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  1. 1. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4670 June 18, 1966 THE MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I. DECLARATION OF POLICY COVERAGE Sec. 1. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act to promote and improve the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their terms of employment and career prospects in order that they may compare favorably with existing opportunities in other walks of life, attract and retain in the teaching profession more people with the proper qualifications, it being recognized that advance in education depends on the qualifications and ability of the teaching staff and that education is an essential factor in the economic growth of the nation as a productive investment of vital importance. Sec. 2. Title Definition. This Act shall be known as the "Magna Carta for Public School Teachers" and shall apply to all public school teachers except those in the professorial staff of state colleges and universities. As used in this Act, the term "teacher" shall mean all persons engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on full- time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools, colleges and universities operated by the Government or its political subdivisions; but shall not include school nurses, school physicians, school dentists, and other school employees. II. RECRUITMENT AND CAREER Sec. 3. Recruitment and Qualification. Recruitment policy with respect to the selection and appointment of teachers shall be clearly defined by the Department of Education: Provided, however, That effective upon the approval of this Act, the following shall constitute the minimum educational qualifications for teacher- applicants: (a) For teachers in the kindergarten and elementary grades, Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education (B.S.E.ED.); (b) For teachers of the secondary schools, Bachelor's degree in Education or its equivalent with a major and a minor; or a Bachelor's degree in Arts or Science with at least eighteen professional units in Education. (c) For teachers of secondary vocational and two years technical courses, Bachelor's degree in the field of specialization with at least eighteen professional units in education; (d) For teachers of courses on the collegiate level, other than vocational, master's degree with a specific area of specialization; Provided, further, That in the absence of applicants who possess the minimum educational qualifications as hereinabove provided, the school superintendent may appoint, under a temporary status, applicants who do not meet the minimum qualifications: Provided, further, That should teacher-applicants, whether they possess the minimum educational qualifications or not, be required to take competitive examinations, preference in making appointments shall be in the order of their respective ranks in said competitive examinations: And provided, finally, That the results of the examinations shall be made public and every applicant shall be furnished with his score and rank in said examinations. Sec. 4. Probationary Period. When recruitment takes place after adequate training and professional preparation in any school recognized by the Government, no probationary period preceding regular appointment shall be imposed if the teacher possesses the appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, however, That where, due to the exigencies of the service, it is necessary to employ as teacher a person who possesses the minimum educational qualifications herein above set forth but lacks the appropriate civil service eligibility, such person shall be appointed on a provisional status and shall undergo a period of probation for not less than one year from and after the date of his provisional appointment. Sec. 5. Tenure of Office. Stability on employment and security of tenure shall be assured the teachers as provided under existing laws. Subject to the provisions of Section three hereof, teachers appointed on a provisional status for lack of necessary civil service eligibility shall be extended permanent appointment for the position he is holding after having rendered at least ten years of continuous, efficient and faithful service in such position. Sec. 6. Consent for Transfer Transportation Expenses. Except for cause and as herein otherwise provided, no teacher shall be transferred without his consent from one station to another. Where the exigencies of the service require the transfer of a teacher from one station to another, such transfer may be effected by the school superintendent who shall previously notify the teacher concerned of the transfer and the reason or reasons therefor. If the teacher believes there is no justification for the transfer, he may appeal his case to the Director of Public Schools or the Director of Vocational Education, as the case may be. Pending his appeal and the decision thereon, his transfer shall be held in abeyance: Provided, however, That no transfers whatever shall be made three months before any local or national election. Necessary transfer expenses of the teacher and his family shall be paid for by the Government if his transfer is finally approved. Sec. 7. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers. Within six months from the approval of this Act, the Secretary of Education shall formulate and prepare a Code of Professional Conduct for Public School Teachers. A copy of the Code shall be furnished each teacher: Provided, however, That where this is not possible by reason of inadequate fiscal resources of the Department of Education, at least three copies of the same Code shall be deposited with the office of the school principal or head teacher where they may be accessible for use by the teachers. Sec. 8. Safeguards in Disciplinary Procedure. Every teacher shall enjoy equitable safeguards at each stage of any disciplinary procedure and shall have:
  2. 2. a. the right to be informed, in writing, of the charges; b. the right to full access to the evidence in the case; c. the right to defend himself and to be defended by a representative of his choice and/or by his organization, adequate time being given to the teacher for the preparation of his defense; and d. the right to appeal to clearly designated authorities. No publicity shall be given to any disciplinary action being taken against a teacher during the pendency of his case. Sec. 9. Administrative Charges. Administrative charges against a teacher shall be heard initially by a committee composed of the corresponding School Superintendent of the Division or a duly authorized representative who should at least have the rank of a division supervisor, where the teacher belongs, as chairman, a representative of the local or, in its absence, any existing provincial or national teacher's organization and a supervisor of the Division, the last two to be designated by the Director of Public Schools. The committee shall submit its findings and recommendations to the Director of Public Schools within thirty days from the termination of the hearings:Provided, however, That where the school superintendent is the complainant or an interested party, all the members of the committee shall be appointed by the Secretary of Education. Sec. 10. No Discrimination. There shall be no discrimination whatsoever in entrance to the teaching profession, or during its exercise, or in the termination of services, based on other than professional consideration. Sec. 11. Married Teachers. Whenever possible, the proper authorities shall take all steps to enable married couples, both of whom are public school teachers, to be employed in the same locality. Sec. 12. Academic Freedom. Teachers shall enjoy academic freedom in the discharge of their professional duties, particularly with regard to teaching and classroom methods. III. HOURS OF WORK AND REMUNERATION Sec. 13. Teaching Hours. Any teacher engaged in actual classroom instruction shall not be required to render more than six hours of actual classroom teaching a day, which shall be so scheduled as to give him time for the preparation and correction of exercises and other work incidental to his normal teaching duties: Provided,however, That where the exigencies of the service so require, any teacher may be required to render more than six hours but not exceeding eight hours of actual classroom teaching a day upon payment of additional compensation at the same rate as his regular remuneration plus at least twenty-five per cent of his basic pay. Sec. 14. Additional Compensation. Notwithstanding any provision of existing law to the contrary, co-curricula and out of school activities and any other activities outside of what is defined as normal duties of any teacher shall be paid an additional compensation of at least twenty-five per cent of his regular remuneration after the teacher has completed at least six hours of actual classroom teaching a day. In the case of other teachers or school officials not engaged in actual classroom instruction, any work performed in excess of eight hours a day shall be paid an additional compensation of at least twenty-five per cent of their regular remuneration. The agencies utilizing the services of teachers shall pay the additional compensation required under this section. Education authorities shall refuse to allow the rendition of services of teachers for other government agencies without the assurance that the teachers shall be paid the remuneration provided for under this section. Sec. 15. Criteria for Salaries. Teacher's salaries shall correspond to the following criteria: (a) they shall compare favorably with those paid in other occupations requiring equivalent or similar qualifications, training and abilities; (b) they shall be such as to insure teachers a reasonable standard of life for themselves and their families; and (c) they shall be properly graded so as to recognize the fact that certain positions require higher qualifications and greater responsibility than others: Provided, however, That the general salary scale shall be such that the relation between the lowest and highest salaries paid in the profession will be of reasonable order. Narrowing of the salary scale shall be achieved by raising the lower end of the salary scales relative to the upper end. Sec. 16. Salary Scale. Salary scales of teachers shall provide for a gradual progression from a minimum to a maximum salary by means of regular increments, granted automatically after three years: Provided, That the efficiency rating of the teacher concerned is at least satisfactory. The progression from the minimum to the maximum of the salary scale shall not extend over a period of ten years. Sec. 17. Equality in Salary Scales. The salary scales of teachers whose salaries are appropriated by a city, municipal, municipal district, or provincial government, shall not be less than those provided for teachers of the National Government. Sec. 18. Cost of Living Allowance. Teacher's salaries shall, at the very least, keep pace with the rise in the cost of living by the payment of a cost-of-living allowance which shall automatically follow changes in a cost-of-living index. The Secretary of Education shall, in consultation with the proper government entities, recommend to Congress, at least annually, the appropriation of the necessary funds for the cost-of-living allowances of teachers employed by the National Government. The determination of the cost-of-living allowances by the Secretary of Education shall, upon approval of the President of the Philippines, be binding on the city, municipal or provincial government, for the purposes of calculating the cost-of-living allowances of teachers under its employ.
  3. 3. Sec. 19. Special Hardship Allowances. In areas in which teachers are exposed to hardship such as difficulty in commuting to the place of work or other hazards peculiar to the place of employment, as determined by the Secretary of Education, they shall be compensated special hardship allowances equivalent to at least twenty-five per cent of their monthly salary. Sec. 20. Salaries to be Paid in Legal Tender. Salaries of teachers shall be paid in legal tender of the Philippines or its equivalent in checks or treasury warrants. Provided, however, That such checks or treasury warrants shall be cashable in any national, provincial, city or municipal treasurer's office or any banking institutions operating under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines. Sec. 21. Deductions Prohibited. No person shall make any deduction whatsoever from the salaries of teachers except under specific authority of law authorizing such deductions: Provided, however, That upon written authority executed by the teacher concerned, (1) lawful dues and fees owing to the Philippine Public School Teachers Association, and (2) premiums properly due on insurance policies, shall be considered deductible. IV. HEALTH MEASURES AND INJURY BENEFITS Sec. 22. Medical Examination and Treatment. Compulsory medical examination shall be provided free of charge for all teachers before they take up teaching, and shall be repeated not less than once a year during the teacher's professional life. Where medical examination show that medical treatment and/or hospitalization is necessary, same shall be provided free by the government entity paying the salary of the teachers. In regions where there is scarcity of medical facilities, teachers may obtain elsewhere the necessary medical care with the right to be reimbursed for their traveling expenses by the government entity concerned in the first paragraph of this Section. Sec. 23. Compensation For Injuries. Teachers shall be protected against the consequences of employment injuries in accordance with existing laws. The effects of the physical and nervous strain on the teacher's health shall be recognized as a compensable occupational disease in accordance with existing laws. V. LEAVE AND RETIREMENT BENEFITS Sec. 24. Study Leave. In addition to the leave privileges now enjoyed by teachers in the public schools, they shall be entitled to study leave not exceeding one school year after seven years of service. Such leave shall be granted in accordance with a schedule set by the Department of Education. During the period of such leave, the teachers shall be entitled to at least sixty per cent of their monthly salary: Provided, however, That no teacher shall be allowed to accumulate more than one year study leave, unless he needs an additional semester to finish his thesis for a graduate study in education or allied courses: Provided, further, That no compensation shall be due the teacher after the first year of such leave. In all cases, the study leave period shall be counted for seniority and pension purposes. The compensation allowed for one year study leave as herein provided shall be subject to the condition that the teacher takes the regular study load and passes at least seventy-five per cent of his courses. Study leave of more than one year may be permitted by the Secretary of Education but without compensation. Sec. 25. Indefinite Leave. An indefinite sick leave of absence shall be granted to teachers when the nature of the illness demands a long treatment that will exceed one year at the least. Sec. 26. Salary Increase upon Retirement. Public school teachers having fulfilled the age and service requirements of the applicable retirement laws shall be given one range salary raise upon retirement, which shall be the basis of the computation of the lump sum of the retirement pay and the monthly benefits thereafter. VI. TEACHER'S ORGANIZATION Sec. 27. Freedom to Organize. Public school teachers shall have the right to freely and without previous authorization both to establish and to join organizations of their choosing, whether local or national to further and defend their interests. Sec. 28. Discrimination Against Teachers Prohibited. The rights established in the immediately preceding Section shall be exercised without any interference or coercion. It shall be unlawful for any person to commit any acts of discrimination against teachers which are calculated to (a) make the employment of a teacher subject to the condition that he shall not join an organization, or shall relinquish membership in an organization, (b) to cause the dismissal of or otherwise prejudice a teacher by reason of his membership in an organization or because of participation in organization activities outside school hours, or with the consent of the proper school authorities, within school hours, and (c) to prevent him from carrying out the duties laid upon him by his position in the organization, or to penalize him for an action undertaken in that capacity. Sec. 29. National Teacher's Organizations. National teachers' organizations shall be consulted in the formulation of national educational policies and professional standards, and in the formulation of national policies governing the social security of the teachers. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT Sec. 30. Rules and Regulations. The Secretary of Education shall formulate and prepare the necessary rules and regulations to implement the provisions of this Act. Rules and regulations issued pursuant to this Section shall take effect thirty days after publication in a newspaper of general circulation and by such other means as the Secretary of Education deems reasonably sufficient to give interested parties general notice of such issuance. Sec. 31. Budgetary Estimates. The Secretary of Education shall submit to Congress annually the necessary budgetary estimates to implement the provisions of the Act concerning the benefits herein granted to public school teachers under the employ of the National Government.
  4. 4. Sec. 32. Penal Provision. A person who shall willfully interfere with, restrain or coerce any teacher in the exercise of his rights guaranteed by this Act or who shall in any other manner commit any act to defeat any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. If the offender is a public official, the court shall order his dismissal from the Government service. Sec. 33. Repealing Clause. All Acts or parts of Acts, executive orders and their implementing rules inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly. Sec. 34. Separability Clause. If any provision of this Act is declared invalid, the remainder of this Act or any provisions not affected thereby shall remain in force and in effect. Sec. 35. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e), Article 11, of R.A. No. 7836, otherwise known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 and paragraph (a), section 6, P.D. No. 223, as amended, the Board for Professional Teachers hereby adopt the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers. Preamble Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble profession, and they strictly adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standards, and values. Article I: Scope and Limitations Section 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that all educational institution shall offer quality education for all competent teachers. Committed to its full realization, the provision of this Code shall apply, therefore, to all teachers in schools in the Philippines. Section 2. This Code covers all public and private school teachers in all educational institutions at the preschool, primary, elementary, and secondary levels whether academic, vocational, special, technical, or non-formal. The term “teacher― shall include industrial arts or vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and /or administrative functions in all school at the aforesaid levels, whether on full time or part-time basis. Article II: The Teacher and the State Section 1. The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state; each teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instill allegiance to the constitution and for all duly constituted authorities, and promote obedience to the laws of the state. Section 2. Every teacher or school official shall actively help carry out the declared policies of the state, and shall take an oath to this effect. Section 3. In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own, every teacher shall be physically, mentally and morally fit. Section 4. Every teacher shall possess and actualize a full commitment and devotion to duty. Section 5. A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious, or other partisan interest, and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require, collect, or receive any money or service or other valuable material from any person or entity for such purposes. Section 6. Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and responsibility. Section 7. A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce any other person to follow any political course of action. Section 8. Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have privilege of expounding the product of his researches and investigations; provided that, if the results are inimical to the declared policies of the State, they shall be brought to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action. Article III: The Teacher and the Community Section 1. A teacher is a facilitator of learning and of the development of the youth; he shall, therefore, render the best service by providing an environment conducive to such learning and growth. Section 2. Every teacher shall provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in community movements for moral, social, educational, economic and civic betterment. Section 3. Every teacher shall merit reasonable social recognition for which purpose he shall behave with honor and dignity at all times and refrain from such activities as gambling, smoking, drunkenness, and other excesses, much less illicit relations. Section 4. Every teacher shall live for and with the community and shall, therefore, study and understand local customs and traditions in order to have sympathetic attitude, therefore, refrain from disparaging the community. Section 5. Every teacher shall help the school keep the people in the community informed about the school’s work and accomplishments as well as its needs and problems. Section 6. Every teacher is intellectual leader in the community, especially in the barangay, and shall welcome the opportunity to
  5. 5. provide such leadership when needed, to extend counseling services, as appropriate, and to actively be involved in matters affecting the welfare of the people. Section 7. Every teacher shall maintain harmonious and pleasant personal and official relations with other professionals, with government officials, and with the people, individually or collectively. Section 8. A teacher posses freedom to attend church and worships as appropriate, but shall not use his positions and influence to proselyte others. Article IV: A Teacher and the Profession Section 1. Every teacher shall actively insure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling. Section 2. Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparations for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times and in the practice of his profession. Section 3. Every teacher shall participate in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program of the Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally competitive. Section 4. Every teacher shall help, if duly authorized, to seek support from the school, but shall not make improper misrepresentations through personal advertisements and other questionable means. Section 5. Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a manner that makes it dignified means for earning a descent living. Article V: The Teachers and the Profession Section 1. Teachers shall, at all times, be imbued with the spirit of professional loyalty, mutual confidence, and faith in one another, self-sacrifice for the common good, and full cooperation with colleagues. When the best interest of the learners, the school, or the profession is at stake in any controversy, teachers shall support one another. Section 2. A teacher is not entitled to claim credit or work not of his own, and shall give due credit for the work of others which he may use. Section 3. Before leaving his position, a teacher shall organize for whoever assumes the position such records and other data as are necessary to carry on the work. Section 4. A teacher shall hold inviolate all confidential information concerning associates and the school, and shall not divulge to anyone documents which has not been officially released, or remove records from files without permission. Section 5. It shall be the responsibility of every teacher to seek correctives for what may appear to be an unprofessional and unethical conduct of any associate. However, this may be done only if there is incontrovertible evidence for such conduct. Section 6. A teacher may submit to the proper authorities any justifiable criticism against an associate, preferably in writing, without violating the right of the individual concerned. Section 7. A teacher may apply for a vacant position for which he is qualified; provided that he respects the system of selection on the basis of merit and competence; provided, further, that all qualified candidates are given the opportunity to be considered. Article VI: The Teacher and Higher Authorities in the Profession Section 1. Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to understand and support the legitimate policies of the school and the administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion and shall faithfully carry them out. Section 2. A teacher shall not make any false accusations or charges against superiors, especially under anonymity. However, if there are valid charges, he should present such under oath to competent authority. Section 3. A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except when special conditions warrant a different procedure, such as when special conditions are advocated but are opposed by immediate superiors, in which case, the teacher shall appeal directly to the appropriate higher authority. Section 4. Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has a right to seek redress against injustice to the administration and to extent possible, shall raise grievances within acceptable democratic possesses. In doing so, they shall avoid jeopardizing the interest and the welfare of learners whose right to learn must be respected. Section 5. Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments, promotions, and transfer of teachers are made only on the basis of merit and needed in the interest of the service. Section 6. A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to his contract, assuming full knowledge of employment terms and conditions. Article VII: School Officials, Teachers, and Other Personnel Section 1. All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy, helpfulness and sympathy towards teachers and other personnel, such practices being standards of effective school supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership and enlightened directions. Section 2. School officials, teachers, and other school personnel shall consider it their cooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce important changes in the system at all levels. Section 3. School officials shall encourage and attend the professional growth of all teachers under them such as recommending them for promotion, giving them due recognition
  6. 6. for meritorious performance, and allowing them to participate in conferences in training programs. Section 4. No school officials shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a teacher or other subordinates except for cause. Section 5. School authorities concern shall ensure that public school teachers are employed in accordance with pertinent civil service rules, and private school teachers are issued contracts specifying the terms and conditions of their work; provided that they are given, if qualified, subsequent permanent tenure, in accordance with existing laws. Article VIII: The Teachers and Learners Section 1. A teacher has a right and duty to determine the academic marks and the promotions of learners in the subject or grades he handles, provided that such determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedures of evaluation and measurement. In case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately take appropriate actions, observing due process. Section 2. A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first and foremost concern, and shall deal justifiably and impartially with each of them. Section 3. Under no circumstance shall a teacher be prejudiced or discriminate against a learner. Section 4. A teacher shall not accept favors or gifts from learners, their parents or others in their behalf in exchange for requested concessions, especially if undeserved. Section 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other what is authorized for such service. Section 6. A teacher shall base the evaluation of the learner’s work only in merit and quality of academic performance. Section 7. In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between teacher and learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion to avoid scandal, gossip and preferential treatment of the learner. Section 8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestation of poor scholarship. Section 9. A teacher shall ensure that conditions contribute to the maximum development of learners are adequate, and shall extend needed assistance in preventing or solving learner’s problems and difficulties. Article IX: The Teachers and Parents Section 1. Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations with parents, and shall conduct himself to merit their confidence and respect. Section 2. Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper authorities, of the progress and deficiencies of learner under him, exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out the learner's deficiencies and in seeking parent’s cooperation for the proper guidance and improvement of the learners. Section 3. A teacher shall hear parent’s complaints with sympathy and understanding, and shall discourage unfair criticism. Article X: The Teacher and Business Section 1. A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate income generation; provided that it does not relate to or adversely affect his work as a teacher. Section 2. A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to the financial matters such as in the settlement of his debts and loans in arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs. Section 3. No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be financially interested in, any commercial venture which furnish textbooks and other school commodities in the purchase and disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except only when his assignment is inherently, related to such purchase and disposal; provided they shall be in accordance with the existing regulations; provided, further, that members of duly recognized teachers cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such commodities. Article XI: The Teacher as a Person Section 1. A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with life for which it is the highest obligation to live with dignity at all times whether in school, in the home, or elsewhere. Section 2. A teacher shall place premium upon self-discipline as the primary principle of personal behavior in all relationships with others and in all situations. Section 3. A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers and all others. Section 4. A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own destiny and of the destinies of men and nations. Article XII: Disciplinary Actions Section 1. Any violation of any provision of this code shall be sufficient ground for the imposition against the erring teacher of the disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certification of Registration and License as a Professional Teacher, suspension from the practice of teaching profession, or reprimand or cancellation of his temporary/special permit under causes specified in Sec. 23, Article III or R.A. No. 7836, and under Rule 31, Article VIII, of the Rules and Regulations Implementing R.A. 7836. Article XIII: Effectivity Section 1. This Code shall take effect upon approval by the Professional Regulation Commission and after sixty (60) days
  7. 7. following its publication in the Official Gazette or any newspaper of general circulation, whichever is earlier. Behaviorism Main article: Behaviorism (philosophy of education) Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge, then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified direction. This type of learning is a conditioned response or memorization of facts, assertions, rules, laws, and terminology. The correct response is achieved through stimulation of senses. The focus of intelligence development is visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, and bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. The purpose in education is to help a learner adopt knowledge from an instructor through use of the learner’s senses. This learning goal is the lowest order learning: factual knowledge, skill development, and training. The term "behaviorism" was coined by John Watson (1878–1959). Watson believed that theorizing thoughts, intentions or other subjective experiences was unscientific and insisted that psychology must focus on measurable behaviors.[3] For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of a new behavior through conditioning. Conditioning Both types of conditioning forms the core of Behavior Analysis. It has grown into a popularized practice called Applied behavior analysis. ABA differs from Behavior modification as the latter only used reinforcement and aversive punishments to modify behavior. There are two types of conditioning: Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus. Operant conditioning, where antecedents follow a behavior which leads to a consequence such as a punishment, reward, or reinforcer. Classical conditioning was noticed by Ivan Pavlov when he saw that if dogs come to associate the delivery of food with a white lab coat or with the ringing of a bell, they will produce saliva, even when there is no sight or smell of food. Classical conditioning regards this form of learning to be the same whether in dogs or in humans.[4] Operant conditioning reinforces this behavior with antecedents, rewards and typically non-aversive punishments. A reward increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, a punishment decreases its likelihood.[5] Behaviorists view the learning process as a change in behavior, and will arrange the environment to elicit desired responses through such devices as behavioral objectives, Competency-based learning, and skill development and training.[6] Cognitivism Main article: Cognitivism (philosophy of education) Cognitivism, as a learning theory, is the theory that humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s cognitive abilities, such as the mental processes of recognition, recollection, analysis, reflection, application, creation, understanding, and evaluation. The Cognitivists' learning process is adoptive learning of techniques, procedures, organization, and structure to develop internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge. The purpose in education is to develop conceptual knowledge, techniques, procedures, and algorithmic problem solving using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical intelligences. The learner requires scaffolding to develop schema and adopt knowledge from both people and the environment. The educators' role is pedagogical in that the instructor must develop conceptual knowledge by managing the content of learning activities. This theory relates to early stages of learning where the learner solves well defined problems through a series of stages. Cognitive theories grew out of Gestalt psychology, developed in Germany in the early 1900s and brought to America in the 1920s. The German word gestalt is roughly equivalent to the English configuration or pattern and emphasizes the whole of human experience.[7] Over the years, the Gestalt psychologists provided demonstrations and described principles to explain the way we organize our sensations into perceptions.[8] Gestalt psychologists criticize behaviorists for being too dependent on overt behavior to explain learning. They propose looking at the patterns rather than isolated events.[9] Gestalt views of learning have been incorporated into what have come to be labeled cognitive theories. Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: that the memory system is an active organized processor of information and that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to consider how human memory works to promote learning, and an understanding of short term memory and long term memory is important to educators influenced by cognitive theory.[10] They view learning as an internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory and perception) where the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development.[6] The individual learner is more important than the environment. Once memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model[11] and Baddeley's working memory model[12] were established as a theoretical framework incognitive psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Today, researchers are concentrating on topics likecognitive load and information processing theory. These theories of learning play a role in influencing instructional
  8. 8. design.[13] Cognitive theory is used to explain such topics as social role acquisition, intelligence and memory as related to age. Educational neuroscience Main article: Educational neuroscience American Universities such as Harvard, Johns Hopkins, University of Southern California and others, in the first decade of the twenty- first century, began offering majors and degrees dedicated to educational neuroscience or neuroeducation. Such studies seek to link an understanding of brain processes with classroom instruction and experiences.[14] Neuroeducation seeks to analyze the biological changes that take place in the brain as new information is processed. It looks at what environmental, emotional and social situations are best in order for new information to be retained and stored in the brain via the linking of neurons, rather than allowing the dendrites to be reabsorbed and the information lost. The 1990s were designated "The Decade of the Brain," and advances took place in neuroscience at an especially rapid pace. The three dominant methods for measuring brain activities are: event-related potential, functional magnetic resonance imaging andmagnetoencephalography (MEG).[15] The integration and application to education of what we know about the brain was strengthened in 2000 when the American Federation of Teachers stated: "It is vital that we identify what science tells us about how people learn in order to improve the education curriculum."[16] What is exciting about this new field in education is that modern brain imaging techniques now make it possible, in some sense, to watch the brain as it learns, and the question then arises: can the results of neuro-scientific studies of brains as they are learning usefully inform practice in this area?[17] Although the field of neuroscience is young, it is expected that with new technologies and ways of observing learning, the paradigms of what students need and how students learn best will be further refined with actual scientific evidence. In particular, students who may have learning disabilities will be taught with strategies that are more informed. The differences of opinion and theory in psychology indicate that the learning process is not yet understood.[citation needed] Neuroscience shows that the brain can be modelled not with a central processor where ‘'intelligence'’ lies, but in having perhaps 70 functional areas. Mental activity requires several areas to work together. What appear as different types of intelligence result from different combinations of well-developed functional areas. Learning is a process by which neurons join by developing the synapses between them. Knowledge is arranged hierarchically, with new knowledge being linked to existing neural networks.[citation needed] Outside the realm of educational psychology, techniques to directly observe the functioning of the brain during the learning process, such as event-related potentialand functional magnetic resonance imaging, are used in educational neuroscience. As of 2012, such studies are beginning to support a theory of multiple intelligences, where learning is seen as the interaction between dozens of different functional areas in the brain, each with their own individual strengths and weaknesses in any particular human learner.[citation needed] Taxonomies For more information, see Theory of multiple intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligences is a taxonomy of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical– mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion. For more information, see Bloom's taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives that provides a framework for discussing cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor learning. Humanism Main article: Humanism (philosophy of education) Humanism, as a learning theory, is based on human generation of knowledge, meaning, and ultimately expertise through interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. This self-directed learning is needs motivated, adaptive learning. Acquisition, development, and integration of knowledge occur through strategy, personal interpretation, evaluation, reasoning, and decision- making. The learning goal is to become self-actualized with intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment. This learner is able to adapt prior knowledge to new experience. The educator’s role in humanistic learning is to encourage and enable the learner, andragogically, by providing access to appropriate resources without obtrusive interference. The learning goal is high order learning of procedural knowledge, strategy, reasoning, abstract analysis, and development of expertise. Humanists include Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Marie Montessori, and William Glasser. Transformative learning Main article: Transformative learning Transformative learning focuses upon the often-necessary change that is required in a learner's preconceptions and world view. Transformative learning seeks to explain how humans revise and reinterpret meaning.[18] Transformative learning is the cognitive process of effecting change in a frame of reference.[19] A frame of reference defines our view of the world. The emotions are often involved.[20] Adults have a tendency to reject any ideas that do not correspond to their particular values, associations and concepts.[19] Our frames of reference are composed of two dimensions: habits of mind and points of view.[19] Habits of mind, such asethnocentrism, are harder to change than points of view. Habits of mind influence our point of view and the resulting thoughts or feelings associated with them, but points of view may change over time as a result of influences such as reflection, appropriation and feedback.[19] Transformative learning takes
  9. 9. place by discussing with others the “reasons presented in support of competing interpretations, by critically examining evidence, arguments, and alternative points of view.”[19] When circumstances permit, transformative learners move toward a frame of reference that is more inclusive, discriminating, self- reflective, and integrative of experience.[19] Constructivism Main article: Constructivism (philosophy of education) Constructivism seeks to explain how knowledge is constructed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences. It has its roots in cognitive psychology and biology and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in order to adapt to the world. Constructs are the different types of filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality from chaos to order. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as “a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy, psychology, and cybernetics”.[1] Constructivism has implications for the theory of instruction. Discovery, hands-on, experiential, collaborative, project-based, and task-based learning are a number of applications that base teaching and learning on constructivism. Constructivism draws heavily on psychological studies of cognitive development from Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner, constructivism emphasizes the importance of the active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves, and building new ideas or concepts based upon current knowledge and past experience. It asks why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook. To design effective teaching environments, it believes, one needs a good understanding of what the learners already know when they come into the classroom. The curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on what the pupil already knows and is allowed to develop with them.[21] Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems.[22] This requires an understanding of human cognitive development. The learning theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and David Kolb serve as the foundation of constructivist learning theory.[23] Constructivism has many varieties: Active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building are three, but all versions promote a student's free exploration within a given framework or structure.[24] The teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working to solve realistic problems. Perennialism For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education. The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students' growth in enduring disciplines. The loftiest accomplishments of humankind are emphasized– the great works of literature and art, the laws or principles of science. Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in 1963 and Mortimer Adler, who further developed this curriculum based on 100 great books of western civilization. Essentialism Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Although this educational philosophy is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. It should focus on facts-the objective reality out there--and "the basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline. Teachers are to help students keep their non-productive instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness. This approach was in reaction to progressivist approaches prevalent in the 1920s and 30s. William Bagley, took progressivist approaches to task in the journal he formed in 1934. Other proponents of Essentialism are: James D. Koerner (1959), H. G. Rickover (1959), Paul Copperman (1978), and Theodore Sizer (1985). Progressivism Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions. The scientific method is used by progressivist educators so that students can study matter and events systematically and first hand. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. The Progressive education philosophy was established in America from the mid 1920s through the mid 1950s. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, student-selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority. Reconstructionism/Critical Theory Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) was the founder of social reconstructionism, in reaction against the realities of World War II. He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a
  10. 10. beneficent society using technology and human compassion. George Counts (1889-1974) recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order. Critical theorists, like social reconstructionists, believe that systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) was a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change. In his view, humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others. To do so requires dialog and critical consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome domination and oppression. Rather than "teaching as banking," in which the educator deposits information into students' heads, Freire saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world. For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly in social studies and literature), inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus. Community- based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also strategies. Idealism Idealism is a philosophical approach that has as its central tenet that ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing. In a search for truth, beauty, and justice that is enduring and everlasting, the focus is on conscious reasoning in the mind. Plato, father of Idealism, espoused this view about 400 years BC, in his famous book, The Republic. Plato believed that there are two worlds. The first is the spiritual or mental world, which is eternal, permanent, orderly, regular, and universal. There is also the world of appearance, the world experienced through sight, touch, smell, taste, and sound, that is changing, imperfect, and disorderly. This division is often referred to as the duality of mind and body. Reacting against what he perceived as too much of a focus on the immediacy of the physical and sensory world, Plato described a utopian society in which "education to body and soul all the beauty and perfection of which they are capable" as an ideal. In his allegory of the cave, the shadows of the sensory world must be overcome with the light of reason or universal truth. To understand truth, one must pursue knowledge and identify with the Absolute Mind. Plato also believed that the soul is fully formed prior to birth and is perfect and at one with the Universal Being. The birth process checks this perfection, so education requires bringing latent ideas (fully formed concepts) to consciousness. In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society. The curricular emphasis is subject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, and religion. Teaching methods focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and Socratic dialogue (a method of teaching that uses questioning to help students discover and clarify knowledge). Introspection, intuition, insight, and whole-part logic are used to bring to consciousness the forms or concepts which are latent in the mind. Character is developed through imitating examples and heroes. Realism Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human mind. The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is on the body/objects. Truth is objective-what can be observed. Aristotle, a student of Plato who broke with his mentor's idealist philosophy, is called the father of both Realism and the scientific method. In this metaphysical view, the aim is to understand objective reality through "the diligent and unsparing scrutiny of all observable data." Aristotle believed that to understand an object, its ultimate form had to be understood, which does not change. For example, a rose exists whether or not a person is aware of it. A rose can exist in the mind without being physically present, but ultimately, the rose shares properties with all other roses and flowers (its form), although one rose may be red and another peach colored. Aristotle also was the first to teach logic as a formal discipline in order to be able to reason about physical events and aspects. The exercise of rational thought is viewed as the ultimate purpose for humankind. The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. The teacher organizes and presents content systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in making decisions. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Students must also demonstrate the ability to think critically and scientifically, using observation and experimentation. Curriculum should be scientifically approached, standardized, and distinct-discipline based. Character is developed through training in the rules of conduct. Pragmatism (Experientialism) For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real. In this late 19th century American philosophy, the focus is on the reality of experience. Unlike the Realists and Rationalists, Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems, as they arise. The universe is dynamic and evolving, a "becoming" view of the world. There is no absolute and unchanging truth, but rather, truth is what works. Pragmatism is derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), who believed that thought must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to indecisiveness. John Dewey (1859-1952) applied pragmatist philosophy in his progressive approaches. He believed that learners must adapt to each other and to their environment. Schools should emphasize the subject matter of social experience. All learning is dependent on the context of place, time, and circumstance. Different cultural and ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a democratic society. The ultimate purpose is the creation of a new social order. Character development is based on making group decisions in light of consequences. For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups. Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in an interdisciplinary way. Rather than passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners, Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares students for citizenship, daily living, and future careers.
  11. 11. Existentialism The nature of reality for Existentialists is subjective, and lies within the individual. The physical world has no inherent meaning outside of human existence. Individual choice and individual standards rather than external standards are central. Existence comes before any definition of what we are. We define ourselves in relationship to that existence by the choices we make. We should not accept anyone else's predetermined philosophical system; rather, we must take responsibility for deciding who we are. The focus is on freedom, the development of authentic individuals, as we make meaning of our lives. There are several different orientations within the existentialist philosophy. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), a Danish minister and philosopher, is considered to be the founder of existentialism. His was a Christian orientation. Another group of existentialists, largely European, believes that we must recognize the finiteness of our lives on this small and fragile planet, rather than believing in salvation through God. Our existence is not guaranteed in an after life, so there is tension about life and the certainty of death, of hope or despair. Unlike the more austere European approaches where the universe is seen as meaningless when faced with the certainty of the end of existence, American existentialists have focused more on human potential and the quest for personal meaning. Values clarification is an outgrowth of this movement. Following the bleak period of World War II, the French philosopher, Jean Paul Sartre, suggested that for youth, the existential moment arises when young persons realize for the first time that choice is theirs, that they are responsible for themselves. Their question becomes "Who am I and what should I do? Related to education, the subject matter of existentialist classrooms should be a matter of personal choice. Teachers view the individual as an entity within a social context in which the learner must confront others' views to clarify his or her own. Character development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions. Real answers come from within the individual, not from outside authority. Examining life through authentic thinking involves students in genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are opposed to thinking about students as objects to be measured, tracked, or standardized. Such educators want the educational experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and self actualization. They start with the student, rather than on curriculum content. Behaviorism Behaviorist theorists believe that behavior is shaped deliberately by forces in the environment and that the type of person and actions desired can be the product of design. In other words, behavior is determined by others, rather than by our own free will. By carefully shaping desirable behavior, morality and information is learned. Learners will acquire and remember responses that lead to satisfying aftereffects. Repetition of a meaningful connection results in learning. If the student is ready for the connection, learning is enhanced; if not, learning is inhibited. Motivation to learn is the satisfying aftereffect, or reinforcement. Behaviorism is linked with empiricism, which stresses scientific information and observation, rather than subjective or metaphysical realities. Behaviorists search for laws that govern human behavior, like scientists who look for pattern sin empirical events. Change in behavior must be observable; internal thought processes are not considered. Ivan Pavlov's research on using the reinforcement of a bell sound when food was presented to a dog and finding the sound alone would make a dog salivate after several presentations of the conditioned stimulus, was the beginning of behaviorist approaches. Learning occurs as a result of responses to stimuli in the environment that are reinforced by adults and others, as well as from feedback from actions on objects. The teacher can help students learn by conditioning them through identifying the desired behaviors in measurable, observable terms, recording these behaviors and their frequencies, identifying appropriate reinforcers for each desired behavior, and providing the reinforcer as soon as the student displays the behavior. For example, if children are supposed to raise hands to get called on, we might reinforce a child who raises his hand by using praise, "Thank you for raising your hand." Other influential behaviorists include B.F. Skinner (1904- 1990) and James B. Watson (1878-1958). Cognitivism/Constructivism Cognitivists or Constructivists believe that the learner actively constructs his or her own understandings of reality through interaction with objects, events, and people in the environment, and reflecting on these interactions. Early perceptual psychologists (Gestalt psychology) focused on the making of wholes from bits and pieces of objects and events in the world, believing that meaning was the construction in the brain of patterns from these pieces. For learning to occur, an event, object, or experience must conflict with what the learner already knows. Therefore, the learner's previous experiences determine what can be learned. Motivation to learn is experiencing conflict with what one knows, which causes an imbalance, which triggers a quest to restore the equilibrium. Piaget described intelligent behavior as adaptation. The learner organizes his or her understanding in organized structures. At the simplest level, these are called schemes. When something new is presented, the learner must modify these structures in order to deal with the new information. This process, called equilibration, is the balancing between what is assimilated (the new) and accommodation, the change in structure. The child goes through four distinct stages or levels in his or her understandings of the world. Some constructivists (particularly Vygotsky) emphasize the shared, social construction of knowledge, believing that the particular social and cultural context and the interactions of novices with more expert thinkers (usually adult) facilitate or scaffold the learning process. The teacher mediates between the new material to be learned and the learner's level of readiness, supporting the child's growth through his or her "zone of proximal development." Humanism The roots of humanism are found in the thinking of Erasmus (1466-1536), who attacked the religious teaching and thought prevalent in his time to focus on free inquiry and rediscovery of the classical roots from Greece and Rome. Erasmus believed in the essential goodness of children, that humans have free will, moral conscience, the ability to reason, aesthetic sensibility, and religious
  12. 12. instinct. He advocated that the young should be treated kindly and that learning should not be forced or rushed, as it proceeds in stages. Humanism was developed as an educational philosophy by Rousseau (1712-1778) and Pestalozzi, who emphasized nature and the basic goodness of humans, understanding through the senses, and education as a gradual and unhurried process in which the development of human character follows the unfolding of nature. Humanists believe that the learner should be in control of his or her own destiny. Since the learner should become a fully autonomous person, personal freedom, choice, and responsibility are the focus. The learner is self-motivated to achieve towards the highest level possible. Motivation to learn is intrinsic in humanism. Recent applications of humanist philosophy focus on the social and emotional well-being of the child, as well as the cognitive. Development of a healthy self-concept, awareness of the psychological needs, helping students to strive to be all that they can are important concepts, espoused in theories of Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Alfred Adler that are found in classrooms today. Teachers emphasize freedom from threat, emotional well-being, learning processes, and self-fulfillment.