Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006PNNL                LEDs – The Fu...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                         January 17, 2006PNNL               How does an LED ma...
Kelly Gordon                                                                             January 17, 2006PNNL             ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                          January 17, 2006PNNL                ...
Kelly Gordon            January 17, 2006PNNL                   15                   16               8
Kelly Gordon                                                                          January 17, 2006PNNL                ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                   January 17,...
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006PNNL               Light Output vs. Junct...
Kelly Gordon                                                                     January 17, 2006PNNL                     ...
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006PNNL                   Light Output over ...
Kelly Gordon                              January 17, 2006PNNL                                     27               The Vi...
Kelly Gordon                               January 17, 2006PNNL                                      29               CIE ...
Kelly Gordon                                    January 17, 2006PNNL                   Daylight Spectra                   ...
Kelly Gordon                                                           January 17, 2006PNNL                 5000K Fluoresc...
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006PNNL                                     ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                   January 17, 2006PNNL                 Interp...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                            January 17, 2006PNNL              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006PNNL                       Effici...
Kelly Gordon                                                                  January 17, 2006PNNL                        ...
Kelly Gordon                                               January 17, 2006PNNL                   Winner – Undercabinet   ...
Kelly Gordon                                          January 17, 2006PNNL               Winner – Outdoor                 ...
Kelly Gordon                                                       January 17, 2006PNNL                     ENERGY STAR® v...
Kelly Gordon                                                                       January 17, 2006PNNL                   ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                    January 17, 2006PNNL                 Trans...
Kelly Gordon                                                                     January 17, 2006PNNL                     ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                       January 17, 2006PNNL                   ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                 January 17, 2006PNNL         ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                   January 17, 2006PNNL                       ...
Kelly Gordon                                                          January 17, 2006PNNL                   Under-cabinet...
Kelly Gordon                                                              January 17, 2006PNNL                Category A: ...
Kelly Gordon                                                          January 17, 2006PNNL                    Category A: ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                 January 17, 2006PNNL                         ...
Kelly Gordon                                                        January 17, 2006PNNL                         Category ...
Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006PNNL                     Category...
Kelly Gordon                                                            January 17, 2006PNNL                      In Situ ...
Kelly Gordon                                                              January 17, 2006PNNL                Temperature ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                         January 17, 2006PNNL                 ...
Kelly Gordon                                                               January 17, 2006PNNL                        Qua...
Kelly Gordon                                                                    January 17, 2006PNNL                      ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                   January 17, 2006PNNL       ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                              ...
Kelly Gordon                                                                                      January 17, 2006PNNL    ...
Kelly Gordon                                                 January 17, 2006PNNL                 Questions YOU Should Ask...
Kelly Gordon                                   January 17, 2006PNNL                                  DOE                  ...
Kelly Gordon                                                  January 17, 2006PNNL                         Questions?     ...
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Led's the future of lighting mc cullough

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Led's the future of lighting mc cullough

  1. 1. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL LEDs – The Future of Lighting? Jeff McCullough, LC Pacific Northwest National Laboratory February 14, 2008 1 Today’s Topics • Introduction • LEDs “101” – Along the way we will “bust” some myths about LEDs • DOE’s SSL Commercialization Strategy – Lighting for Tomorrow® Design Competition – ENERGY STAR® Criteria – CALiPER® Program 2 1
  2. 2. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL “Solid State Lighting is the most disruptive technology to hit the lighting industry in 50 years…” 3 U.S. Buildings Energy End-Use Breakdown, 2001 Site Electricity Consumption Total Primary Energy (all fuels) Computers Ventilation Computers Ventilation 3% 3% 2% 4% Space Heating 10% Appliances Appliances 7% Space Heating 7% Electronics 27% 6% Electronics Refrigeration 9% Lighting 8% 2390 TWh 30% 37.6 quads Refrigeration 11% Space Cooling 12% Lighting 21% Space Cooling Water Heating Water Heating 17% 9% 14% 4 Source: Building Technology Program Core Databook, August 2003. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/frame.asp?p=tableview.asp&TableID=509&t=xls 2
  3. 3. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL DOE Solid-State Lighting 5 Thrust – Total Program Guiding technology advances from laboratory to marketplace 5 Accelerated R&D for White Light SSL 200 175 White Light SSL Efficacy (lumens per watt) Laboratory 150 White Light SSL Commercial 125 Conventional Lighting Metal Halide Potential Growth Technologies Pulse start for Conventional 100 Light Sources T-12 ES T-8 lamp 75 T-12 fluorescent 50 Mono LED 25 Mono OLED 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year SSL Laboratory and Commercial Curves, revised May 2006 6 3
  4. 4. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL White-Light LED Efficacy Targets 180 160 140 120 Efficacy (lm/W) 100 80 60 Laboratory Projection- Cool White Commercial Product Projection - Cool White Commercial Product Projection- Warm White 40 Laboratory Foreign Competition- Laboratory Commercial Product- Cool White 20 Foreign Competition - Commercial Product, Cool White Commercial Product, Warm White Foreign Competition - Commercial Product, Warm White 0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Note: Efficacy projections assume CRI=70 → 80, Color temperature = 5000-6000°K, 350ma drive current, and Year 7 lamp-level specification only (driver/luminaire not included), reasonable lamp life. What’s an LED you ask? 8 4
  5. 5. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL How does an LED make Light? 9 LED Types Indicator Illuminator Courtesy: Lumileds 10 5
  6. 6. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL What do LEDs look like? Cree XLamp Philips Lumileds K2 GE Lumination Vio LED Devices 11 What do LEDs look like? Lamina Titan Osram OSTAR LED Packages or Light Engines 12 6
  7. 7. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL What do LEDs look like? Mule Lighting Lighting Sciences Group Enlux LED Drop-in Replacements 13 What do LEDs look like? Lighting Services Inc LumeLEX Color Kinetics iW Blast Integrated LED Systems 14 7
  8. 8. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 15 16 8
  9. 9. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 17 Top 5 Reasons not to own BrightFeet™ Lighted Slippers #5. Theyre not machine washable which means they will never be cleaned during their useful life........ Ewuuuu!!! #4. Do they come with parental controls to prevent your children from using them as flashlights..... outside? #3. Gee.... thats neeeat..... but do they keep your feet warm? #2. Do they come with a strap so that they can be warn on your head for night reading? …. and the #1 reason not to own BrightFeet Slippers: Is it really a good idea to wake up your pet Doberman when all he can see are two "beadie" eyes staring him down??? 18 9
  10. 10. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Myth #1: LEDs create no heat 19 Power Conversion for “White” Light Sources Incandescent† Fluorescent† Metal LED (60W) (Typical linear CW) Halide‡ Visible Light 8% 21 % 27 % 15-25 % Infrared 73 % 37 % 17 % ~0% Ultraviolet 0% 0% 19 % 0% Total Radiant 81 % 58 % 63 % 15-25 % Energy Heat (Conduction + 19 % 42 % 37 % 75-85 % Convection) Total 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % † IESNA Lighting Handbook – 9th Ed. 20 ‡ Osram Sylvania 10
  11. 11. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Light Output vs. Junction Temperature (Tj) 21 Anatomy of an LED 22 11
  12. 12. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Myth #2: LEDs last 100,000 hours (or forever depending on whom you ask!) 23 Traditional Lamp Life Rating Typical lamp mortality curve • Lumen depreciation vs. failure • LED life definition – L70 for general illumination • IESNA LM-80 test procedure in process 24 12
  13. 13. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Light Output over Time Courtesy: LRC 25 Myth #3: LEDs are “White Light” Sources 26 13
  14. 14. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 27 The Visible Spectra 28 14
  15. 15. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 29 CIE 1931 x,y Diagram 30 15
  16. 16. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Daylight Spectra 31 3000K Fluorescent Spectra 32 16
  17. 17. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 5000K Fluorescent Spectra 33 How do LEDs make white light? Courtesy: Lumileds 34 17
  18. 18. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Myth #4: LEDs are more efficient than Fluorescent 35 • “Nichia delivers 92 lm/W at 350 mA” Nov 2006 • “Philips Lumileds shatters 350 mA performance records with 115 lm/W LED” Jan 2007 (R&D result) • “Cree achieves 1000 lumens from a single LED” [ 52 – 72 lm/W] Sep 7, 2007 (R&D result) • “Seoul Semiconductor to launch 420 lumen LED next quarter” [52 lm/W] 36 Sep 19, 2007 18
  19. 19. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Interpreting Industry Announcements • R&D result or commercial product? – “25/25” testing – R&D to market typically 12-24 months • What drive current is assumed? – High output devices are 350 mA to more than 1 Amp – Lower current devices usually ~20 mA • How much total luminous flux per device? • Luminous efficacy in lumens per watt (lm/W) is for LED device only, not including driver or thermal effects • Chip size varies – Makes apples to apples comparison difficult 37 Terms Rated Lamp Lumens Lamp Efficacy = Lamp Input Power Rated Lamp Lumens x BF System Efficacyfluor = Ballast/Driver Input Power Luminaire Light Output Luminaire Efficacy = Ballast/Driver Input Power 38 19
  20. 20. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Candela Curve 0 350 150 10 340 20 100 W Incandescent 330 30 320 40 310 100 50 300 60 290 50 70 280 80 270 0 90 260 100 250 110 240 120 230 130 220 140 210 150 200 160 190 170 180 39 Candela Curve 0 350 150 10 340 20 100 W Incandescent 330 30 Z-LED P4 320 40 Luxeon Batwing 310 100 50 Luxeon Side Emitting 300 60 290 50 70 280 80 270 0 90 260 100 250 110 240 120 230 130 220 140 210 150 200 160 190 170 180 40 20
  21. 21. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Luminaire Efficacy 35 lm/W 41 LED energy efficiency is a function of: LED device efficacy + Thermal management + Driver/power supply efficiency + Luminaire design 42 21
  22. 22. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Efficiency & Quality Trade-offs Color Temperature* Efficacy Color Temperature* Efficacy CRI* Efficacy Heat Efficiency / Output Heat Life / Durability * Phosphor-converted LEDs 43 2007 SSL Competition 44 22
  23. 23. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 2007 SSL Competition • Niche applications – Undercabinet and in-cabinet – Portable desk/task – Outdoor porch, path, step – Recessed downlights • LED luminous efficacy – min requirements – 40 lm/W for < 5000K – 50 lm/W for 5000K + 45 2007 Grand Prize Winner • LR6 by LLF Inc – 11 watts, 600 lumens, 54 lm/W – 2700 K, 92 CRI 46 23
  24. 24. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Winner – Undercabinet • PLS Undercabinet by Finelite – 8 watts, 344 lumens, 43 lm/W – 3500 K, 71 CRI 47 Winner – Portable desk/task • PLS Task by Finelite – 10 watts, 430 lumens, 43 lm/W – 3500 K, 71 CRI 48 24
  25. 25. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Winner – Outdoor • Strata by Progress Lighting – 5 watts, 125 lumens – 25 lm/W – 3200 K, 70 CRI 49 Honorable Mention • Wall sconces by Justice Design Group 50 25
  26. 26. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL ENERGY STAR® v1.0 51 Activities to Date • 1st Draft released December 20, 2006 • Stakeholder meeting February 8, 2007 • 2nd Draft released April 9, 2007 • Final Criteria released September 12, 2007 • ENERGY STAR Lighting Partner Meeting in Phoenix February 25-27, 2008 • Effective date set for September 30, 2008 52 26
  27. 27. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Scope • Excludes OLEDs… for now • Limits coverage to LED systems for “white light” general illumination only • Both commercial and residential • Luminaire efficacy key metric • Establish 2-category specification: – Category A: prescriptive specifications for near-term lighting applications – Category B: performance specification for all applications (long-term) 53 Compact Fluorescent Lighting in America: Lessons Learned on the Way to Market • Valuable lessons – Be aggressive about dealing with technology failures that affect main benefit claims – Know and admit technology limitations – Don’t introduce inferior products; first impressions are long lasting – Accurate incandescent equivalency on packaging is critical – Manufacturers and energy-efficiency groups should coordinate to establish minimum performance requirements • Use to avoid “CFL Part II” • Apply to SSL commercialization path 54 27
  28. 28. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Transitional Two-Category Approach • Approach recognizes rapidly changing technology • Allows early participation of limited range of SSL products for directional lighting applications (Category A) • At some point (~3 years), Category A will be dropped entirely; Category B then becomes basis of criteria Lighting industry is learning the unique issues of applying SSL to general illumination. Going slow allows industry and DOE to learn, and adjust 55 Significant Standard and Test Procedure Activity • Photometric measurements (IESNA LM-79) – In final ballot • Chromaticity (ANSI C78.377a) – In final committee Review/Approval cycle • Lumen Depreciation (Life) (IESNA LM-80) – First draft under development • Driver Standard (ANSI C82.XX1) – In first committee review • Definitions (IESNA RP-16) – In second draft and currently in working group review • UL “Outline of Investigation” 56 28
  29. 29. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Overall Approach • Establish minimum luminaire efficacy – Benchmark to fluorescent • Consistent with current ENERGY STAR lighting criteria – Use IES recommendations wherever possible: Handbook, RP-33-99, etc. – Use ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Lighting sub- committee consensus system efficacy for CFL • 58.8 lm/W • 50 lm/W (lower wattage applications and E* min.) 57 Overall Requirements • Luminaire – CCTs: 8 nominal CCTs – Color Spatial Uniformity: 4-step – Color Maintenance: 7-step – CRI: ≥ 75 for indoor, silent on outdoor – Off-state Power prohibited • Exception for integral controls, limited to 0.5W – 3 Year Warranty – Thermal Management 58 29
  30. 30. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL 59 ANSI C78.377A DRAFT 3.3 (Nov. 22, 2006) Seoul CIE 1931 x,y Chromaticity Diagram - with existing ANSI, "proposed" SSL, LumiLeds old and new color bins for white light 0.46 2500 K 0.44 4000 K "Proposed" 0.42 SSL 0.40 5000 K Cree 0.38 6000 K Seoul y 0.36 ANSI 7000 K LL Old OSRAM Seoul 0.34 Bins LumiLeds Iso-CCT line: ±0.02 Duv 0.32 New Bins Seoul 0.30 0.28 Planckian locus Illuminant A Nichia D65 Daylight Locus K K 0.26 60 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 x 30
  31. 31. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Overall Requirements (cont.) • Modules/Arrays – Lumen depreciation (L70) • Residential Indoor ≥ 25,000 hours • Residential Outdoor and all Commercial ≥ 35,000 hours • Residential Outdoor Luminaires – Attached to buildings and > 13 watts requires photo-control • Power Supplies – Power Factor • ≥ 0.7 Residential ≥ 0.9 Commercial – ≥ 120 Hz Output Operating Frequency 61 Category A: Niche Applications • Directed light applications – Energy efficiency potential due to directional light source – minimize fixtures losses • Source relatively close to illuminated surface • Relatively modest illuminance requirements • Current fixtures ≤ 60% fixture efficiency 62 31
  32. 32. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Niche Applications 1. Undercabinet Kitchen 2. Undercabinet Shelf-mounted Task 3. Portable Desk/Task 4. Recessed Downlights (Res./Com.) 5. Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch 6. Outdoor Step 7. Outdoor Pathway 63 Assumptions for Establishing Luminaire Efficacy CFL Typical Calculated Niche Application System Fixture Luminaire Efficacy Efficiency Efficacy Under-cabinet Kitchen 58.8 40% 24 Under-cabinet Shelf-mounted Task 58.8 50% 29 Portable Task 58.8 50% 29 Recessed Downlight (residential) 58.8 60% 35 Recessed Downlight (commercial) 58.8 60% 35 Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch 58.8 40% 24 Outdoor Step 50 40% 20 Outdoor Pathway 50 50% 25 64 32
  33. 33. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Under-cabinet Kitchen • Minimum Light Output – 125 lumens per lineal foot • Zonal Lumen Density Min. 25% – Min. 60% in 0-60° zone – Min. 25% in 60-90° zone • Luminaire Efficacy – ≥ 24 lm/W Min. 60% • CCTs limited to: 2700, 3000 and 3500K 65 Category A: Under-cabinet Lighting Philips SSL Solutions Osram 66 33
  34. 34. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Under-cabinet Shelf Mounted Task • Minimum Light Output – 125 lumens per lineal foot • Zonal Lumen Density Min. 25% – Min. 60% in 0-60° zone – Min. 25% in 60-90° zone • Luminaire Efficacy Min. 60% – ≥ 29 lm/W • CCTs Limited to – 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000k, 4500K and 5000K 67 Portable Desk Task Lamps • Minimum Light Output – 200 lumens • Zonal Lumen Density – Minimum 85% of total light output within 0-60° zone • Luminaire Efficacy Min. 85% – ≥ 29 lm/W • CCTs Limited to – 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000k, 4500K and 5000K 68 34
  35. 35. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Portable Desk/Task Lighting 6 Watt LED Desk Lamp Halley LED Desk Lamp 69 Recessed Downlights • Minimum Light Output – ≤ 4.5˝ Aperture 345 lm. – > 4.5˝ Aperture 575 lm. • Zonal Lumen Density – Minimum 75% total light output within 0-60° zone • Luminaire Efficacy Min. 75% – ≥ 35 lm/W • Residential CCTs limited to: – 2700K, 3000K and 3500K 70 35
  36. 36. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Recessed Downlights Renaissance Progress Prescolite 71 Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch • Minimum Light Output – 150 lumens • Zonal Lumen Density – Minimum 85% of total light output within 0-90° zone Min.85% • Luminaire Efficacy – ≥ 24 lm/W 72 36
  37. 37. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Outdoor Porch “Lakeland” by Progress Lighting 73 Outdoor Step • Minimum Light Output – 50 lumens • Luminaire Efficacy – ≥ 20 lm/W Min.85% 74 37
  38. 38. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Outdoor Step 75 Outdoor Pathway • Minimum Light Output – 100 lumens (initial) • Zonal Lumen Density – Minimum 85% of total light output within 0-90° zone Minimum 85% • Luminaire Efficacy – ≥ 25 lm/W 76 38
  39. 39. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Category A: Outdoor Pathway 77 Category B: Efficacy Based Performance • Aggressive efficacy requirement: 70 lm/W • Simpler; no total flux or zonal lumen requirements • Allows for non-directional lighting applications • Manufacturers able to qualify under Category B approximately three (3) years after the effective date • Serves as future target for manufacturers 78 39
  40. 40. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL In Situ Testing Requirement • Life (lumen depreciation) determined by in situ temperature measurements of: – Module, Array or “Light Engine” – Power Supply/Driver • Testing may be conducted at the same time as UL 1598. 79 UL 1598 Environments 80 40
  41. 41. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Temperature Measurement Point (TMP) • Manufacturer designated TMP correlating to LM-80 test report or power supply warranty – Module/Array • Case Temperature Tc • Board Temperature Tb – Power Supply • Case Temperature Tc • Could also be Tb for integral Power Supplies 81 Lumen Depreciation Qualification • Option 1: Component Performance – Applicable if: • Module/Array has a current LM-80 test report • Module/Array has a designated TMP • TMP is accessible for in situ measurement – Otherwise manufacturer must use Option 2 • Option 2: Luminaire Performance – Entire luminaire subjected to LM-80 82 41
  42. 42. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Lumen Depreciation Passing Criteria A luminaire passes if the L70 threshold (≥ 25,000 hours for indoor residential and ≥ 35,000 for all others) … – if the in situ measured drive current is the same or lower AND – if the in situ measured TMP for the module/array is the same or lower … than the LM-80 test report provided for the module/array. 83 Sample LM-80 Test Report L70 Courtesy of LRC 84 42
  43. 43. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Quality Assurance Testing • Products selected both on a random basis and through a product nomination process. • (3) samples of each luminaire purchased through normal market channels. • Products tested for: – Total Luminous Flux – Luminaire Efficacy – Correlated Color Temperature – Color Rendering Index – Steady State Module/Array Temperature – Maximum Power Supply Case/TMP Temperature 85 Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program 86 43
  44. 44. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Purposes of CALiPER • Provide objective, high quality performance information • Know performance of market available products – To support R & D planning – To support ENERGY STAR • Inform industry test procedures and standards development • Discourage low quality products • Reduce SSL market risk due to buyer dissatisfaction from products that do not perform as claimed 87 Testing Program Scope Commercially-available SSL products for the general illumination market • Luminaires and replacement lamps (white light) • Indoor and outdoor • Residential and commercial 88 44
  45. 45. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL SSL Luminaire Testing SSL energy efficiency is a • Must measure luminaire function of: as a complete system • Uses ‘absolute photometry’ rather than ‘relative photometry’ LED device Thermal • Based on IESNA draft efficacy + management standard LM-79 – Photometric testing methods under development • Stakeholders are not all Luminaire Driver/power familiar with these new design + supply efficiency + testing paradigms 89 Testing Program Quarterly Process • Product selection & acquisition • Multiple independent test labs • Assembly and analysis of results – Courtesy sharing of results with manufacturers – Retesting options • Publication of results – Summary reports – Detailed test reports – Analyses and studies • “No Commercial Use” Policy 90 45
  46. 46. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Testing Rounds 1-4 Results • 70+ products tested • Focus: overall luminaire performance • Wide range in products & results 91 SSL Downlight Performance Range of Output and CCT of SSL Downlight Products Correlated Color 800 – Different sizes and Output (Lumens) Temperature (CCT) 600 2650-3000K configurations 400 3200-3500K – Different color 200 4000-4500K temperatures 0 5900-8000K – Outputs 4” 3W 6” 6W 30 W 0W R 16W 6” 11W R 12W 6” 14W W 30 W W R 9W W x7 7W W • From 29 to 719 lumens -9 -9 x7 15 6 Tr - 31 15 Tunable -1 -4 -1 - - - ø ø ø - - - - "- "- 30 ø ø ø ø k 30 30 2” .5 • 389 lumens on ac R 6” 6” R 7" PA 5" average 7. – Efficacies Range of Efficacy of SSL Downlight Products • From 11 to 61 lm/W • 28 lm/W on average Efficacy (lumens/W) 70 60 Best = 61 lm/W 50 – CRI 40 • Maximum = 95 30 Average = 28 lm/W 20 • Average = 76 10 Worst = 11 lm/W 0 • 3 RGB products W W W R 16W 0W 1W 2W W W W W 4W R 16W W x7 7W -3 -6 -9 -9 -9 x7 15 Tr - 31 15 -1 -1 -1 -4 -1 ø ø ø - "- - "- 30 30 ø ø ø ø k 30 30 30 2” 4” 6” .5 ac R R 6” 6” 6” 6” R 7" PA 5" 7. 92 46
  47. 47. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Downlight Benchmarking Downlight Comparison: Luminaire Output vs Efficacy for Different Sources 1200 Incandescents & Halogens SSL Downlight Fixtures and Light Output (lumens) Retrofits, 3-40W 1000 CFL SSL SSL R30 Replacement Lamps, 9- 800 17W Downlights with Incandescent BR 600 and A-lamps, 45-75W 400 Downlights with Halogen PAR38 (FL and IR) Lamps, 50-60W 200 Downlights with CFLs (spiral, pin, & reflector), 9-21W 0 0 20 40 60 80 Efficacy (Lumens/Watts) --Values for SSL downlight products are from CALiPER testing. --Values for CFL and incandescents are assembled from CALiPER testing, earlier photometric testing and product catalogs. --Fixture efficiencies are applied to replacement lamp values (factor depends on lamp type). 93 Round 4 Replacement Lamps • T8: Look for direct comparisons with fluorescents in troffers in Round 5 – Respectable performance (42 lm/W), but misleading manufacturer literature • MR16: not quite competing with 20W Halogen MR16 Flood (40° beam angle) – ↑ Efficacy: SSL-MR16 @ 16-27 lm/W > 20W Halogen flood @ 9-19 lm/W – ↓ Output: SSL-MR16 @ 75-133 lm < 20W Halogen flood @ 200-450 lm – ↓ CBCP: SSL-MR16 @ 59-283 cd << 20W Halogen flood @ ~500 cd • Candelabra: Low wattage level, advantage or disadvantage? – No comparably small wattage incandescent products – CFL 5W candelabra rated at 200 lm (40 lm/W), Halogen 25W rated at 280 lm (11 lm/W) Replacement Lamps Power Output Efficacy CCT CRI SSL T8 07-56 25 1058 42 3494 75 SSL MR16, CBCP=283 07-53 3 82 27 3007 74 SSL MR16, CBCP=220 07-59 9 133 16 3338 89 SSL MR16, CBCP=59 07-64 3 75 26 3458 74 SSL Candelabra 07-57 2.2 28 13 2855 71 94 47
  48. 48. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL SSL Task Lamp Performance SSL Task Lights Task lamps tested CFL & Halogen Task Lights 60 • 6 SSL 60 undercabinets, 11 50 SSL desk lamps 50 • 3 fluorescent tube undercabinets, 2 EFFICACY (lm/W) EFFICACY (lm/W) 40 40 CFL desk lamps 30 • 1 halogen desk lamp 30 SSL undercabinets 20 20 • Perform as well or better than 10 fluorescent 10 undercabinets 0 0 Measured Effective SSL desk lamps Measured Effective Luminaire Efficacy • One SSL desk lamp Luminaire Efficacy Efficacy 3 hours on/day rivals CFL energy Efficacy 3 hours on/day star desk lamp • Off-state power use Fluorescent Undercabinets SSL Undercabinets ranges from 0 W to SSL Desk Lamps 2.6 W, reducing CFL Desk Lamps efficacy Halogen Desk Lamps 95 Round 4 Direct Comparisons Same Recessed Wall Fixture, Different Sources Halogen (20W) CFL (13W) LED (12W) Luminaire Output (lm) 174 199 154 Luminaire Efficacy (lm/W) 8 16 10 CCT 3085 3956 5166 CRI 98 77 73 Power Factor 0.99 0.97 0.97 Manufacturer Published Values Recessed Wall Manufacturer Efficacy Calculated CALiPER Measured Brochure Output from Manufacturer Luminaire Efficacy Fixture “Lumens” IES files (lumens/W) (lumens/W) Halogen (20W) 350 8 8 CFL (13W) 900 19 16 LED (12W) 195 5 10 96 48
  49. 49. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Rounds 1-4 Key Conclusions • Results include a wide range of products with a wide range of performance. – Be careful not to generalize. • Product literature not always consistent, not always reliable – Be informed. Request luminaire testing results. Round 1-4 products designed from 2005-2007, showing some now clearly rival traditional sources Great promise for upcoming generation of SSL luminaires 97 More Info on CALiPER • Via website – Summary reports – Detailed reports • Must be requested via web form • Requestor’s contact information must be provided • Must agree to adhere to ‘No Commercial Use Policy’ http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/comm_testing.htm PNNL-SA-58822 98 49
  50. 50. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Questions YOU Should Ask if you are considering LED Lighting • Show me the lumens! • Ask for test reports (LM-79, LM-80, etc.) • Is blue is the new white? • Ask how they manage heat • Is your product ENERGY STAR® labeled? • You want how much for that thing? 99 DOE Solid-State Lighting Website • Current information on SSL program, progress, and events • SSL publications: roadmaps, reports, technical fact sheets • Solicitations • Register for ongoing SSL UPDATES at: www.netl.doe.gov/ssl 100 50
  51. 51. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL DOE Fact Sheets 101 Fact Sheets • Application series: – Recessed – Undercabinet – Portable desk/task • Luminaire efficacy • SSL Standards • What other topics would you like to see? 102 51
  52. 52. Kelly Gordon January 17, 2006PNNL Questions? Jeff McCullough Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (509) 375-6317 jeff.mccullough@pnl.gov DOE SSL Website: www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/ 103 52

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