Bba L02 Dt Sociological Concepts And Perspectives


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Bba L02 Dt Sociological Concepts And Perspectives

  1. 1. Sociological Concepts and Perspectives BBA-L02- 13/8/08 Welcome Class
  2. 2. Today’s Objectives <ul><li>To clarify the theoretical frame of references in sociology </li></ul><ul><li>To discus about various Sociological theories and thinkers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions of Theory <ul><li>What is Theory? </li></ul><ul><li>In general contexts the theory is Value or Speculation. </li></ul><ul><li>In Social Sciences the term refers to a conceptual framework used to interpret or explain some aspect our every day existence ( Joe Feagin, 2003:18) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory is a set of logically interrelated propositions and implications that follow from them. Which are used to explain some phenomenon, implication in any theory are a set of underlying assumptions and methods that rarely questioned a theoretical perspective. ( Johnson, 1995: 295) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Importance of Social Theory in Sociology <ul><li>Social theories provide ideological and theoretical support to research topics. Social theories provide an ideological base to Social problems and phenomena. It is accepted that without any proper sociological theory it is difficult to conduct a social research properly. It works like Blood in the body that provides life and sustains it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Perspectives in Sociology <ul><li>What is Perspective? </li></ul><ul><li>A working set of assumptions is called “ Perspective” an “approach” some times a “Paradigm”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Evolutionary Perspective in Brief <ul><li>A) Interactionlism </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic interactionists such as G.H.Mead and C.H.Cooley concentrate upon this interaction between individuals and groups. They note that peoples interact mainly through symbols, which include signs, gestures, and most importantly through written and spoken words. A word has no inherent meanings. It is simply a noise, but it becomes a word when peoples reach agreement that this noise carries a special meaning. Thus “YES”, “NO”, “GO”, “COME”, and thousands of other sounds became symbols is attached to each. Although some meanings can be exchanged without words, as all lovers know, most meanings are exchanged through spoken or written words. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>In this perspective a society is seen as an organized network of cooperating groups operating in a fairly orderly manner according to a set of rules and values shared by most members. Society is a seen as a stable system, with a tendency toward equilibrium, that is a tendency to maintain a balanced, harmoniously operating system. In the functionalist perspective, with Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis, Robert Merton as the most prominent spokesmen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conflict <ul><li>Karl Marx, C.Wright Mills, lewis Coser, Aron, Dahrendorf, </li></ul><ul><li>Chambliss, Collins are the main contributors of the Conflict Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict theorists see a society as held together through the power of dominant groups or classes. They claim that the “Shared Values” which functionalists see as the glue holding society together do not really form a true consensus in which the dominant groups or classes impose their values and rules upon the rest of the peoples. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pioneers Contributors in Sociology <ul><li>IBN KHALDUN (1332-1406 Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of environment on Human Society </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic and Urban Life </li></ul><ul><li>Ups and Downs of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Science </li></ul>
  10. 10. Auguste Comte (1798-1857 France) <ul><li>A) Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>S tatic Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>D ynamic Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>B) Status of Women </li></ul>
  11. 11. EMILE D`URKHIUM (1858-1917 France) <ul><li>S ociology </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial Solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>S uicide </li></ul><ul><li>C.1) Egoistic Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>C.2) Anomique Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>C.3) Altristric Suicide </li></ul>
  12. 12. WILLILAM GARAHAM SUMNER (AMERICA) <ul><li>SOCIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Folk ways </li></ul><ul><li>Mores </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Laizezfare </li></ul><ul><li>Iner and Outer Groups </li></ul>
  13. 13. HERBART SPENCER (1820-1902 UK) <ul><li>S ociology </li></ul><ul><li>S ociety </li></ul><ul><li>S tate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thank You Goodbye Till Next Class