REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4670 June 18, 1966
THE MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS
I. DECLARATION OF POLICY COVERAGE
Sec. 1. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy
of this Act to promote and improve the social and economic status
of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their
terms of employment and career prospects in order that they may
compare favorably with existing opportunities in other walks of
life, attract and retain in the teaching profession more people with
the proper qualifications, it being recognized that advance in
education depends on the qualifications and ability of the teaching
staff and that education is an essential factor in the economic
growth of the nation as a productive investment of vital
Sec. 2. Title Definition. This Act shall be known as the "Magna
Carta for Public School Teachers" and shall apply to all public
school teachers except those in the professorial staff of state
colleges and universities.
As used in this Act, the term "teacher" shall mean all persons
engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on full-
time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians,
industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons
performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all
schools, colleges and universities operated by the Government or
its political subdivisions; but shall not include school nurses,
school physicians, school dentists, and other school employees.
II. RECRUITMENT AND CAREER
Sec. 3. Recruitment and Qualification. Recruitment policy with
respect to the selection and appointment of teachers shall be clearly
defined by the Department of Education: Provided, however, That
effective upon the approval of this Act, the following shall
constitute the minimum educational qualifications for teacher-
(a) For teachers in the kindergarten and elementary grades,
Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education (B.S.E.ED.);
(b) For teachers of the secondary schools, Bachelor's degree in
Education or its equivalent with a major and a minor; or a
Bachelor's degree in Arts or Science with at least eighteen
professional units in Education.
(c) For teachers of secondary vocational and two years technical
courses, Bachelor's degree in the field of specialization with at
least eighteen professional units in education;
(d) For teachers of courses on the collegiate level, other than
vocational, master's degree with a specific area of specialization;
Provided, further, That in the absence of applicants who possess
the minimum educational qualifications as hereinabove provided,
the school superintendent may appoint, under a temporary status,
applicants who do not meet the minimum qualifications: Provided,
further, That should teacher-applicants, whether they possess the
minimum educational qualifications or not, be required to take
competitive examinations, preference in making appointments
shall be in the order of their respective ranks in said competitive
examinations: And provided, finally, That the results of the
examinations shall be made public and every applicant shall be
furnished with his score and rank in said examinations.
Sec. 4. Probationary Period. When recruitment takes place after
adequate training and professional preparation in any school
recognized by the Government, no probationary period preceding
regular appointment shall be imposed if the teacher possesses the
appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, however, That
where, due to the exigencies of the service, it is necessary to
employ as teacher a person who possesses the minimum
educational qualifications herein above set forth but lacks the
appropriate civil service eligibility, such person shall be appointed
on a provisional status and shall undergo a period of probation for
not less than one year from and after the date of his provisional
Sec. 5. Tenure of Office. Stability on employment and security of
tenure shall be assured the teachers as provided under existing
Subject to the provisions of Section three hereof, teachers
appointed on a provisional status for lack of necessary civil service
eligibility shall be extended permanent appointment for the
position he is holding after having rendered at least ten years of
continuous, efficient and faithful service in such position.
Sec. 6. Consent for Transfer Transportation Expenses. Except for
cause and as herein otherwise provided, no teacher shall be
transferred without his consent from one station to another.
Where the exigencies of the service require the transfer of a
teacher from one station to another, such transfer may be effected
by the school superintendent who shall previously notify the
teacher concerned of the transfer and the reason or reasons
therefor. If the teacher believes there is no justification for the
transfer, he may appeal his case to the Director of Public Schools
or the Director of Vocational Education, as the case may be.
Pending his appeal and the decision thereon, his transfer shall be
held in abeyance: Provided, however, That no transfers whatever
shall be made three months before any local or national election.
Necessary transfer expenses of the teacher and his family shall be
paid for by the Government if his transfer is finally approved.
Sec. 7. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers. Within six
months from the approval of this Act, the Secretary of Education
shall formulate and prepare a Code of Professional Conduct for
Public School Teachers. A copy of the Code shall be furnished
each teacher: Provided, however, That where this is not possible by
reason of inadequate fiscal resources of the Department of
Education, at least three copies of the same Code shall be
deposited with the office of the school principal or head teacher
where they may be accessible for use by the teachers.
Sec. 8. Safeguards in Disciplinary Procedure. Every teacher shall
enjoy equitable safeguards at each stage of any disciplinary
procedure and shall have:
a. the right to be informed, in writing, of the charges;
b. the right to full access to the evidence in the case;
c. the right to defend himself and to be defended by a
representative of his choice and/or by his organization, adequate
time being given to the teacher for the preparation of his defense;
d. the right to appeal to clearly designated authorities.
No publicity shall be given to any disciplinary action being taken
against a teacher during the pendency of his case.
Sec. 9. Administrative Charges. Administrative charges against a
teacher shall be heard initially by a committee composed of the
corresponding School Superintendent of the Division or a duly
authorized representative who should at least have the rank of a
division supervisor, where the teacher belongs, as chairman, a
representative of the local or, in its absence, any existing provincial
or national teacher's organization and a supervisor of the Division,
the last two to be designated by the Director of Public Schools.
The committee shall submit its findings and recommendations to
the Director of Public Schools within thirty days from the
termination of the hearings:Provided, however, That where the
school superintendent is the complainant or an interested party, all
the members of the committee shall be appointed by the Secretary
Sec. 10. No Discrimination. There shall be no discrimination
whatsoever in entrance to the teaching profession, or during its
exercise, or in the termination of services, based on other than
Sec. 11. Married Teachers. Whenever possible, the proper
authorities shall take all steps to enable married couples, both of
whom are public school teachers, to be employed in the same
Sec. 12. Academic Freedom. Teachers shall enjoy academic
freedom in the discharge of their professional duties, particularly
with regard to teaching and classroom methods.
III. HOURS OF WORK AND REMUNERATION
Sec. 13. Teaching Hours. Any teacher engaged in actual classroom
instruction shall not be required to render more than six hours of
actual classroom teaching a day, which shall be so scheduled as to
give him time for the preparation and correction of exercises and
other work incidental to his normal teaching
duties: Provided,however, That where the exigencies of the service
so require, any teacher may be required to render more than six
hours but not exceeding eight hours of actual classroom teaching a
day upon payment of additional compensation at the same rate as
his regular remuneration plus at least twenty-five per cent of his
Sec. 14. Additional Compensation. Notwithstanding any provision
of existing law to the contrary, co-curricula and out of school
activities and any other activities outside of what is defined as
normal duties of any teacher shall be paid an additional
compensation of at least twenty-five per cent of his regular
remuneration after the teacher has completed at least six hours of
actual classroom teaching a day.
In the case of other teachers or school officials not engaged in
actual classroom instruction, any work performed in excess of
eight hours a day shall be paid an additional compensation of at
least twenty-five per cent of their regular remuneration.
The agencies utilizing the services of teachers shall pay the
additional compensation required under this section. Education
authorities shall refuse to allow the rendition of services of
teachers for other government agencies without the assurance that
the teachers shall be paid the remuneration provided for under this
Sec. 15. Criteria for Salaries. Teacher's salaries shall correspond to
the following criteria:
(a) they shall compare favorably with those paid in other
occupations requiring equivalent or similar qualifications, training
(b) they shall be such as to insure teachers a reasonable standard of
life for themselves and their families; and
(c) they shall be properly graded so as to recognize the fact that
certain positions require higher qualifications and greater
responsibility than others: Provided, however, That the general
salary scale shall be such that the relation between the lowest and
highest salaries paid in the profession will be of reasonable order.
Narrowing of the salary scale shall be achieved by raising the
lower end of the salary scales relative to the upper end.
Sec. 16. Salary Scale. Salary scales of teachers shall provide for a
gradual progression from a minimum to a maximum salary by
means of regular increments, granted automatically after three
years: Provided, That the efficiency rating of the teacher concerned
is at least satisfactory. The progression from the minimum to the
maximum of the salary scale shall not extend over a period of ten
Sec. 17. Equality in Salary Scales. The salary scales of teachers
whose salaries are appropriated by a city, municipal, municipal
district, or provincial government, shall not be less than those
provided for teachers of the National Government.
Sec. 18. Cost of Living Allowance. Teacher's salaries shall, at the
very least, keep pace with the rise in the cost of living by the
payment of a cost-of-living allowance which shall automatically
follow changes in a cost-of-living index. The Secretary of
Education shall, in consultation with the proper government
entities, recommend to Congress, at least annually, the
appropriation of the necessary funds for the cost-of-living
allowances of teachers employed by the National Government. The
determination of the cost-of-living allowances by the Secretary of
Education shall, upon approval of the President of the Philippines,
be binding on the city, municipal or provincial government, for the
purposes of calculating the cost-of-living allowances of teachers
under its employ.
Sec. 19. Special Hardship Allowances. In areas in which teachers
are exposed to hardship such as difficulty in commuting to the
place of work or other hazards peculiar to the place of
employment, as determined by the Secretary of Education, they
shall be compensated special hardship allowances equivalent to at
least twenty-five per cent of their monthly salary.
Sec. 20. Salaries to be Paid in Legal Tender. Salaries of teachers
shall be paid in legal tender of the Philippines or its equivalent in
checks or treasury warrants. Provided, however, That such checks
or treasury warrants shall be cashable in any national, provincial,
city or municipal treasurer's office or any banking institutions
operating under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines.
Sec. 21. Deductions Prohibited. No person shall make any
deduction whatsoever from the salaries of teachers except under
specific authority of law authorizing such
deductions: Provided, however, That upon written authority
executed by the teacher concerned, (1) lawful dues and fees owing
to the Philippine Public School Teachers Association, and (2)
premiums properly due on insurance policies, shall be considered
IV. HEALTH MEASURES AND INJURY BENEFITS
Sec. 22. Medical Examination and Treatment. Compulsory medical
examination shall be provided free of charge for all teachers before
they take up teaching, and shall be repeated not less than once a
year during the teacher's professional life. Where medical
examination show that medical treatment and/or hospitalization is
necessary, same shall be provided free by the government entity
paying the salary of the teachers.
In regions where there is scarcity of medical facilities, teachers
may obtain elsewhere the necessary medical care with the right to
be reimbursed for their traveling expenses by the government
entity concerned in the first paragraph of this Section.
Sec. 23. Compensation For Injuries. Teachers shall be protected
against the consequences of employment injuries in accordance
with existing laws. The effects of the physical and nervous strain
on the teacher's health shall be recognized as a compensable
occupational disease in accordance with existing laws.
V. LEAVE AND RETIREMENT BENEFITS
Sec. 24. Study Leave. In addition to the leave privileges now
enjoyed by teachers in the public schools, they shall be entitled to
study leave not exceeding one school year after seven years of
service. Such leave shall be granted in accordance with a schedule
set by the Department of Education. During the period of such
leave, the teachers shall be entitled to at least sixty per cent of their
monthly salary: Provided, however, That no teacher shall be
allowed to accumulate more than one year study leave, unless he
needs an additional semester to finish his thesis for a graduate
study in education or allied courses: Provided, further, That no
compensation shall be due the teacher after the first year of such
leave. In all cases, the study leave period shall be counted for
seniority and pension purposes.
The compensation allowed for one year study leave as herein
provided shall be subject to the condition that the teacher takes the
regular study load and passes at least seventy-five per cent of his
courses. Study leave of more than one year may be permitted by
the Secretary of Education but without compensation.
Sec. 25. Indefinite Leave. An indefinite sick leave of absence shall
be granted to teachers when the nature of the illness demands a
long treatment that will exceed one year at the least.
Sec. 26. Salary Increase upon Retirement. Public school teachers
having fulfilled the age and service requirements of the applicable
retirement laws shall be given one range salary raise upon
retirement, which shall be the basis of the computation of the lump
sum of the retirement pay and the monthly benefits thereafter.
VI. TEACHER'S ORGANIZATION
Sec. 27. Freedom to Organize. Public school teachers shall have
the right to freely and without previous authorization both to
establish and to join organizations of their choosing, whether local
or national to further and defend their interests.
Sec. 28. Discrimination Against Teachers Prohibited. The rights
established in the immediately preceding Section shall be exercised
without any interference or coercion. It shall be unlawful for any
person to commit any acts of discrimination against teachers which
are calculated to (a) make the employment of a teacher subject to
the condition that he shall not join an organization, or shall
relinquish membership in an organization,
(b) to cause the dismissal of or otherwise prejudice a teacher by
reason of his membership in an organization or because of
participation in organization activities outside school hours, or
with the consent of the proper school authorities, within school
hours, and (c) to prevent him from carrying out the duties laid
upon him by his position in the organization, or to penalize him for
an action undertaken in that capacity.
Sec. 29. National Teacher's Organizations. National teachers'
organizations shall be consulted in the formulation of national
educational policies and professional standards, and in the
formulation of national policies governing the social security of the
VII. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Sec. 30. Rules and Regulations. The Secretary of Education shall
formulate and prepare the necessary rules and regulations to
implement the provisions of this Act. Rules and regulations issued
pursuant to this Section shall take effect thirty days after
publication in a newspaper of general circulation and by such other
means as the Secretary of Education deems reasonably sufficient to
give interested parties general notice of such issuance.
Sec. 31. Budgetary Estimates. The Secretary of Education shall
submit to Congress annually the necessary budgetary estimates to
implement the provisions of the Act concerning the benefits herein
granted to public school teachers under the employ of the National
Sec. 32. Penal Provision. A person who shall willfully interfere
with, restrain or coerce any teacher in the exercise of his rights
guaranteed by this Act or who shall in any other manner commit
any act to defeat any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon
conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred
pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment, in
the discretion of the court.
If the offender is a public official, the court shall order his
dismissal from the Government service.
Sec. 33. Repealing Clause. All Acts or parts of Acts, executive
orders and their implementing rules inconsistent with the
provisions of this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified
Sec. 34. Separability Clause. If any provision of this Act is
declared invalid, the remainder of this Act or any provisions not
affected thereby shall remain in force and in effect.
Sec. 35. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.
CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS
Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e), Article 11, of R.A. No.
7836, otherwise known as the Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6, P.D.
No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby
adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers.
Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesses dignity and
reputation with high moral values as well as technical and
professional competence in the practice of their noble profession,
and they strictly adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical
and moral principles, standards, and values.
Article I: Scope and Limitations
Section 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational
institution shall offer quality education for all competent teachers.
Committed to its full realization, the provision of this Code shall
apply, therefore, to all teachers in schools in the Philippines.
Section 2. This Code covers all public and private school teachers
in all educational institutions at the preschool, primary,
elementary, and secondary levels whether academic, vocational,
special, technical, or non-formal. The term â€œteacherâ€• shall
include industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons
performing supervisory and /or administrative functions in all
school at the aforesaid levels, whether on full time or part-time
Article II: The Teacher and the State
Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the
state; each teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational
heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners
such heritage as well as to elevate national morality, promote
national pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to the
constitution and for all duly constituted authorities, and promote
obedience to the laws of the state.
Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry
out the declared policies of the state, and shall take an oath to this
Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as
much as of his own, every teacher shall be physically, mentally
and morally fit.
Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full
commitment and devotion to duty.
Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any
political, religious, or other partisan interest, and shall not, directly
or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any money or
service or other valuable material from any person or entity for
Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other
constitutional rights and responsibility.
Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority
or influence to coerce any other person to follow any political
course of action.
Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall
have privilege of expounding the product of his researches and
investigations; provided that, if the results are inimical to the
declared policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper
authorities for appropriate remedial action.
Article III: The Teacher and the Community
Section 1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the
development of the youth; he shall, therefore, render the best
service by providing an environment conducive to such learning
Section 2. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to
actively participate in community movements for moral, social,
educational, economic and civic betterment.
Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition
for which purpose he shall behave with honor and dignity at all
times and refrain from such activities as gambling, smoking,
drunkenness, and other excesses, much less illicit relations.
Section 4. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and
shall, therefore, study and understand local customs and traditions
in order to have sympathetic attitude, therefore, refrain from
disparaging the community.
Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in
the community informed about the schoolâ€™s work and
accomplishments as well as its needs and problems.
Section 6. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community,
especially in the barangay, and shall welcome the opportunity to
provide such leadership when needed, to extend counseling
services, as appropriate, and to actively be involved in matters
affecting the welfare of the people.
Section 7. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant
personal and official relations with other professionals, with
government officials, and with the people, individually or
Section 8. A teacher posses freedom to attend church and worships
as appropriate, but shall not use his positions and influence to
Article IV: A Teacher and the Profession
Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the
noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and
pride in teaching as a noble calling.
Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible
standards of quality education, shall make the best preparations for
the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the
practice of his profession.
Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing
Professional Education (CPE) program of the Professional
Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies as will
improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and
strengthen his competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be
nationally and internationally competitive.
Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek
support from the school, but shall not make improper
misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other
Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a
manner that makes it dignified means for earning a descent living.
Article V: The Teachers and the Profession
Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be imbued with the spirit of
professional loyalty, mutual confidence, and faith in one another,
self-sacrifice for the common good, and full cooperation with
colleagues. When the best interest of the learners, the school, or the
profession is at stake in any controversy, teachers shall support one
Section 2. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of
his own, and shall give due credit for the work of others which he
Section 3. Before leaving his position, a teacher shall organize for
whoever assumes the position such records and other data as are
necessary to carry on the work.
Section 4. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential
information concerning associates and the school, and shall not
divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially
released, or remove records from files without permission.
Section 5. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek
correctives for what may appear to be an unprofessional and
unethical conduct of any associate. However, this may be done
only if there is incontrovertible evidence for such conduct.
Section 6. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any
justifiable criticism against an associate, preferably in writing,
without violating the right of the individual concerned.
Section 7. A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he
is qualified; provided that he respects the system of selection on
the basis of merit and competence; provided, further, that all
qualified candidates are given the opportunity to be considered.
Article VI: The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession
Section 1. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest
effort to understand and support the legitimate policies of the
school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or
private opinion and shall faithfully carry them out.
Section 2. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or
charges against superiors, especially under anonymity. However, if
there are valid charges, he should present such under oath to
Section 3. A teacher shall transact all official business through
channels except when special conditions warrant a different
procedure, such as when special conditions are advocated but are
opposed by immediate superiors, in which case, the teacher shall
appeal directly to the appropriate higher authority.
Section 4. Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has a
right to seek redress against injustice to the administration and to
extent possible, shall raise grievances within acceptable democratic
possesses. In doing so, they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest
and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must be respected.
Section 5. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that
appointments, promotions, and transfer of teachers are made only
on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of the service.
Section 6. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual
obligation to live up to his contract, assuming full knowledge of
employment terms and conditions.
Article VII: School Officials, Teachers, and Other Personnel
Section 1. All school officials shall at all times show professional
courtesy, helpfulness and sympathy towards teachers and other
personnel, such practices being standards of effective school
supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership and
Section 2. School officials, teachers, and other school personnel
shall consider it their cooperative responsibility to formulate
policies or introduce important changes in the system at all levels.
Section 3. School officials shall encourage and attend the
professional growth of all teachers under them such as
recommending them for promotion, giving them due recognition
for meritorious performance, and allowing them to participate in
conferences in training programs.
Section 4. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for
dismissal a teacher or other subordinates except for cause.
Section 5. School authorities concern shall ensure that public
school teachers are employed in accordance with pertinent civil
service rules, and private school teachers are issued contracts
specifying the terms and conditions of their work; provided that
they are given, if qualified, subsequent permanent tenure, in
accordance with existing laws.
Article VIII: The Teachers and Learners
Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the
academic marks and the promotions of learners in the subject or
grades he handles, provided that such determination shall be in
accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and
measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall
immediately take appropriate actions, observing due process.
Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of
learners are of first and foremost concern, and shall deal justifiably
and impartially with each of them.
Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or
discriminate against a learner.
Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners,
their parents or others in their behalf in exchange for requested
concessions, especially if undeserved.
Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any
remuneration from tutorials other what is authorized for such
Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learnerâ€™s
work only in merit and quality of academic performance.
Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent
love develop between teacher and learner, the teacher shall
exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal, gossip
and preferential treatment of the learner.
Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on
offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic
ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation
of poor scholarship.
Section 9. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the
maximum development of learners are adequate, and shall extend
needed assistance in preventing or solving learnerâ€™s problems
Article IX: The Teachers and Parents
Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial
relations with parents, and shall conduct himself to merit their
confidence and respect.
Section 2. Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper
authorities, of the progress and deficiencies of learner under him,
exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out the learner's
deficiencies and in seeking parentâ€™s cooperation for the proper
guidance and improvement of the learners.
Section 3. A teacher shall hear parentâ€™s complaints with
sympathy and understanding, and shall discourage unfair criticism.
Article X: The Teacher and Business
Section 1. A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly,
in legitimate income generation; provided that it does not relate to
or adversely affect his work as a teacher.
Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect
to the financial matters such as in the settlement of his debts and
loans in arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs.
Section 3. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of,
or be financially interested in, any commercial venture which
furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the purchase
and disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except
only when his assignment is inherently, related to such purchase
and disposal; provided they shall be in accordance with the
existing regulations; provided, further, that members of duly
recognized teachers cooperatives may participate in the
distribution and sale of such commodities.
Article XI: The Teacher as a Person
Section 1. A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with
life for which it is the highest obligation to live with dignity at all
times whether in school, in the home, or elsewhere.
Section 2. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as
the primary principle of personal behavior in all relationships with
others and in all situations.
Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified
personality which could serve as a model worthy of emulation by
learners, peers and all others.
Section 4. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as
guide of his own destiny and of the destinies of men and nations.
Article XII: Disciplinary Actions
Section 1. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be
sufficient ground for the imposition against the erring teacher of
the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certification
of Registration and License as a Professional Teacher, suspension
from the practice of teaching profession, or reprimand or
cancellation of his temporary/special permit under causes specified
in Sec. 23, Article III or R.A. No. 7836, and under Rule 31, Article
VIII, of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. 7836.
Article XIII: Effectivity
Section 1. This Code shall take effect upon approval by the
Professional Regulation Commission and after sixty (60) days
following its publication in the Official Gazette or any newspaper
of general circulation, whichever is earlier.
Main article: Behaviorism (philosophy of education)
Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in
knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning.
This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition
of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge,
then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified
direction. This type of learning is a conditioned response or
memorization of facts, assertions, rules, laws, and terminology.
The correct response is achieved through stimulation of senses.
The focus of intelligence development is visual/spatial,
musical/rhythmic, and bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. The purpose
in education is to help a learner adopt knowledge from an
instructor through use of the learner’s senses. This learning goal is
the lowest order learning: factual knowledge, skill development,
and training. The term "behaviorism" was coined by John
Watson (1878–1959). Watson believed that theorizing thoughts,
intentions or other subjective experiences was unscientific and
insisted that psychology must focus on measurable
behaviors. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of a new
behavior through conditioning.
Both types of conditioning forms the core of Behavior Analysis. It
has grown into a popularized practice called Applied behavior
analysis. ABA differs from Behavior modification as the latter
only used reinforcement and aversive punishments to modify
There are two types of conditioning:
Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex
response to stimulus.
Operant conditioning, where antecedents follow a behavior which
leads to a consequence such as a punishment, reward, or reinforcer.
Classical conditioning was noticed by Ivan Pavlov when he saw
that if dogs come to associate the delivery of food with a white lab
coat or with the ringing of a bell, they will produce saliva, even
when there is no sight or smell of food. Classical conditioning
regards this form of learning to be the same whether in dogs or in
Operant conditioning reinforces this behavior with antecedents,
rewards and typically non-aversive punishments. A reward
increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, a punishment
decreases its likelihood.
Behaviorists view the learning process as a change in behavior,
and will arrange the environment to elicit desired responses
through such devices as behavioral objectives, Competency-based
learning, and skill development and training.
Main article: Cognitivism (philosophy of education)
Cognitivism, as a learning theory, is the theory that humans
generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development
of an individual’s cognitive abilities, such as the mental processes
of recognition, recollection, analysis, reflection, application,
creation, understanding, and evaluation. The Cognitivists' learning
process is adoptive learning of techniques, procedures,
organization, and structure to develop internal cognitive structure
that strengthens synapses in the brain. The learner requires
assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new
knowledge. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual
knowledge, techniques, procedures, and algorithmic problem
solving using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical
intelligences. The learner requires scaffolding to develop schema
and adopt knowledge from both people and the environment. The
educators' role is pedagogical in that the instructor must develop
conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning
activities. This theory relates to early stages of learning where the
learner solves well defined problems through a series of stages.
Cognitive theories grew out of Gestalt psychology, developed in
Germany in the early 1900s and brought to America in the 1920s.
The German word gestalt is roughly equivalent to the
English configuration or pattern and emphasizes the whole of
human experience. Over the years, the Gestalt psychologists
provided demonstrations and described principles to explain the
way we organize our sensations into perceptions.
Gestalt psychologists criticize behaviorists for being too dependent
on overt behavior to explain learning. They propose looking at the
patterns rather than isolated events. Gestalt views of learning
have been incorporated into what have come to be
labeled cognitive theories. Two key assumptions underlie this
cognitive approach: that the memory system is an active organized
processor of information and that prior knowledge plays an
important role in learning. Cognitive theories look beyond
behavior to consider how human memory works to promote
learning, and an understanding of short term memory and long
term memory is important to educators influenced by cognitive
theory. They view learning as an internal mental process
(including insight, information processing, memory
and perception) where the educator focuses on building
intelligence and cognitive development. The individual learner
is more important than the environment.
Once memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory
model and Baddeley's working memory model were
established as a theoretical framework incognitive psychology,
new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the
1970s, 80s, and 90s. Today, researchers are concentrating on topics
likecognitive load and information processing theory. These
theories of learning play a role in influencing instructional
design. Cognitive theory is used to explain such topics as
social role acquisition, intelligence and memory as related to age.
Main article: Educational neuroscience
American Universities such as Harvard, Johns Hopkins, University
of Southern California and others, in the first decade of the twenty-
first century, began offering majors and degrees dedicated
to educational neuroscience or neuroeducation. Such studies seek
to link an understanding of brain processes with classroom
instruction and experiences. Neuroeducation seeks to analyze
the biological changes that take place in the brain as new
information is processed. It looks at what environmental,
emotional and social situations are best in order for new
information to be retained and stored in the brain via the linking of
neurons, rather than allowing the dendrites to be reabsorbed and
the information lost. The 1990s were designated "The Decade of
the Brain," and advances took place in neuroscience at an
especially rapid pace. The three dominant methods for measuring
brain activities are: event-related potential, functional magnetic
resonance imaging andmagnetoencephalography (MEG).
The integration and application to education of what we know
about the brain was strengthened in 2000 when the American
Federation of Teachers stated: "It is vital that we identify what
science tells us about how people learn in order to improve the
education curriculum." What is exciting about this new field in
education is that modern brain imaging techniques now make it
possible, in some sense, to watch the brain as it learns, and the
question then arises: can the results of neuro-scientific studies of
brains as they are learning usefully inform practice in this
area? Although the field of neuroscience is young, it is
expected that with new technologies and ways of observing
learning, the paradigms of what students need and how students
learn best will be further refined with actual scientific evidence. In
particular, students who may have learning disabilities will be
taught with strategies that are more informed.
The differences of opinion and theory in psychology indicate that
the learning process is not yet understood.[citation
needed] Neuroscience shows that the brain can be modelled not
with a central processor where ‘'intelligence'’ lies, but in having
perhaps 70 functional areas. Mental activity requires several areas
to work together. What appear as different types of
intelligence result from different combinations of well-developed
functional areas. Learning is a process by which neurons join by
developing the synapses between them. Knowledge is arranged
hierarchically, with new knowledge being linked to existing neural
Outside the realm of educational psychology, techniques to
directly observe the functioning of the brain during the learning
process, such as event-related potentialand functional magnetic
resonance imaging, are used in educational neuroscience. As of
2012, such studies are beginning to support a theory of multiple
intelligences, where learning is seen as the interaction between
dozens of different functional areas in the brain, each with their
own individual strengths and weaknesses in any particular human
For more information, see Theory of multiple intelligences.
The theory of multiple intelligences is a taxonomy of intelligence
that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities",
rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general
ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983
book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria:
musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–
mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and
naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral
intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.
For more information, see Bloom's taxonomy.
Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives that
provides a framework for discussing cognitive, affective, and
Main article: Humanism (philosophy of education)
Humanism, as a learning theory, is based on human generation of
knowledge, meaning, and ultimately expertise through
interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. This self-directed
learning is needs motivated, adaptive learning. Acquisition,
development, and integration of knowledge occur through strategy,
personal interpretation, evaluation, reasoning, and decision-
making. The learning goal is to become self-actualized with
intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment. This learner is able to
adapt prior knowledge to new experience. The educator’s role in
humanistic learning is to encourage and enable the learner,
andragogically, by providing access to appropriate resources
without obtrusive interference. The learning goal is high order
learning of procedural knowledge, strategy, reasoning, abstract
analysis, and development of expertise. Humanists
include Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Marie Montessori,
and William Glasser.
Main article: Transformative learning
Transformative learning focuses upon the often-necessary change
that is required in a learner's preconceptions and world view.
Transformative learning seeks to explain how humans revise and
reinterpret meaning. Transformative learning is the cognitive
process of effecting change in a frame of reference. A frame of
reference defines our view of the world. The emotions are often
involved. Adults have a tendency to reject any ideas that do
not correspond to their particular values, associations and
concepts. Our frames of reference are composed of two
dimensions: habits of mind and points of view. Habits of mind,
such asethnocentrism, are harder to change than points of view.
Habits of mind influence our point of view and the resulting
thoughts or feelings associated with them, but points of view may
change over time as a result of influences such as reflection,
appropriation and feedback. Transformative learning takes
place by discussing with others the “reasons presented in support
of competing interpretations, by critically examining evidence,
arguments, and alternative points of view.” When
circumstances permit, transformative learners move toward a
frame of reference that is more inclusive, discriminating, self-
reflective, and integrative of experience.
Main article: Constructivism (philosophy of education)
Constructivism seeks to explain how knowledge is constructed in
the human being when information comes into contact with
existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences. It has
its roots in cognitive psychology and biology and an approach to
education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in
order to adapt to the world. Constructs are the different types of
filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality
from chaos to order. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as
“a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy, psychology, and
cybernetics”. Constructivism has implications for the theory of
instruction. Discovery, hands-on, experiential, collaborative,
project-based, and task-based learning are a number of applications
that base teaching and learning on constructivism.
Constructivism draws heavily on psychological studies of
cognitive development from Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner,
constructivism emphasizes the importance of the active
involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves,
and building new ideas or concepts based upon current knowledge
and past experience. It asks why students do not learn deeply by
listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. To design
effective teaching environments, it believes, one needs a good
understanding of what the learners already know when they come
into the classroom. The curriculum should be designed in a way
that builds on what the pupil already knows and is allowed to
develop with them. Begin with complex problems and teach
basic skills while solving these problems. This requires an
understanding of human cognitive development.
The learning theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori,
and David Kolb serve as the foundation of constructivist learning
theory. Constructivism has many varieties: Active
learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building are three, but
all versions promote a student's free exploration within a given
framework or structure. The teacher acts as a facilitator who
encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to
construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problems.
For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students
acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western
civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in
any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek
enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural
and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change.
Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are
rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus,
cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile
education. The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural
literacy, stressing students' growth in enduring disciplines. The
loftiest accomplishments of humankind are emphasized– the great
works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science.
Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard
Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in 1963 and
Mortimer Adler, who further developed this curriculum based on
100 great books of western civilization.
Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that
needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined
way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on
intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. The
core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and
academic rigor. Although this educational philosophy is similar in
some ways to Perennialism, Essentialists accept the idea that this
core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical,
preparing students to become valuable members of society. It
should focus on facts-the objective reality out there--and "the
basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute clearly
and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies.
Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and
discipline. Teachers are to help students keep their non-productive
instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness. This
approach was in reaction to progressivist approaches prevalent in
the 1920s and 30s. William Bagley, took progressivist approaches
to task in the journal he formed in 1934. Other proponents of
Essentialism are: James D. Koerner (1959), H. G. Rickover (1959),
Paul Copperman (1978), and Theodore Sizer (1985).
Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole
child, rather than on the content or the teacher. This educational
philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active
experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners
that arise through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive.
The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning
through his or her individual experience in the physical and
cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that
students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from
student interests and questions. The scientific method is used by
progressivist educators so that students can study matter and events
systematically and first hand. The emphasis is on process-how one
comes to know. The Progressive education philosophy was
established in America from the mid 1920s through the mid 1950s.
John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that
the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through
experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Shared decision
making, planning of teachers with students, student-selected topics
are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority.
Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the
addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society
and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a
curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.
Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) was the founder of social
reconstructionism, in reaction against the realities of World War II.
He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through
technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a
beneficent society using technology and human compassion.
George Counts (1889-1974) recognized that education was the
means of preparing people for creating this new social order.
Critical theorists, like social reconstructionists, believe that
systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve
human conditions. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) was a Brazilian
whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion
education and literacy as the vehicle for social change. In his view,
humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims,
nor oppress others. To do so requires dialog and critical
consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome
domination and oppression. Rather than "teaching as banking," in
which the educator deposits information into students' heads,
Freire saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which
the child must invent and reinvent the world.
For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum
focuses on student experience and taking social action on real
problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism,
inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial
issues (particularly in social studies and literature), inquiry,
dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus. Community-
based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also
Idealism is a philosophical approach that has as its central tenet
that ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing.
In a search for truth, beauty, and justice that is enduring and
everlasting, the focus is on conscious reasoning in the mind. Plato,
father of Idealism, espoused this view about 400 years BC, in his
famous book, The Republic. Plato believed that there are two
worlds. The first is the spiritual or mental world, which is eternal,
permanent, orderly, regular, and universal. There is also the world
of appearance, the world experienced through sight, touch, smell,
taste, and sound, that is changing, imperfect, and disorderly. This
division is often referred to as the duality of mind and body.
Reacting against what he perceived as too much of a focus on the
immediacy of the physical and sensory world, Plato described a
utopian society in which "education to body and soul all the beauty
and perfection of which they are capable" as an ideal. In his
allegory of the cave, the shadows of the sensory world must be
overcome with the light of reason or universal truth. To understand
truth, one must pursue knowledge and identify with the Absolute
Mind. Plato also believed that the soul is fully formed prior to birth
and is perfect and at one with the Universal Being. The birth
process checks this perfection, so education requires bringing
latent ideas (fully formed concepts) to consciousness.
In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each
individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better
serve society. The curricular emphasis is subject matter of mind:
literature, history, philosophy, and religion. Teaching methods
focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and Socratic
dialogue (a method of teaching that uses questioning to help
students discover and clarify knowledge). Introspection, intuition,
insight, and whole-part logic are used to bring to consciousness the
forms or concepts which are latent in the mind. Character is
developed through imitating examples and heroes.
Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human mind.
The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is
on the body/objects. Truth is objective-what can be observed.
Aristotle, a student of Plato who broke with his mentor's idealist
philosophy, is called the father of both Realism and the scientific
method. In this metaphysical view, the aim is to understand
objective reality through "the diligent and unsparing scrutiny of all
observable data." Aristotle believed that to understand an object,
its ultimate form had to be understood, which does not change. For
example, a rose exists whether or not a person is aware of it. A
rose can exist in the mind without being physically present, but
ultimately, the rose shares properties with all other roses and
flowers (its form), although one rose may be red and another peach
colored. Aristotle also was the first to teach logic as a formal
discipline in order to be able to reason about physical events and
aspects. The exercise of rational thought is viewed as the ultimate
purpose for humankind. The Realist curriculum emphasizes the
subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and
mathematics. The teacher organizes and presents content
systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in
making decisions. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and
basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Students must
also demonstrate the ability to think critically and scientifically,
using observation and experimentation. Curriculum should be
scientifically approached, standardized, and distinct-discipline
based. Character is developed through training in the rules of
For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed
are real. In this late 19th century American philosophy, the focus is
on the reality of experience. Unlike the Realists and Rationalists,
Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we
learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to
problems, as they arise. The universe is dynamic and evolving, a
"becoming" view of the world. There is no absolute and
unchanging truth, but rather, truth is what works. Pragmatism is
derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914),
who believed that thought must produce action, rather than linger
in the mind and lead to indecisiveness.
John Dewey (1859-1952) applied pragmatist philosophy in his
progressive approaches. He believed that learners must adapt to
each other and to their environment. Schools should emphasize the
subject matter of social experience. All learning is dependent on
the context of place, time, and circumstance. Different cultural and
ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a
democratic society. The ultimate purpose is the creation of a new
social order. Character development is based on making group
decisions in light of consequences.
For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem
solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in
groups. Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus
on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way. Rather than
passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners,
Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to
real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares students
for citizenship, daily living, and future careers.
The nature of reality for Existentialists is subjective, and lies
within the individual. The physical world has no inherent meaning
outside of human existence. Individual choice and individual
standards rather than external standards are central. Existence
comes before any definition of what we are. We define ourselves
in relationship to that existence by the choices we make. We
should not accept anyone else's predetermined philosophical
system; rather, we must take responsibility for deciding who we
are. The focus is on freedom, the development of authentic
individuals, as we make meaning of our lives.
There are several different orientations within the existentialist
philosophy. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), a Danish minister and
philosopher, is considered to be the founder of existentialism. His
was a Christian orientation. Another group of existentialists,
largely European, believes that we must recognize the finiteness of
our lives on this small and fragile planet, rather than believing in
salvation through God. Our existence is not guaranteed in an after
life, so there is tension about life and the certainty of death, of
hope or despair. Unlike the more austere European approaches
where the universe is seen as meaningless when faced with the
certainty of the end of existence, American existentialists have
focused more on human potential and the quest for personal
meaning. Values clarification is an outgrowth of this movement.
Following the bleak period of World War II, the French
philosopher, Jean Paul Sartre, suggested that for youth, the
existential moment arises when young persons realize for the first
time that choice is theirs, that they are responsible for themselves.
Their question becomes "Who am I and what should I do?
Related to education, the subject matter of existentialist classrooms
should be a matter of personal choice. Teachers view the
individual as an entity within a social context in which the learner
must confront others' views to clarify his or her own. Character
development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions.
Real answers come from within the individual, not from outside
authority. Examining life through authentic thinking involves
students in genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are
opposed to thinking about students as objects to be measured,
tracked, or standardized. Such educators want the educational
experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and
self actualization. They start with the student, rather than on
Behaviorist theorists believe that behavior is shaped deliberately
by forces in the environment and that the type of person and
actions desired can be the product of design. In other words,
behavior is determined by others, rather than by our own free will.
By carefully shaping desirable behavior, morality and information
is learned. Learners will acquire and remember responses that lead
to satisfying aftereffects. Repetition of a meaningful connection
results in learning. If the student is ready for the connection,
learning is enhanced; if not, learning is inhibited. Motivation to
learn is the satisfying aftereffect, or reinforcement.
Behaviorism is linked with empiricism, which stresses scientific
information and observation, rather than subjective or
metaphysical realities. Behaviorists search for laws that govern
human behavior, like scientists who look for pattern sin empirical
events. Change in behavior must be observable; internal thought
processes are not considered.
Ivan Pavlov's research on using the reinforcement of a bell sound
when food was presented to a dog and finding the sound alone
would make a dog salivate after several presentations of the
conditioned stimulus, was the beginning of behaviorist approaches.
Learning occurs as a result of responses to stimuli in the
environment that are reinforced by adults and others, as well as
from feedback from actions on objects. The teacher can help
students learn by conditioning them through identifying the desired
behaviors in measurable, observable terms, recording these
behaviors and their frequencies, identifying appropriate reinforcers
for each desired behavior, and providing the reinforcer as soon as
the student displays the behavior. For example, if children are
supposed to raise hands to get called on, we might reinforce a child
who raises his hand by using praise, "Thank you for raising your
hand." Other influential behaviorists include B.F. Skinner (1904-
1990) and James B. Watson (1878-1958).
Cognitivists or Constructivists believe that the learner actively
constructs his or her own understandings of reality through
interaction with objects, events, and people in the environment,
and reflecting on these interactions. Early perceptual psychologists
(Gestalt psychology) focused on the making of wholes from bits
and pieces of objects and events in the world, believing that
meaning was the construction in the brain of patterns from these
For learning to occur, an event, object, or experience must conflict
with what the learner already knows. Therefore, the learner's
previous experiences determine what can be learned. Motivation to
learn is experiencing conflict with what one knows, which causes
an imbalance, which triggers a quest to restore the equilibrium.
Piaget described intelligent behavior as adaptation. The learner
organizes his or her understanding in organized structures. At the
simplest level, these are called schemes. When something new is
presented, the learner must modify these structures in order to deal
with the new information. This process, called equilibration, is the
balancing between what is assimilated (the new) and
accommodation, the change in structure. The child goes through
four distinct stages or levels in his or her understandings of the
Some constructivists (particularly Vygotsky) emphasize the
shared, social construction of knowledge, believing that the
particular social and cultural context and the interactions of
novices with more expert thinkers (usually adult) facilitate or
scaffold the learning process. The teacher mediates between the
new material to be learned and the learner's level of readiness,
supporting the child's growth through his or her "zone of proximal
The roots of humanism are found in the thinking of Erasmus
(1466-1536), who attacked the religious teaching and thought
prevalent in his time to focus on free inquiry and rediscovery of the
classical roots from Greece and Rome. Erasmus believed in the
essential goodness of children, that humans have free will, moral
conscience, the ability to reason, aesthetic sensibility, and religious
instinct. He advocated that the young should be treated kindly and
that learning should not be forced or rushed, as it proceeds in
stages. Humanism was developed as an educational philosophy by
Rousseau (1712-1778) and Pestalozzi, who emphasized nature and
the basic goodness of humans, understanding through the senses,
and education as a gradual and unhurried process in which the
development of human character follows the unfolding of nature.
Humanists believe that the learner should be in control of his or her
own destiny. Since the learner should become a fully autonomous
person, personal freedom, choice, and responsibility are the focus.
The learner is self-motivated to achieve towards the highest level
possible. Motivation to learn is intrinsic in humanism.
Recent applications of humanist philosophy focus on the social and
emotional well-being of the child, as well as the cognitive.
Development of a healthy self-concept, awareness of the
psychological needs, helping students to strive to be all that they
can are important concepts, espoused in theories of Abraham
Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Alfred Adler that are found in
classrooms today. Teachers emphasize freedom from threat,
emotional well-being, learning processes, and self-fulfillment.