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma after certain adverbs: however, in fact, therefore nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, still, instead, too (meaning 'also'). </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore , he didn't say a word. </li></ul><ul><li>If these adverbs appear in the middle of a sentence, they are enclosed </li></ul><ul><li>in commas. </li></ul><ul><li>The thief , however , was very clever. </li></ul><ul><li>The comma is optional in many cases, depending on the context and on the intention of the writer. </li></ul><ul><li>  So , she entered the house. </li></ul><ul><li>  So she entered the house. </li></ul>