The   Secret Gospels Michael  Gleghorn Probe Ministries www.probe.org
Introducing  The Da Vinci Code <ul><li>Approximately 7 million copies sold. </li></ul><ul><li>Ron Howard will direct  the ...
Introducing  The Da Vinci Code <ul><li>Story begins with a murder  in the Louvre. </li></ul><ul><li>The Priory of Sion gua...
Why be concerned with a novel? <ul><li>“ All descriptions of artwork, architecture, documents, and secret rituals in this ...
Why be concerned  with a novel? <ul><li>The novel’s theories about the Bible, Jesus and the early church are put in the mo...
What’s the Evidence? <ul><li>“ The Nag Hammadi scrolls . . .  tell . . . an alternative history of the time of Jesus and M...
What are the  Nag Hammadi Documents? <ul><li>Dr. Bart Ehrman tells the following story  (see notes page). </li></ul><ul><l...
What are the  Nag Hammadi Documents? <ul><li>Inside the jar, they found thirteen leather-bound volumes containing fifty-tw...
<ul><li>The leader of this group, Mohammed Ali, took the volumes to his home. </li></ul>What are the  Nag Hammadi Documents?
<ul><li>Believing the books might be worth something, Mohammed Ali wanted to put them someplace safe. </li></ul><ul><li>He...
<ul><li>The books were sold to the Museum of Antiquities in Cairo. </li></ul>What are the  Nag Hammadi Documents?
<ul><li>The books included Gospels  (e.g. Thomas, Philip),  Acts  (e.g. Peter and the Twelve Apostles),  letters  (e.g. Pe...
Criteria of Canonicity <ul><li>“ The canon is the list of those writings which are acknowledged by the church as documents...
When were the  Nag Hammadi texts written? <ul><li>Teabing claims that the Nag Hammadi texts are “the earliest Christian re...
When were the  Nag Hammadi texts written? <ul><li>All the books in the NT were written in the first century A.D. </li></ul...
Who wrote these documents? <ul><li>The Gnostics   (Gr. Gnosis = (knowledge”) </li></ul><ul><li>Key tenet:  Salvation comes...
Who wrote these documents? <ul><li>“ These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke and which Didymos Judas Tho...
Overview of Gnosticism <ul><li>Dr. Ehrman offers the following overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Reality consists of matter (whi...
Overview of Gnosticism <ul><li>This imperfect being captured the mother deity and imprisoned her in human bodies. </li></u...
The Gnostic “Gospels” of Philip and Mary Magdalene <ul><li>Leigh Teabing says that these gospels either teach or imply the...
The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>After an appearance of Christ to his disciples, Peter asks Mary to tell them the words of the...
The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>Andrew rejects the revelation, not believing it came from Christ.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ And Pe...
The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>“ And Levi answered, ‘Peter, you have always been hot-tempered. Now I see you contending agai...
The “Gospel” of Mary    What does this text teach? <ul><li>Mary received a special revelation from Jesus that the male dis...
<ul><li>That Mary was Jesus’ wife. </li></ul><ul><li>That Mary was the mother of Jesus’ child. </li></ul><ul><li>That Mary...
<ul><li>It’s possibly symbolic. Peter may represent “Orthodoxy”; Mary “Gnosticism”. </li></ul><ul><li>If this is so, then ...
The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>Composed in the late second century - one hundred years after NT gospels. </li></ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>“ And the companion of the Saviour is Mary Magdalene. Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to kis...
<ul><li>“ As any Aramaic scholar will tell you, the word  companion , in those days, literally meant  spouse ” (246). </li...
<ul><li>Even the Coptic translation, found at Nag Hammadi, uses a Greek loan word for “companion” -  koinonos .  </li></ul...
<ul><li>Koinonos  is most often used in the NT of a “partner”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Luke uses this term to describe James an...
The “Gospel” of Philip <ul><li>But what about the statement:  “Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to ki...
The “Gospel” of Philip <ul><li>The kissing is likely symbolic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ For it is by a kiss that the perfect co...
Summing Up <ul><li>Not ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Not apostolic </li></ul><ul><li>Not orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Not accept...
NEXT WEEK:  Kerby Anderson   “ The Secret Marriage of Jesus” www.probe.org
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Secret Gospels

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  • Secret Gospels

    1. The Secret Gospels Michael Gleghorn Probe Ministries www.probe.org
    2. Introducing The Da Vinci Code <ul><li>Approximately 7 million copies sold. </li></ul><ul><li>Ron Howard will direct the movie version. </li></ul><ul><li>But why has this novel caused such a stir? </li></ul>
    3. Introducing The Da Vinci Code <ul><li>Story begins with a murder in the Louvre. </li></ul><ul><li>The Priory of Sion guards an ancient secret that could discredit biblical Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>The location and identity of the Holy Grail. </li></ul>
    4. Why be concerned with a novel? <ul><li>“ All descriptions of artwork, architecture, documents, and secret rituals in this novel are accurate” (Dan Brown). </li></ul><ul><li>“ We were only able to find one prominent art historian who. . . believed the figure might be a woman” (Elizabeth Vargas). </li></ul>First word : “FACT”
    5. Why be concerned with a novel? <ul><li>The novel’s theories about the Bible, Jesus and the early church are put in the mouths of the two most educated characters. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I began as a skeptic . . . I became a believer.” Dan Brown </li></ul>
    6. What’s the Evidence? <ul><li>“ The Nag Hammadi scrolls . . . tell . . . an alternative history of the time of Jesus and Mary Magdalene” (Dan Brown) </li></ul><ul><li>Teabing calls these texts “ the earliest Christian records ” (245) and the “unaltered gospels” (248). </li></ul>
    7. What are the Nag Hammadi Documents? <ul><li>Dr. Bart Ehrman tells the following story (see notes page). </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally discovered in 1945 near the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi. </li></ul><ul><li>Six bedouin camel drivers were digging for fertilizer when one of them uncovered a human skeleton buried next to an earthenware jar. </li></ul>
    8. What are the Nag Hammadi Documents? <ul><li>Inside the jar, they found thirteen leather-bound volumes containing fifty-two treatises. </li></ul>
    9. <ul><li>The leader of this group, Mohammed Ali, took the volumes to his home. </li></ul>What are the Nag Hammadi Documents?
    10. <ul><li>Believing the books might be worth something, Mohammed Ali wanted to put them someplace safe. </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the books to a local priest. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, antiquities dealers became aware of the find. </li></ul>What are the Nag Hammadi Documents?
    11. <ul><li>The books were sold to the Museum of Antiquities in Cairo. </li></ul>What are the Nag Hammadi Documents?
    12. <ul><li>The books included Gospels (e.g. Thomas, Philip), Acts (e.g. Peter and the Twelve Apostles), letters (e.g. Peter to Philip) and Apocalypses (e.g. Paul, Peter). </li></ul><ul><li>Why aren’t these books in the Bible? </li></ul>What are the Nag Hammadi Documents?
    13. Criteria of Canonicity <ul><li>“ The canon is the list of those writings which are acknowledged by the church as documents of the divine revelation.” F.F. Bruce </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ehrman offers four criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Apostolic </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted </li></ul>
    14. When were the Nag Hammadi texts written? <ul><li>Teabing claims that the Nag Hammadi texts are “the earliest Christian records” (245). </li></ul><ul><li>But every book in the NT is earlier. </li></ul>
    15. When were the Nag Hammadi texts written? <ul><li>All the books in the NT were written in the first century A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nag Hammadi texts were written in the second and third centuries A.D. </li></ul>
    16. Who wrote these documents? <ul><li>The Gnostics (Gr. Gnosis = (knowledge”) </li></ul><ul><li>Key tenet: Salvation comes through secret, esoteric knowledge. </li></ul>
    17. Who wrote these documents? <ul><li>“ These are the secret sayings which the living Jesus spoke and which Didymos Judas Thomas wrote down. And he said, “Whoever finds the interpretation of these sayings will not experience death” Gospel of Thomas; 1 </li></ul>
    18. Overview of Gnosticism <ul><li>Dr. Ehrman offers the following overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Reality consists of matter (which is evil) and spirit (which is good). </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme God was completely spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>This God propagated other deities (aeons). </li></ul><ul><li>One of these deities gave birth to an imperfect divine being. </li></ul>
    19. Overview of Gnosticism <ul><li>This imperfect being captured the mother deity and imprisoned her in human bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Some humans have a divine spark within them. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation of this spark is achieved through secret knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>This knowledge can only come from a divine emissary (Christ, in some gnostic systems). </li></ul>
    20. The Gnostic “Gospels” of Philip and Mary Magdalene <ul><li>Leigh Teabing says that these gospels either teach or imply the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary was the wife of Jesus. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother of His child. </li></ul><ul><li>She was to lead the church after Jesus’ death (244-48). </li></ul>
    21. The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>After an appearance of Christ to his disciples, Peter asks Mary to tell them the words of the Savior that she knows, but that they do not. </li></ul><ul><li>She describes a vision of the ascent of the soul past four ruling powers to its rest. </li></ul>
    22. The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>Andrew rejects the revelation, not believing it came from Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>“ And Peter said, ‘Did the Saviour really speak with a woman without our knowledge? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?” </li></ul>
    23. The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>“ And Levi answered, ‘Peter, you have always been hot-tempered. Now I see you contending against the woman like an adversary. If the Saviour made her worthy, who are you indeed to reject her? Surely the Saviour knows her very well. That is why he loved her more than us” (247). </li></ul>
    24. The “Gospel” of Mary What does this text teach? <ul><li>Mary received a special revelation from Jesus that the male disciples did not. </li></ul><ul><li>Levi implies that Jesus (who knows her very well) considered her worthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus loved Mary more than his male disciples. </li></ul>
    25. <ul><li>That Mary was Jesus’ wife. </li></ul><ul><li>That Mary was the mother of Jesus’ child. </li></ul><ul><li>That Mary was to lead the church. </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Mary What does this text NOT teach?
    26. <ul><li>It’s possibly symbolic. Peter may represent “Orthodoxy”; Mary “Gnosticism”. </li></ul><ul><li>If this is so, then “Mary” (Gnostics) are claiming special revelation even if “Peter” (Orthodox) can’t believe it. </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Mary What does this text mean?
    27. The “Gospel” of Mary <ul><li>Composed in the late second century - one hundred years after NT gospels. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s almost certainly not historically reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>But doesn’t The Gospel of Philip indicate that Mary and Jesus were married? </li></ul>
    28. <ul><li>“ And the companion of the Saviour is Mary Magdalene. Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to kiss her often on her mouth. The rest of the disciples were offended by it and expressed disapproval. They said to him, ‘Why do you love her more than all of us?’” (246). </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Philip
    29. <ul><li>“ As any Aramaic scholar will tell you, the word companion , in those days, literally meant spouse ” (246). </li></ul><ul><li>This gospel was originally written in Greek. </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Philip
    30. <ul><li>Even the Coptic translation, found at Nag Hammadi, uses a Greek loan word for “companion” - koinonos . </li></ul><ul><li>This term can mean “wife” in a spiritual sense, but it’s not the common Greek term for wife. </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Philip
    31. <ul><li>Koinonos is most often used in the NT of a “partner”. </li></ul><ul><li>Luke uses this term to describe James and John as Peter’s business “partners” (5:10). </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to Teabing’s claim, the statement that Mary was Jesus’ companion does not at all prove that she was His wife. </li></ul>The “Gospel” of Philip
    32. The “Gospel” of Philip <ul><li>But what about the statement: “Christ loved her more than all the disciples and used to kiss her often on the mouth.” </li></ul><ul><li>This portion of the manuscript is damaged. We don’t actually know where Christ kissed Mary. </li></ul>
    33. The “Gospel” of Philip <ul><li>The kissing is likely symbolic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ For it is by a kiss that the perfect conceive and give birth. For this reason we also kiss one another” (Philip). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jesus said, ‘He who will drink from my mouth will become like me” (Thomas, 108). </li></ul><ul><li>This gospel was composed in the second half of the third century. </li></ul>
    34. Summing Up <ul><li>Not ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Not apostolic </li></ul><ul><li>Not orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Not accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t support his theories. </li></ul>What can we say about the non-canonical Gnostic gospels to which Brown appeals for support of his theories?
    35. NEXT WEEK: Kerby Anderson “ The Secret Marriage of Jesus” www.probe.org

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