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Ii properties of reinforced concrete

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Ii properties of reinforced concrete

  1. 1. T.Chhay NPIC II.lkçN³énebtugGarem: 1> ktþaC³T§iBldl;ersIusþg;ebtug CaTUeTAebtugCasMPar³ EdlekItBIkarrYmpSMeLIgeday fμbMEbk xSac; sIum:g;t¾ nigTwk EtkñúgkrNIxøH Rb ePTepSg²énTwkfñaMKImIk¾RtUv)anbEnßmedIm,IehtuplepSg². sMPar³TaMgenH)anlaypSMKña rYcRtUv)ancak;cUl kñúgBum< TukeGaykkrwgedIm,IeGayersIusþg;rbs;vaekIneLIgCabnþbnÞab;. ersIusþg;rbs;ebtugvaGaRs½yeTAelI ktþaCaeRcIn ehIyvaGacERbRbYlsMrab;karplitdUcKña. ktþacMbgsMxan;²EdlCHT§iBldl;ersIusþg;ebtugman³ - pleFobTwk-sIum:g;t¾ (water-cement ratio)³ vaCaktþaEdlsMxan;CageK EdlCHT§iBleTAelIersIusþg; rbs;ebtug. edIm,IsMercnUvGIuRdakmμrbs;sIum:gt¾ pleFobTwk-sIum:g;t¾ EdlRtUvkarcM)ac;RtUvesIμnwg 0.25 KitCa m:as;;. pleFobTwk-sIum:g;t¾ EdlmantMélFMCag b¤esμInwg 0.35 edayKμanlayTwkfñaMKImI RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;eb tugedIm,ImUlehtugayRsYleFVIkar. enAeBlEdl pleFobTwk-sIum:g;t¾ mantMélkan;EtFM enaHersIusþg;ebs;eb tugkan;EtmantMéltUc. - lkçN³ nigsmamaRténsmasPaBénebtug³ ebtugCakarrYmpSMeLIgeday fμbMEbk xSac; sIum:g;t¾ nig Twk. karekIneLIgnUvbrimaNebtug nigkareRbIR)as;nUvfμbMEbkEdlmanlkçN³ÉksNæan eFVIeGayersIusþg;eb tugekIneLIg. TwkfñaMKImIBIessk¾RtUv)anbEnßmedIm,IplitnUvebtugEdlmanKuNPaB nigersIusþg;tamtMrUvkar. - viFIlay nigkarEfTaM³ kareRbIR)as;nUvm:asIunlayebtug nigry³eBlRtwmRtUvkñúgkarlaysuT§EtCYysM ralnUvT§iBlEdlb:HBal;dl;ersIusþg;ebtug. dUcKña kareRbIR)as;nUvm:asIunbgðab;ebtug vibrator edIm,IeFVIeGay ebtughab;ENn CYyeGayPaKryrn§es<atkñúgebtugXiteTArktMélGb,brma. pleFobrn§es<at 5% eFVIeGay ersIusþg;ebtugFøak;cuH 30% . karEfTaMebtugk¾CaktþamYyd¾sMxan;EdlmanT§iBlelIersIusþg;rbs;ebtugEdr. TaMgsMeNIm nigsIutuNðPaBsuT§EtmanT§iBledaypÞal;eTAelIGIuRdatkmμrbs;sIum:g;t¾. ry³eBlénkarmansM eNImkan;EtEvg ersIusþg;kan;EtekIneLIg. RbsinebIsItuNðPaBkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarEfTaMekInx<s;CagsItuNð- PaBkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarcak;ebtug CalT§plebtugmanersIusþg;tamtMrUvkarmun 28éf¶ . - Gayuebtug³ ersIusþg;rbs;ebtugekIneLIgtamGayurbs;va ehIyGIuRdakmμrbs;sIum:g;t¾enAEtbnþrab;Ex. kñúgkarGnuvtþ ersIusþg;ebtugRtUv)ankMNt;edaykaeeFVIBiesaFn¾eTAelIsMNakKMrUragsIuLaMg b¤KIb enAGayu 7éf¶ nig28éf¶. CaTUeTA ersIusþg;rbs;ebtugenAGayu 28éf¶esμInwg 1.3dgeTA 1.7dgénersIusþg;ebtugenAGayu 7éf¶ . sMrab;sIum:g;t¾B½rElnFmμta ersIusþg;ekIneLIgtameBledayeFobnwgersIusþg;enAGayu 28éf¶RtUv)anbgðajkñúgta ragxageRkam³ Properties of Reinforced Concrete 10
  2. 2. Department of Civil Engineering viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa Gayu 7 éf¶ 14éf¶ 28 éf¶ 3 Ex 6 Ex 1 qñaM 2 qñaM 5 qñaM pleFobersIusþg; 0.67 0.86 1 1.17 1.23 1.27 1.31 1.35 - lkçxNÐénkardak;bnÞúk³ ersIusþg;ebtugrgkarsgát; RtUv)ankMNt;edaykarBiesaFn_karsgát;bMEbksM NakKMrUragsIuLaMg b¤KUbkñúgry³eBlBIr bInaTI. eRkamGMeBIénbnÞúkdEdl²rab;qñaM ersIusþg;ebtugRtUv)ankat; bnßyRbEhl 30% . eRkamGMeBIénbnÞúkdEdl² 1 éf¶ersIusþg;ebtug)at;bg;RbEhl 10% . kñúgkrNIEdl rcnasm<n§½rgnUvbnÞúkdEdl² GMeBIDINamic nigGMeBIbHTgÁic vaRtuv)aneKykmkBicarNakñúgkarKNnaeRKOgbgÁúM : ebtugGarem:. - rUbrag nigxñatrbs;sMNakKMrU³ xñatTUeTArbs;sMNakKMrUebtugEdleKeRbIsMrab;TsSn_TaynUversIusþg;eb tugGarem:KW ragsIuLaMgEdlmanGgát;p©it 15cm nigkMBs; 30cm nigragKUbEdlmanRTnug 15cm . enAeBl EdleKyksMNakKMrUragsIuLaMgmkeFVIBiesaFn_EdlmanxñatepSgKña eKsegáteXIjfaxñatkan;EtFM ersIusþg;kan; EtFøak;. xageRkamCataragbgðajBIersIusþg;rbs;sMNakKMrUebtugbTdæanEdlmankMBs;esμInwg BIrdgGgát;p©it eFobnwgxñat 15cm × 30cm . xñatsIuLaMg cm ersIusþg;eFob 5× 10 1.09 10 × 20 1.06 15× 30 1.00 20 × 40 0.96 30 × 60 0.91 45 × 90 0.86 60 × 120 0.84 90 × 180 0.82 eBlxøHsMNakKMrUragsIuLaMgbTdæanminRtUv)anykmkeFIVkarBiesaFn_. pleFobkMBs;-Ggát;p©itrbs; sMNakKMrUkan;EtFM ersIusþg;kan;EtTabtamkarkt;sMKal;BIkareFVIBiesaFn_. edIm,ITTYl)annUversIusþg;smmUl eTAnwgersIusþg;sMNakKMrUbTdæaneKRtUvKuNnwgemKuNkMEn EdlmanbgðajkñúgtaragxageRkam³ pleFobkMBs;-Ggát;p©it 2 1.75 1.5 1.25 1.1 1 0.75 0.5 emKuNkMEnersIusþg; 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.7 0.5 ersIusþg;eFobnwgsMNakKMrUbTdæan 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.11 1.18 1.43 2.00 TMnak;TMngersIusþg;énsMNakKMrUragsIuLaMg nigragKUbsMrab;ersIusþg;rgkarsgát;epSg² bgðajkñúgtarag xageRkam³ lkçN³énebtugGarem: 11
  3. 3. T.Chhay NPIC ersIusþg;rgkarsgát; 7 15.5 20 24.5 27 34.5 37 41.5 45 51.5 2 N / mm pleFobersIusþg; 0.77 0.76 0.81 0.87 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.96 sMNaksIuLaMg-sMNakKUb CaTUeTAeKsnμt; f ' (cylinder) = 0.85 f ' (cube) = 1.1 f ' ( prisme) c c c 2> ersIusþg;rgkarsgát; kñúgkarKNna eK)ansnμt;faebtugCasar³FatuEdlrgnUvkugRtaMgsgát; minEmnkugRtaMgTaj. dUcenH ersIusþg;rgkarsgát;CalkçN³vinicäy½KuNPaBrbs;ebtug. sMNakKMrUsMrab;ykmkeFVIkarBiesaFn_manTMrg;Ca sIuLaMg KUb nigRBIs. sMNakKMrUEdlmanTMrg; KUbEdlmanRTnug 15cm b¤ 20cm RtUv)aneKeRbIenA cRkPBGg;eKøs GaLWm:g; nigEpñkxøHrbs;GWr:ub. sMNakKMrURBIs RtUv)aneRbIenARbeTs)araMg rusSI nigRbeTsdéTeTot ehIyCaTUeTAmanmuxkat; 7 × 7 × 30 b¤ 10 × 10 × 50 edayeKykvaeTAsgát;epþk. muneKykvaeTABiesaFn_ sMNakKMrURtUv)aneKEfTaMedaysMeNIm nigykeTABiesaFn_enAGayu 28 éf¶ edayGnuvtþbnÞúkekIneLIgrhUtdl;vaEbk. karEbkrbs;ebtugGacekIteLIgedaysar kugRtaMgTaj kugRtaMgkat; kugRtaMgsgát; b¤bnSMénkugRtaMgTaMgenH. karEbkrbs;sMNakKMrUebtugmanbIy:agdUcxageRkam³ a. eRkamGMeBIénkMlaMgsgát;tamGkS½ sMNakKMrUGacEbkedaykMlaMgkat; b. sMNakKMrU)anEbkedaymanlkçN³CaCYr² dUcCaeRcok. karEbkEbbenH ekIteLIgEtcMeBaHebtug EdlmanersIusþg;x<s; c. ekIteLIgedaysarbnSMénkMlaMgkat; nigkMlaMgeRcok. Properties of Reinforced Concrete 12
  4. 4. Department of Civil Engineering viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa 3> ersIusþg;rgkarTaj ebtugCasMPar³RsYy EdlvamanminGacRbQmnwgkugRtaMgTaj)an ehIyvaRtUv)aneKykmkBicarNa sMrab;bBaðaeRbH kMlaMgkat; nigkMlaMgrmYl. karBiesaFn_edaypÞal;elIersIusþg;rgkarTajminGaceFVIeTA)an edaykartMrg;min)anl¥ nigbBaða ]bkrN_sMrab;cab;. dUcenHkarBiesaFn_edayminpÞal; edIm,IQaneTAkMNt;ersIusþg;rgkarTajman karBiesaFn_ edayeRcok nigkarBiesaFn_edaykarkac;bM)ak;. karBiesaFn_edayeRcok RtUv)aneFVIelIsMNakKMrUragsIuLaMgbTdæan 15× 30cm . sMNakKMrURtUv)andak; epþk rYceRbIkMlaMgsgát;elIkþaRTnab;rhUtdl;eRcokEbkCaBIrbMENk. karBiesaFn_edaykac;bM)ak; RtUv)aneFVIeLIgelIsMNakKMrUragRBIs 15 ×15 × 70cm dak;KgelITMrEdl mancMgay 60cm BIKña ehIyeKeRbIbnÞúkedIm,Ikac;bM)ak;BIr EdlmancMgay 10cm BIGkS½. CaTUeTAersIusþg;rgkarTajmantMélesμInwg 10% énersIusþg;rgkarsgát; mann½yfaersIusþg;rgkarTaj tUcCagersIusþg;rgkarsgát; 10 dg. 4> ersIusþg;rgkarkat; kMlaMgkat;suT§kMrnwgCYbRbTHenAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMebtugGarem: eRBaHCaTUeTAvaEtgekIteLIgeRkamGMeBIén kMlaMgtamGkS½. eRKOgbgÁúMEdlrgnUvkMlaMgkat;suT§KW)ak;CaBIrEpñk. dUcenHeRKOgbgÁúMebtugRtUvEtrwgRKb;RKan; edIm,ITb;nwgkMlaMgkat;. ersIusþg;rgkarkat;RtUv)anKitedaymantMélFMCag 20% → 30% énersIusþg;rgkarTaj b¤esμInwg 12% énersIusþg;rgkarsgát;. 5> m:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;ebtug m:UDuleGLasÞic CalkçN³emkanicd¾sMxan;mYyrbs;ebtug Edl)anBIkarBiesaFn_karsgát;elIsMNakKM rYragsIuLaMg. m:UDuleGLasÞic)anBIpleFobrvagkugRtaMg nigbMErbMrYlrageFob. unit stress Ec = unit strain xageRkamCarUbmnþsamBaØsMrab;karKNna m:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;ebtug Ec = 0.043w1.5 f 'c Edl - m:as;maDrbs;ebtug w f ' - ersIusþg;rgkarsgát;sMNakKMrUsIuLaMg c kñúgkrNI w = 2320kg / m eK)an 3 lkçN³énebtugGarem: 13
  5. 5. T.Chhay NPIC Ec = 4700 f 'c 6> emKuNBr½sug b¤pleFobBr½sug emKuNBr½sug μ CapleFobrvagbMErbMrYlragtamTTwg nigbMErbMrYltambeNþay. emKuNenHERbRbYl cenøaHBI 0.15 → 0.20 . emKuNBr½sugRtUv)aneKeRbIsMrab;rcnasm<n§½sþaTicminkMNt;. CaTUeTAsMrab;ebtug eK )ankMNt;ykemKuNBr½sugmFümEdlmantMélesμI 0.18 . 7> m:UDulénPaBrwg b¤m:UDulkMlaMgkat; m:UDulénPaBrwgrbs;ebtugRtUv)ankMNt;edaysmIkarxageRkam³ Ec Gc = 2(1 + μ ) RbsinebI μ = 1 ⇒ G 6 c = 0.43Ec 8> pleFobm:UDul pleFobm:UDul n CapleFobrvagm:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;Edk nigm:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;ebtug. Es n= Ec edaym:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;EdkmantMélefr E = 200000MPa s ehIym:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;ebtugGaRs½ynwgersIusþg;rgkarsgát; E c = 4700 f 'c ⇒n= 42 f' Edl f ' KitCa MPa . c c 9> bMErbMrYlmaDrbs;ebtug ebtugTTYlnUvkarERbRbYlmaDkñúgxN³eBlkkrwg. RbsinebIva)at;sMeNImedaysarrMhYt varYmmaD. b:uEnþRbsinebIvakkrwgkñúgTwk vanwgrIkmaD. ktþaénkarERbRbYlmaDebtug naMeGayekItmankarERbRbYlsMeNIm RbtikmμKImIrvagsIum:g;t¾ nigTwk bMErbMrYlsItuNðPaB nigrgnUvbnÞúk. k> karrYmmaD bMErbMrYlmaDebtugEdlrwg minesμInwgmaDTwkEdl)an)at;bg;enaHeT. rMhYténTwkesrIbegáItnUvkarrYm maDd¾tictYcbMputesÞIrEtKμan. edaysarEtebtugbnþkarkkrwg TWkRtUv)anhYt ehIymaDénTwksIum:g;t¾ERbRbYl bNþaleGayebtugrYmmaD. ktþCaeRcInEdlCHT§iBldl;karrYmmaDrbs;ebtug bNþalmkBIbMErbMrYllkçxNÐsMeNIm³ Properties of Reinforced Concrete 14
  6. 6. Department of Civil Engineering viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa -brimaNsIum:g;t¾ nigTwk³ enAkñúgsmamaRténkarlayebtug kalNabrimaNsIum:g;t¾ nigTwkkan;Et eRcIn karrYmmaDkan;EtxøaMg. - smasPaB nigPaBm:g;pg;rbs;sIum:g;t¾³ sIum:g;t¾ersIusþg;eLIgx<s;qab; nigsIum:g;t¾kMedAtic mankarrYm maDxøaMgCagsIum:g;t¾Br½ElnFmμta. sIum:g;t¾EdlmanlkçN³m:t;pg;Cag rIkmaDCageRkamlkçxNÐ sMeNIm. - RbePT brimaN nigcMNat;fñak;fμbMEbk³ TMhMénfμbMEbkkan;EttUc rYmmaDkan;EtxøaMg. brimaNfμbM Ebkkan;EteRcIn rYmmaDkan;Etkat;bnßy. - TwkfñaMKImI³ TwkfñaMKImIEdlCYyeGayebtugkan;Etrav eFVIeGayebtugkan;EtrYmmaD. - brimaNEdkkñúgebtug³ edaysarkarrYmmaDekItelIeRKOgbgÁúMebtugGarem: kugRtaMgTaj)anekItelI ebtug ehIyamantMélesμIKñanwgkugRtaMgsgát;EdlekItmanelIEdk. kugRtaMgTaMgenHRtUv)anbEnßm ehIykøayeTACabnÞúk. dUcenH sñameRbHGacekItmanenAkñúgebtug enAeBlNaEdleKeRbIPaKry EdkeRcIn. karBRgayEdk)anl¥ naMeGaymankarEbgEckkugRtaMgTajkñúgebtug)anl¥ CYykat; bnßybMErbMrYlkugRtaMgxagkñúg. CaTUeTA ebtugrYmmaDxøaMgkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarcab;epþImkarkkrwgdMbUg b:uEnþeRkaymkkarrYmmaDenH RtUv)ankat;bnßy. tMélénkarrYmmaDsrubsMrab;ebtugFmμtaERbRbYlBI 200 ×10 → 700 ×10 . RbsinebI −6 −6 eRKOgbgÁúMmanTMrbgáb;sgçag kugRtaMgTajekIneLIgRbEhl 10MPa . RbsinebIebtugRtUv)anEfrkSasMeNIm Cab;lab;kñúg ry³eBlmYyc,as;las;eRkayeBlcak; karrYmmaDRtUv)ankat;bnßy. dUcenHvaCakarsMxan;Nas; EdleKRtUv karEfTaMebtugsMrab;ry³eBlmYymineGayticCag 7 éf¶. x> karrIkmaDedaykarekIneLIgénkMedA ebtugrIkmaDCamYynwgkarekIneLIgénkMedA ehIyrYmmaDCamYynwgkarfycuHénkMedA. emKuNlUt kMedArbs;ebtugmantMélRbEhl α = 10 −5 mm mann½yfaeRKOgbgÁúMmYymanRbEvg 30m lUt)an 10mm o c sMrab;bMErbMrYlkMedA 33 c . RbsinebIeRKOgbgÁúMEdlmanTMrsgçag ehIymin)anBRgwgedayEdk kugRtaMg o RbEhl 7MPa GacekIteLIg. sMrab;rcnasm<n§½ebtugGarem:EdlmanRbEvgEvg eKRtUveFVItMNrsMrab;karrIkmaD expansion joint ral;RbEvg 30m → 60m mYy. tMNrenHmanTMhMRbEhl 25mm . 10> Creep KWCakMhUcRTg;RTayrbs;ebtugeRkamvtþmanénbnÞúk. kMhUcRTg;RTayenHekIneLIgeTAtamry³ Creep eBlénkardak;bnÞúk. lkçN³énebtugGarem: 15
  7. 7. T.Chhay NPIC 11> m:as;maDebtug m:as;maDrbs;ebtugFmμtakkrwgEdleRbIR)as;sMrab;GKar nigrcnasm<n§½epSg²eToGaRsy½eTAelI karlay TMhMnigcMNat;fñak;fμbMEbk pleFobTwk-sIum:g;t¾ nigersIusþg;rbs;ebtug. xageRkamCam:as;maDebtug EdleKGacykmkBicarNa³ - m:as;maDebtugsuT§EdleRbIfμbMEbkTMhM 20mm ERbRbYlcenøaHBI 2320 → 2400kg / m . sMrab;ebtug 3 EdlmanersIusþg;ticCag 280kg / cm = 28MPa tMél 2320kg / m GacRtUv)anykmkeRbI. sMrab;ebtug 2 3 EdlmanersIusþg;FMCagenH m:as;maDebtugmantMél 2400kg / m GacRtUv)anykmkeRbI. 3 - m:as;maDebtugsuT§EdleRbIfμbMEbkTMhM 100mm → 150mm ERbRbYlcenøaHBI 2400 → 2560kg / m . 3 tMélmFümesμInwg 2480kg / m GacRtUv)anykmkeRbI. 3 - m:as;maDebtugGarem: EdlmanPaKryEdk 0.7% → 1.5% mantMélRbEhl 2400kg / m . sMrab; 3 ebtugGarem:EdlmanPaKryEdleRcInCagenH m:as;maDrbs;ebtugRtUv)aneKsnμt;RbEhl 2500kg / m . 3 - m:as;maDebtugRsalERbRbYlBI 320 → 1440kg / m 3 - m:as;maDebtugF¶n;ERbRbYlBI 3200 → 4300kg / m 3 12> RbePTEdkeRbIkñúgebtug EdkEdleRbIenAkñúgebtug manCaeRcInRbePTEdlRtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;dUcxageRkam³ - EdkmUl (round bars)³ EdkmUlRtUv)aneRbIy:agTUlMTUlayenAkñúgebtug. Ggát;p©itrbs;EdkmUlEdl eKGacrk)anenAelITIpSamancab;BI 6mm dl; 36mm bUkrYmCamYynwgGgát;p©itBiessBIrRbePTeTot KW 45mm nig 57mm . GaRsy½edayépÞxagrbs;vaeKEbgEckvaCaBIrRbePTeTotKW Edkrelag (plain bars) nigEdkfñaMgGMeBA (deformed bars). CaTUeTA EdkrelagRtUv)aneKeRbICa EdkEdlmantYnaTITI2 (secondary reinforcement) b¤CaEdkkg (stirrups and ties). EdkfñaMgGMeBARtUv)aneKpliteLIgCa BiessedIm,IbegáInPaBs¥itrvagebtug nigsrésEdk ehIykat;bnßynUvTTwgsñameRbHrbs;ebtugkñúg tMbn;rgkMlaMgTaj. Ggát;p©itrbs;Edkrelag Gacvas;)anedayRsYl EtsMrab;EdkfñaMgGMeBA Ggát;p©itrbs;vaeKkMNt;eday ykGgát;p©itrbs;rgVg;Edk Edl)anBImuxkat;rbs;va. épÞxageRkArbs;EdkfñaMgGMeBAmansNæanCaeRcIn RbePTEdlmanbgðajkñúgrUbxageRkam. Properties of Reinforced Concrete 16
  8. 8. Department of Civil Engineering viTüasßanCatiBhubec©keTskm<úCa - EdksMNaj; (Welded fabrics and mats)³ EdksMNaj;manCaeRcInes‘rIeTAtamRbEvgEdkTTwg nig EdkbeNþay. CaTUeTAvaRtUv)aneKpSaedaydak;EdkbeNþay nigEdkTTwgeGayEkgKñaRtg;kEnøgkat; Kña. muxkat;Edk (mm) épÞmuxkat;Edk (cm )2 TMgn; (kg / m) brimaRt (cm) RB6 0.28 0.222 1.89 RB8 0.64 0.499 2.83 DB12 1.13 0.888 3.77 DB16 2.01 1.58 5.03 DB20 2.84 2.23 5.97 DB25 4.91 3.85 7.86 DB28 6.16 4.83 8.80 DB32 8.04 6.31 10.06 - kabeRbkugRtaMg (Prestressed concrete wires and strands)³ kabeRbkugRtaMgCaRbePTEdkBiess EdlmanersIusþg;x<s;. kabEdlersIusþg;rgkMlaMgTajx<s;manGgát;p©itCaTUeTA 5mm nig 7 mm RtUv )aneKykmkbegáItCakabeRbkugRtaMg EdlmankabxageRkAR)aMmYyBT§½CMuvij kabmYyEdlmanGgát; p©itFMCag. ersIusþg;rbs;kabeRbkugRtaMgGtibrmamantMél 1750MPa b¤ 1890 MPa . m:UDuleGLasÞicrbs;srésEdk eTaHrgkarTajkþI rgkarsgát;kþI eKkMNt;yk E = 2 ×10 MPa . em s 5 KuNlUtkMedArbs;srésEdkeKyk α = 10 mm / c dUcemKuNlUtkMedArbs;ebtugEdr. −5 o lkçN³énebtugGarem: 17
  9. 9. T.Chhay NPIC Properties of Reinforced Concrete 18

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