Hydrocarbons
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
 Aliphatic

hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons
that consist of straight or branched chains
of carbon at...
Pentane – a straight chain
aliphatic hydrocarbon
A branched chain
hydrocarbon
Cyclohexane – a cyclic
aliphatic hydrocarbon
Homologous series
A

homologous series is a family of organic
compounds with the same general
formula, similar chemical p...
Alkanes
 Alkanes

are a homologous series of
hydrocarbons with the general formula
CnH2n+2

 They

are named systematica...
Alkanes
 Methane
 Ethane

C2H6

 Propane
 Butane

CH4

C 3 H8

C4H10

 Pentane
 Hexane
 Heptane
 Octane

C5H12
C6H...
Alkanes
 Alkane

molecules
are tetrahedral,
e.g. propane
Structural formulas
 The

structural formula of an alkane
indicates the way atoms in a molecule of
the alkane are bonded ...
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Structural isomers






Structural isomers are compounds that have
the same molecular formula but different
structural...
Isomers of butane
An isomer of octane (C8H18)


2,2,4-trimethylpentane
is so called because
there are two methyl
groups attached (in
place ...
Physical properties of alkanes
 Physical

state: The first four alkanes are
gases, while pentane and higher alkanes
are l...
Alkenes
 Alkenes

are a homologous series of
hydrocarbons with the general formula
CnH2n

 They

are named systematicall...
Alkenes
 Ethene

C 2 H4

 Propene

C3H6

 But-1-ene

C4H8

 But-2-ene

C4H8
Ethene
Propene
But-1-ene
But-2-ene
Physical properties of alkenes
 Physical

state: Gases

 Insoluble
 Soluble

in water

in non-polar solvents such as
cy...
Alkynes
 Alkynes

are a
homologous series
of hydrocarbons
with the general
formula CnH2n-2

 Ethyne

(C2H2) is the
first...
Physical properties of ethyne
 Physical

state: Gas
 Insoluble in water
 Soluble in non-polar solvents such as
cyclohex...
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H c(2)

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H c(2)

  1. 1. Hydrocarbons
  2. 2. Aliphatic hydrocarbons  Aliphatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that consist of straight or branched chains of carbon atoms, or rings of carbon atoms other than those containing a special ring called a benzene ring
  3. 3. Pentane – a straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbon
  4. 4. A branched chain hydrocarbon
  5. 5. Cyclohexane – a cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon
  6. 6. Homologous series A homologous series is a family of organic compounds with the same general formula, similar chemical properties, and successive members differing by CH2  Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are three different homologous series of aliphatic hydrocarbons
  7. 7. Alkanes  Alkanes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2  They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ane”
  8. 8. Alkanes  Methane  Ethane C2H6  Propane  Butane CH4 C 3 H8 C4H10  Pentane  Hexane  Heptane  Octane C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18
  9. 9. Alkanes  Alkane molecules are tetrahedral, e.g. propane
  10. 10. Structural formulas  The structural formula of an alkane indicates the way atoms in a molecule of the alkane are bonded together  The following slides show the structural formulas of some of the alkanes
  11. 11. Methane
  12. 12. Ethane
  13. 13. Propane
  14. 14. Butane
  15. 15. Pentane
  16. 16. Structural isomers    Structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas Butane (C4H10)is the simplest alkane which has structural isomers, called butane and 2methylpropane respectively The name 2-methylpropane indicates that there is a methyl (CH3) group attached instead of one of the hydrogen atoms to the second carbon in propane
  17. 17. Isomers of butane
  18. 18. An isomer of octane (C8H18)  2,2,4-trimethylpentane is so called because there are two methyl groups attached (in place of hydrogen atoms) to the second carbon atom and one (in place of another hydrogen atom) to the fourth carbon atom in a pentane molecule
  19. 19. Physical properties of alkanes  Physical state: The first four alkanes are gases, while pentane and higher alkanes are liquids  Insoluble in water  Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane
  20. 20. Alkenes  Alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n  They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ene”
  21. 21. Alkenes  Ethene C 2 H4  Propene C3H6  But-1-ene C4H8  But-2-ene C4H8
  22. 22. Ethene
  23. 23. Propene
  24. 24. But-1-ene
  25. 25. But-2-ene
  26. 26. Physical properties of alkenes  Physical state: Gases  Insoluble  Soluble in water in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane
  27. 27. Alkynes  Alkynes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n-2  Ethyne (C2H2) is the first member of the series
  28. 28. Physical properties of ethyne  Physical state: Gas  Insoluble in water  Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane

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