Bba L14 Dt Culture


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Bba L14 Dt Culture

  1. 1. Welcome Class BBA-L14- / / Culture
  2. 2. Today’s objective <ul><li>To understand the culture it various aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>To discus the basic concepts characteristics and function of the culture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of Culture <ul><li>What is Culture? </li></ul><ul><li>. “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member if society.” (Edward Tylor) </li></ul><ul><li>. “Culture is an aggregation of ways of living of human beings which is the result of social learning.” (C.S Coun) </li></ul><ul><li>. “Culture is the process of thinking, feeling and acting.” (Kulkhan) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ( Continue ) Definition of Culture <ul><li>. “ Culture is the formal agreement of human organization which is expressed through art and material things. It becomes integral part of human groups and society because of the continuation of traditions, folkways, norms, and more.” ( Robert Redfield ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conclusion <ul><li>C ulture includes tools, weapons, fire, agriculture, animal domestication, writing, the steam engine, glasses, airplanes, computers, penicillin, nuclear power, rock and roll, video games, designer jeans, religion, political systems, subsistence patterns, science, sports, and social organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture includes all aspects of human activity, from the fine arts to popular entertainment, from everyday behavior to the development of sophisticated technology. It contains the plans, rules, techniques, design, and policies for living. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ( Continue ) Conclusion <ul><li>C ulture is a shared way of life that includes values, beliefs, and norms transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation through symbolic learning and language. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture is the historical accumulation of symbolic knowledge that is shared by a society. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture is the based on shared meanings that are beyond the mind of any individual; culture is also within the mind of individuals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Culture <ul><li>Culture is learned- : Culture is not instinctive and natural it is learned through socialization. An ability to learn is the distinction of human beings on earth. Which makes human better than others. At birth, a human being is dependent upon others but due to having a quality of learning he is able to learn the habits, behavior and attitudes of other. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is Transformed -: Culture is transmuted from individual to individual and individual to group. A human being has also an ability to transform available knowledge and wisdom to others. On account of this ability a culture is transmuted to others. The language is great source of cultural transformation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ( Continue ) Characteristics of Culture <ul><li>Culture is Social -: it means that the culture combines the people on account of common grounds. Every culture provide common models of thinking and actions to its members that is why the over all character of the people is more or less same. Due to group pressure the people accept the common ways of living in society. Briefly the patterns of thinking, feeling and acting are the cultural traits that are the production of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural is Conceptual -: the common ways of living which are learned are called culture. These are considered value able patterns of the group and every one has to act upon them. In this way the culture share with the people the highly valuable patterns of human behavior. Every one try to act upon them with utmost sincerity. Although there may be difference among the beliefs and creeds but still they feel cohesion with the common objective. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ( Continue ) Characteristics of Culture <ul><li>Culture fulfill the Basic Needs -: it is the important characteristic of the culture that it fulfills the basic needs of the human beings. This very characteristic of the culture is mainly responsible for its existence for the society. If any culture is not able to fulfill the needs of the people, it dies out gradually. Every group of human being has its own culture whose nature depend upon the national needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Creates Adjustment -: Culture provides the patterns to create adjustment in the social environment. There are two forms of this adjustment. In first case, for the adjustment in social environment one has to change him or her self. 2 nd case to change the social environment for the adjustment. Animals change them selves according to the environment there as human beings bring the changes in the environment through cultural change. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ( Continue ) Characteristics of Culture <ul><li>Culture Creates Unity -: Culture creates unity among different group and communities in the society. There are several components culture which are tied up together through cultural values. It provides acceptable values which are tied up together through cultural values. It provides acceptable values which bring about the same patterns of life to be followed by every one. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Different Aspects of Culture <ul><li>Material Culture -: in material culture the man made things are included that we can see and feel, e.g. Book, Axe, building and atomic bomb etc. normally, material culture is referred to the modern technology and inventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Non Material Culture -: Non material is abstract aspect of the culture. It includes thinking feelings and values. More clearly, it is referred to the patterns of the systems to continue the social life properly. e.g. democracy, materialism, religion and music etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ( Continue ) Different Aspects of Culture <ul><li>Patterns -: in every society the group pattern are more or less the same these are the ways or methods of Non-material culture. It may include the patterns of Marriage, the patterns of Praying and Worship and method of spending the money. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Functions of Culture <ul><li>C ulture keeps the society organized. </li></ul><ul><li>I t reveals the concept of good and bad to the members of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>I t maintains unity among the masses. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture provides patterns for social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture helps to perform religious rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture gives identity to a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture fulfils the basic needs of the masses. </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture helps to create adjustment with geographical conditions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Cultural Diffusion -: If the masses do adopt the cultural patterns of other societies discarding their existing patterns it is called cultural diffusion. The major posture of the culture remain the same but few of the norms and values are taken by the peoples from other cultures. Due to effective means of communication the process of cultural diffusion is very fast. Since it has become quite common, no cultural is beyond this process. e.g. to celebrate birthday is from the English Culture where as the dowry has routes in Hindu Culture. The process of Cultural diffusion is neither positive or negative for any society, it depends how much the masses are ready to bring change in their on going Cultural patterns. If the change is radical and antithesis to basic spirit of the culture then it is harmful. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>How Is Culture Passed On? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is learned </li></ul><ul><li>Enculturation: enculturation is done through the process of socialization. This process starts from birth and family school and society play vital role in the process of enculturation which is acutely socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Situational learning ( trial and error ): through socialization whatever one learns becomes a part of his or her life. By trial and error the masses infuse the cultural patterns in their personality. </li></ul><ul><li>( Continue…) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>( Continue ) How Is Culture Passed On? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is learned </li></ul><ul><li>======================================== </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning ( observation ): while living a life the masses observe the cultural patterns of the various cultures. Checking the cultural patterns on the criterion of values the people reject or adopt any pattern. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Symbolic learning </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symbols-: </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolization : there are so many signs and symbols prevalent in any society. The people learn them to interact better in society. e.g. ways of greeting or the sign of victory or rejoicing. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols and culture-: </li></ul><ul><li>National symbols : every nation has some certain symbols which are derived from religious historical and social background. e.g. the flag of every nation exhibits to overall culture of the society </li></ul>
  18. 18. Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Trait -: cultural trait is the smallest and shortest unit of the culture. It can be both material and nonmaterial. Its examples are shoes, houses, ways of greeting, money, pen etc. every culture is a complex of thousands of cultural traits. So the complexity of each culture is related with its cultural traits. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Pattern - : Cultural pattern is the complex of material and non-material aspect of the culture which exhibits the characteristics of the society or culture. These patterns keep the people united. The cultural patterns organizes the human behavior which is reflected in the routine life of people. In every culture there are specific objectives and to achieve them the cultural patterns are properly planed. e.g. to struggle for a successful life is a cultural characteristics every one knows to lead a successful life the hard work is compulsory. </li></ul>
  20. 20. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Area - : Cultural area is geographical limit of the culture. Every culture is widely acted upon in some certain areas. However it is not necessary that the cultural area limited to a certain country. If the culture of several countries is smellier it will make a culture area. e.g. South Asian Culture . </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Islands - : if the culture of two countries to adjunct areas is same it makes cultural is Island. e.g. the Culture of Karachi is different and similarly the culture of NWFP and tribal areas may be example of cultural Island. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Complex -: cultural complex is aggregation of cultural traits that are interlinked some way or the others. In short the cultural complex is the whole of cultural traits and characteristics. e.g. the school is the best example of it. The building of the school, books, students and teachers are main components. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Cultural Lack -: American Sociologist William Ogburn is the founder of the theory of cultural lack. According to this theory the pace of change is not the similar in every aspect of the society. The change is accepted or incorporated in some aspects quickly by some aspects show resistance. Because of this the inequality occurs in the various aspects of the society. e.g. normally, the change is occurred and accepted easily in material aspect rather than nonmaterial aspects. Although a human has touched the moon but still for some religions and societies it is sacred thing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Folk ways - : Sumner highlighted the need and importance of folkways in the life of human beings. According to him the major part of the culture is based on folkways, mores and social institutions. These folkways creates the group patterns or behavior. According to Sumner folkways are those group patterns and behavior which come into existence itself to solve day to day problems of the masses. every formulates some folkways which run form generation to generation. The folkways guide the human behavior and because of group pressure every one act upon them. e.g. to ware a specific dress on different occasion to greet in a acceptable form. </li></ul>
  24. 24. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Mores -: According to Sumner mores are those folkways which are considered necessary for the social betterment. These are the folkways which are considered necessary for the social betterment. These are the folkways which are unavoidable and acting upon them is necessary. In every society the observance of mores is considered compulsory rather than folkways. The society punishes those violate the mores. Guide the human character and because of fear of social anger the people do not violate them. e.g. in Muslim society eating a pork is punish able the culprit liable of strong punishment. </li></ul>
  25. 25. ( Continue ) Basic Concepts of Culture <ul><li>Values -: values are standards of good and bad on account of religious social factors the society agrees upon the good and bad deeds. The values are power full in applying any culture upon the masses. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cultural Ethnocentrism <ul><li>This theory was first of all presented by Ibn-e-Khaldun in his famous book “A case of Ibn-e-Khaldun”. According to him cultural ethnocentrism is a force which exist in the society every time. Due to this, the group tribes and society up hold their existence the concept of a things or group under which one considers his or her things or groups better than the rest of the other strata’s in society. Under this theory every one considers his or her group superior infect, cultural ethnocentrism is not only the desire of the individual or the groups but also of the society it self for it existence. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank you and Goodbye, </li></ul><ul><li>Till Next Class </li></ul>