Construction work

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Construction work

  1. 1. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC matika CMBUk 1³ esckþIepþIménkarsagsg; 1>GñkcUlrYmkñúgkarsagsg; 1>1 m©as;sMNg; 1>2 viC¢aCIv³KUrbøg; 1>3 viC¢aCIv³sagsg; 1>4 Gñkemkar 2> viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIkugRta¬kic©snüa¦ 2>1 viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIkugRta ¬kic©snüa¦ 2>2 viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIkic©snüaTUeTA 2>3 viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIkic©snüabMEbk 2>4 viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIkic©snüatamEbbtMkl;R)ak;kk;Camun 2>5 viFIsa®sþRKb;RKgGñksagsg; CMBUk 2³ sMNg;beNþaHGasnñ 1> GaKarbeNþaHGasnñ 1>1 rbgbeNþaHGasnñ 1>2 kariyal½ykñúgkardæan 1>3 karrkSaTuksuIm:g; 1>4 karpÁt;pÁg;zamBlGKÁisnI 2> TisedAkargarbeNþaHGasnñ 2>1 kEnøgedA (Bench Mark) 2>2 karsagsg;ka)arI 3> GMBIrnÞa 3>1 rnÞaEdk 3>2 karGnuvtn_tMelIgrnÞa  Construction Work -1-
  2. 2. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk 3³ karsikSaGMBIdI 1>TMrg;énkarxYgdI 1>2 RbePTénkarxYgdI 1>3 rUbFatuéndI 1>4 TMrg;xYgdI 1>5> viFIsa®sénkarxYgdI 2> karxYgdIRsTab;xageRkam 2>1 RbePTénkarxYgdI 3> viFIsa®sþénkarTTYlykdIsMrab;sagsg; 3>1RbePTnig rcnasm<½n§énkarrkSaTukdI 4> m:asuInkaydI 4>1 Rtak;T½rcUkdI 4>2 Backacters 4>3 Rtak;T½rkaydI (Draglines) 4>4 b‘uldUehSór (Bulldozer) 4>5 Rtak;T½rBRgabdI (scrapers) 4>6 Rtak;T½rekordI (Graders) 5> karRtYtBiinitüTwkeRkamdI 5>1 karbg¥ÚrTwkCaRbcaM 5>2 karbg¥ÚrTwkbeNþaHGasnñ 5>3 karbUmTwkedayeRbIb:um 5>4 kar)aj;TwkbeBa©j 5>5 Well pointk 6> viFIsa®sþkñúgkareFVIeGaydIkardæansagsg;RbesIreLIg 6>1 viFIsa®sþkñúgkarpøas;bþÚrdI Construction Work -2-
  3. 3. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 6>2 viFIsa®sþkñúgkaredaHTwkecj 6>3 viFIsa®sþkñúgkarBRgwgkardæan 6>4 karcak;bBa©ÚlTwksuIm:g; 6>5 kMedA 6>6 Geosynthetics 7> karsagsg;RKwH 7>1 RbePTénRKwH 7>2 RbePTénRKwHbuk CMBUk 4³ ebtug 1> sésBRgwg 1>1 karBRgwgedaysésEdk 1>2 sMNaj;Edk 1>3 viFIsa®sþkñúgkarrkSaTuk nigsnSMsMécsésEdk 1>4 rebobplitsésEdk 1>5 kareRbIR)as;sésEdk 1>7 TItaMg nigkMras;énRsTab;ebtug 1>8 kartMelIgsésEdk 1>9 karGnuvtþtMelIgsésEdk 2> kargarBum< 2>1 eKalbMNgénkargarBum< 2>2 ktþaEdlRbugRbytñ½ nigcaM)ac;cMeBaHkargarBum< 2>3 bMrugRby½tñkñúgkartMelIgBum< 2>4 sMPar³EdlcaM)ac;kñúgkargarBum< 2>5 RTg;RTag nigsMBaFxagénBum< 2>6 bnÞúk nigsMBaFxagénBum< Construction Work -3-
  4. 4. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 2>7 viFIsa®sþkñúgkartMelIgBum< 2>8 ry³eBlénkarTl;Bum< 3> kargarebtug 3>1 suIm:g;FmμCati 3>2 karviPaKsuIm:g; 3>3 RbePT nigKuNPaBrbs;suIm:g;Biess 4> GaMBIxSac;/ fμ RKYs nig Twk 4>1 GaRKIeKðt ¬xSac; fμ nigRKYs¦ 4>2 GMBITwk 5> karbEnßm Admixture 5>1 Pñak;garskmμBIeRkA 5>2 kareFVIeGay admixtureRbesIeLIgtamEbbFmμCati 6> karlayebtug 6>1 bTdæankñúgkarlay 6>2 bec©keTskñúgkarlay 6>3 lMdab;énkarlay CMBUk 5 rcnasm<½n§Edk 1>karsagsg;rcnasm<n§½Edk 1>1 EpnkartMelIgeRKagEdk 1>2 sMPar³ 1>3 rebobtMelIeRKagEdkenAeragcRk 2> rebobeFVICeNþIr 2>1 Shop drawing and full size drawing 3> kartP¢ab; 3>1 kartP¢ab;eday Revet Construction Work -4-
  5. 5. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>2 kartP¢ab;edaymin 3>3 kartP¢ab;edayeRbIRtecok Edk 3>4 kartP¢ab;edaymintg;süúgx<s; 3>5 kartP¢ab;edaybnSa 4> kargarenAelIkardæan 4>1 kartMelIgeRKagEdk 4>2 viFIbgáb; b¤bBa©úHrnuk yufáa 4>3 karcak;l,ayenAEpñkxagelIénRKwH 5> RbePTEdkesþIg ¬Rsal¦ 5>1 rcnasm<n§½EdkesþIg 5>2 lkçN³rbs;EdkesþIg 6> rcnasm<½n§EdkTIb 6>1 karplitEdkTIbesþIg 7> viFIsa®sþTb;Tl;nig cMehHénrcnasm<½n§Edk 7>1 viFIlabeday)aj; 7>2 viFIlabedaycak;bgðÚr 7>3 viFIebok 7>4 viFIvayP¢ab;edaybnÞH)aøsÞic CMBUk 6 kargarCagkMe)ar 1> kargarCagkMe)ar 1>1 RbePTéndæ 1>2 TMhMéndæ 1>3 l,ay 1>4 cMNat;fñak;éndæsMrab;erobCBa¢aMg Construction Work -5-
  6. 6. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>5 kargarerobdæ 1>6 viFIsa®sþkñúgkargarerobdæRKb;EpñkTaMgGs;énGaKar 1>7 lMdab;TUeTAénkargarCagsMNg; 2> karsagsg;dæsuIm:g; 2>1 cMNat;fñak;éndæsuIm:g; 2>2 sMPar³ 2>3 lMdab;TUeTAénkarerobdæsuIm:g; 2>4 cMNat;fñak;énkarsagsg;dæsuIm:g; 3> karerobdækar:U 3>1 KuNPaBrYmpSMBiesssMrab;KuNPaBkar:U 3>2 RbePTénkar:U 3>3 bMrugRby½tñenAkñúgkargarkar:U 3>4 viFIsa®sþkñúgkarerobdækar:U 3>5 viFITb;Tl; nigkargarsMGat 3>6 karRtYtBinitübBa©b; CMBUk 7³ sMNg;GMBIeQI 1> sMPar³ 1>1 lkçN³éneQI 1>2 rdUvkaléneQI 2> bMENgEckéneQI 2>1 karEbgEcktMbn;eRbIR)as; 2>2 karEbgEcktamTMhMnig sþg;dar 3> sMPar³epSgEdleRbIR)as;CamYyeQI 3>1 kareRbIR)as;bBa©ÚlKña Construction Work -6-
  7. 7. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>2 EdksMrab;BRgwg 4> karRbtibtþi 4>1 rebobGnuvtþtamlMdab; 4>2 GMBIkargarbBa©b; 4>3 kargarBum< 5> kargartMelIg 5>1 TVarnig bg¥Üc 5>2 ssr 5>3 CnÞúl 5>4 eCIgcK 5>5 Fñwm 5>6 kþarCBa¢aMg 5>7 emBRgwg CMBUk 8³ karTb;Tl;nig CMrabTwk 1> viFIsa®sþnig cMNat;fñakénCMrabTwk 1>1 karTb;Tl;nig CMrabTwkedayTwkxøÜnÉg 1>2 Pñas;karBarmineGayRCabTwk 1>3 karkarBarCMrabTwk cMeBaHvtßúravedayPñas; 2> viFIsa®sþ nigcMNat;fñak;énkarTb;Tl;nigCMrabTwk 2>1 karTb;Tl;nig CMrabTwkCBa¢aMgEpñkxageRkA 2>2 karTb;Tl; nigCMrabTwkEpñktMbUl 2>3 karTb;Tl;nig CMrabTwktambnÞb; 3> cMNat;fñak;énkareRbIR)as;sMPar³ 3>1 karkarBarCMrabTwkedayeRbIGasñal; Construction Work -7-
  8. 8. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>2 karTb;Tl;nigCMrabTwkedayeRbITwksuIm:g; 3>3 rebobdak;sMPar³ karBarCMrabTwk 3>4 kareRbobeFob TwksuIm:g; nig Gasñal;kñúgkarkarBarCMrabTwk CMBUk 9³ kargarbBa©b; 1> kargarbUk 1>1 sMPar³EdllayCamYyTwk 1>2 sMPar³EdlminlayCamYyTwk 1>3 lkçN³ nigkarEbgEcksMPar³sMrab;bUk 1>4 karlay 1>5 karGnuvtþn_ 1>6 karsMGatedayRcas 1>7 karRtYtBinitüsñameRbH 2> kargarlab 2>1 sMPar³ 2>2 épÞsMrab;lab Construction Work -8-
  9. 9. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk 1³ esckþIepþIménkarRbtibtþisagsg; Construction Work -9-
  10. 10. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1> GñkcUlrYmkñúgkarsagsg; 1>1 PaKIm©as;sMNg; m©as;sMNg; GacnwgeFVIkarEsVgyl;edayxøÜnÉgGMBlMenAdæankñúgkarrIkcMerIneLIgénsmaCikRkumRKYsar I b¤Rkumh‘unk¾dUcKñapgEdr edIm,IeqøItbeTAnwg karGPivDÆn_ Epñkbec©keTsviTüakñúgenaHpgEdrk¾RtUveFVIkarEsVg yl;GMBITIRkug kñúgkarbegáInehdæarcnasm<n§½b¤k¾kargarGPivDÆedIm,Ifvika eTAtamtMrUvkarTIpSar. karCMrujénRkumh‘umnimYy² eq<aHeTArkkardak;pÁúMKña eTAtamTMrg;epSg² k¾edIm,IkarelIkTwkcitþdl;m©as; sMNg;Edr TaMgGs;enaHehIyKWCakarcab;kMeNIteLIgénKMerag. bnÞab;BI)ankMNt;y:agc,as;las;nUvtMrUvkar rbs;m©as;sMNg;ehIy karEdlsMxan;CageKenaHKW eKalkarN_énfvikacMeBaHKMerag ebImindUecñHeT KMeragenaHva minGacekItmaneLIy. hirBaØvtßúCaRbPBmYy EdlmanGtßn½yy:agsMxan;bMput sMrab;m©as;sMNg; EdlGacQancUleTAkñúg rebobénkarsagsg;)an b¤min)an. m©as;sMNg;saFarN³ fvikasMrab;sagsg;GacTTYl)anmkBIkEnøgpÞal; b¤k¾)anmkBIRbPBshBn§½ b:uEnþkñúgcMeNamkrNITaMg Gs;xagelI m©as;sMNg;RtUvEtbg;Bn§CUnrdæ. manKMeragxøH)anGnuvtþtamry³PJak;garénKN³kmμaFikarénsMNg; m©as;sMNg;ÉkCn fvikakñúgkarsagsg;PaKeRcIn)anmktamry³ PaKIm©as;sMNg;pÞal;EtmþgenAkñúgenHrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgBIr PaKIKW ³ - GñkEdlsagsg;EtpÞHmYyKt; kñúgmYyCIvitrbs;Kat; - Rkumh‘unEdlCam©as; maneRKOgsMrbsMrYlkargarkñúgkarsagsg;. Rkumh‘unFM²Cajwkjab;maned)a:t;m:g;énRbCaCnEdlkñúgenaHmanGñktMNagrbs;eK kñúgGMLúgeBlelIk KMerag nigrebobGnuvtþn_karsagsg;. GñkGPivDÆ KWCam©as;sMNg;ÉkCn EdlCajwkjab;Kat;eFVICam©as; KMeragenAkñúgeBlsagsg;Etmþg. GñkGPivDÆ RtYtBinitüeTAelIEpñkesdækic© EpñkTIpSar hirBaØvtßú TItaMgnig rUbPaBkñúgeKalbMNgedIm,IeFVIeGay manR)ak;cMNUlpgEdrtamry³ karlk;rh½s b¤CYlry³eBlEvg. 1>2 viC¢aCIv³GñkKUrbøg; sßabtükr³ sßabtükrmantYnaTITTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarbkRsay nigGPivDÆbøg;eTAtamtMrUvkarrbs;m©as;sMNg; nigKUr bgðajeTAGñkem:Akarsagsg;edIm,I GnuvtþeGay)ansuRkitkñúgkar)a:n;RbmaNtMél k¾dUcCaeFVItaragRbtiTin Construction Work - 10 -
  11. 11. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kargargayRsYlkñúgkarGnuvtþtambøg;lMGitnimYy²eGay)anRtwmRtUvenH KWCakatTTYlxusRtUvTaMgRsugrbs; sßabgayRsYlkñúgkarGnuvtþtambøg;lMGitnimYy²eGay)anRtwmRtUvenH KWCakatTTYlxusRtUvTaMgRsugrbs; sßabtükr. CabEnßm edIm,Ikaryl;dwgcMeBaHtMrUvkar rbs;m©as;sMNg; sßabtükrRtUvmanCMnajc,as;las; ehIyRKb;RKan;edIm,IeRCIserIs[)anCak;lak;kñúgkarKUrbøg; RtwmRtUvtamsmamaRtEbbKNitsa®sþ nigRbkd edayesaP½NÑPaBEdlKYrCaTIKab;citþ. visVkr ³ visVkrCaGñkelIkKMeragEpñkrcnasm<n½§ (structures) GKÁisnI emkanic nigeRKOgsuIvil. 1>3 viC¢aCIv³sagsg; Gñkem:Akarsagsg;CaBaküEdleKeRbITUeTAcMeBaHGñkEdlmanGaCIBTTYlxusRtUv sMrab;RKb;skmμPaB TaMgGs;énkarsagsg;Kat; b¤nageFVIkardUcCaGñkem:AkarTUeTA b¤dUcCaGñkcat;Ecgkñúgkarsagsg;. Gñk):an;RbmaNtMél Gñk)a:n;RbmaNtMélKWCasñÚlrbs;Rkumh‘un karxatb¤cMeNjrbs;Rkumh‘un)anedaysarkar xitxMRbwg ERbgrbs;Gñk)a:n;RbmaNenHÉg. Gñk)a:n;RbmaNtMéleFVIkarCamYybøg;Edl)anerobcMKUrehIyCaeRsceday sßabtükr ehIyRtUveFVIkar)a:n;RbmaNtMéleGay)ansBVRKb;EpñkTaMgGs;énGaKar. GñkeFVItaragRbtiTinkargar GñkeFVItaragRbtiTinkargar RtUveFVIkarTMnak;TMngy:agditdl;rvagGñkeFVIkarenAkñúgkariyal½y nigGñkeFVI karenAelIkardæan. enAmuneBlkarsagsg;cab;epþIm eKTaMgenaHeRcIneFVIkarenAkñúgkariyal½yénRkumh‘un EtenA eBlEdlsMNg;cab;epþImdMeNIrkar eKRtUvpøas;eTAeFVIkarenAkardæanvij. PJak;garTij b¤Cav KWCamnusSEdlmantYnaTICaGñkccar edIm,ITTYl)annUvtMéld¾l¥ ehIynigeFVIeGayR)akdfa kñúgkMLúg eBlsagsg;RKb;sMPar³EdlCatMrUvkarTaMgGs; RtUvpþl;eGayTan;eBlevlatamkic©snüaEdl)ankMNt;. Ca FmμtaPJak;garTij-dUreRcInCYbCamYyGñkem:Akarbnþ edIm,IBinitüeLIgvijnUvlkçxNн nigRBMEdnénkargar. 1>4 Gñkemkar emkar KWCamnusSEdlcg¥úlR)ab; b¤bgðajGMBIPaBEdlGaceFVI)an b¤min)annigdwknaMkargarfaetI GaKar EdlRtUvsagsg;enaHRtwmRtUvtambøg;Edrb¤eT? 2> viFIsa®sþeFVIkic©snüakñúgkarsagsg; ³ kñúgKMeragsagsg; PaKeRcIncUlrYmeday PaKICam©as;sMNg;GñkelIkKMeragnig Gñkem:Akarsagsg;. m©as;sMNg;CaEpñkmYyd¾sMxan; CaBiesskñúgkarsMerccitþ faeBlNaKMeragenHRtUvsagsg;.karsMerccitþenH Construction Work - 11 -
  12. 12. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRcIneFVIbnÞab;BIkareFVIkarsikSa epSg²Kñamþgmñak;²rYcmk. CYnkalkarsMercenHeFVIeLIgedaymanKMeragsag sg;CabnÞan; ehIyvaCakarcaM)ac;Nas;EdlTTYlykesvaEpñkKUrbøg;. Gñkkan;bøg;RtUveFVIkary:agCitsñitCamYy m©as;sMNg; Edlcab;epþImdMeNIrkarN_ nigbMerICUndUcCaÉksarmKÁúeTÞs sMrab;Gñkem:AkarEdlCaGñkRtUvsagsg; KMeragenH. GaRs½yelITMhM niglkçN³FmμCatiénKMerag reboberobcMeGaymaneFVIkic©snüarvagPaKITaMgBIrGacman karpøas;bþÚr krNIxøHeTotPaKImçageTotGacedIrtY BIrb¤rhUtdl;RKb;naTITaMgGs;k¾Gacman. kñúgkrNIxusKñaenH RtUvykcitþTukdak;nwgyl;eGay)anc,as; kñúgkarvaytMéledIm,IkMNt; TMnak;TMngénkic©snüa EdlKYrdMeNIrkar eTAmux b¤p¥akkic©snüa edIm,IRbsiT§PaBkñúgkarEckcayKMerag. karsMercy:agNaenaHCabzmRtUvrkcMelIyBI m©as;sMNg;rYmbBa©ÚlCamYy nigtMbUnμanEdlpþl;eGayedayGñkBIeRKaHeyabl;CaRbcaMpgEdr. enHCaTMrg;eFVIkic©snüa 5RbePTEdleKGnuvtþenAkñúg]sSahkmμsMNg; 2>1 viFIsa®sþeFVIkic©snüaTUeTA kic©snüaTUeTAekItmaneLIgrvagm©as;sMNg; nigGñkem:AkarTUeTA. CaFmμtam©as;sMNg; tMNageGay KMeragEdlTTYlxusRtUvsMrab;kareRBogeLIgnUvÉksarkic©snüa. elIKMeragRbePT GaKarCaFmμtaGñktMNag eRcInCavisVkr Edl)anelIkKMeragenaHeLIg. cMeBaHKMeragvisVkmμCaFmμta GñktMNageRcInCavisVkrénKMeragkar enaH. elIKMeragkargarsaFarN³ tYnaTIénPaKInimy²)anbBa¢ak;rYceRscehIy. RbkarepSgEdlGacekItman Y eLIgxusBITMrg;CapøÚvkar EdlminmanEcgenAkñúgkic©snüaTUeTAminGacEkERb)aneLIy. KMeragRtUvpSBVpSay Ca saFarN³ EdlENnaMRKb;PaKITaMgGs; CaBiessGMBIeBlevlakñúgkaredjéfø. edayeyaleTAtameBlevla karRbfab;RtaenaelIÉksaredjéfø RtUvkMNt;eTAtamkEnøgCak;lak; mYy. karebIÉksaredjéfø nigkarGarRtUvGnuvtþcMeBaHmuxGñkcUlrYmedjéføRKb;PaKI edIm,IeGayBYkeKdwgB¤RKb; PaKIenAeBlEdlÉksarRtUvebIkeLIg. kic©snüaRtUvpþl;eTAeGayPaKNaEdlmantMélTabCageK CaFmμtaGñkEdledjéføTabCageKelx 2 b¤elx3. ÉksaredjéføTaMgGs;RtUvrkSarTk rhUtdl;kic©snüaRtUv)ancuHhtßexaCaFrman. TMrg;karenH RtUv RtYtBinitüeGay)anm:t;ct;CaTIbMputedIm,IecosvagkarXubXit b¤lYcbnøM. eKalbMNgénkarENnaMenHKWRtUv begáItkarCMrujnigelIkTwkcitþdl;RKb;PaKIeGayRbkYtRbECgesμIPaB KñakñúgkaredjéføenH. TMrg;EbbxagelIenAkñúgEpñkÉkCnmanlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhlKñakñúgkareRbIR)as;b:uEnþ lkçN³vinicä½y GacminGnuvtþtwgEtgeBkeT. ]TahrN_enAeBlebIkÉksaredjéfø GacnwgkMritm©as;sMNg;GaceRCIserIs edayRbiteRbogcMeBaHGñkem:AkarepSgeTot CaGñkEdledjéføTabCageK b¤k¾m©as;sMNg;GacBüayamccarGMBI Construction Work - 12 -
  13. 13. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC tMéleGayTabCageK b¤k¾m©as;sMNg;GacBüayamccrGMBItMéleGayTabCageK b¤k¾m©as;sMNg;GacBüayam ccarGMBItMéleGayTabCagtMélEdl)andak;kñúgkaredjéfø. karGnuvtþrebobenHvamin)anRKb;RKgedayc,ab; eLIy. dUcenHbgðajeGayeXIjfa rebobenHerobcMeGaymankic©snüa rvagRkumh‘unsarFarN³nigÉkCnman lkçN³Rbhak;RbEhlKña. CaFmμtaGñkem:AkarTUeTA manÉkeTskmμEtmYyenAkñúgcMeNamkargarsMxan;² enA kñúgKMeragdUcCakargarebtug b¤kargarEdk>>>.l. dUcenHehIy Cajwkjab;Gñkem:AkarTUeTAminmanCMnajkar R)akdsMrab;KMerageLIy enAeBlCYb ehtukarN_rebobenH Gñkem:AkarTUeTAeRcInEckrMElk kargarTaMgenaHeTAeGayGñkem:Akarbnþ EdleKGacbMeBj kargarTaMgenaH)an. Gñkem:AkarbnþTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaH³ ]bkrN_EdlcaM)ac; Blkr nigkardwknaMkargar. elIKMeragsagsg; GaKarGñkem:Akarbnþ CaTUeTATTYlkargardUcCaEpñk GKÁisnI emkanic dMbUl CagkMe)ar kar:U RkalRBM biTRkdas CBa¢aMg GuIsULg; BIdanBüÜr kargareragCag kargarkBa©k; kargarEdk nigkargarRkalekAs‘U kMralCan;. TaMgenH vaCakargarrYmKña cMeBaHGaKarsmBaØmYy EdlvaGacman 20 eTA 30 Gñkem:Akarbnþ b¤GacticCag. edayman PaBpÞúyKña cMeBaHKMeragsagsg; sMNg;]sSahkmμmYyEdlminmanlkçN³sμúKsμajEdlCaTUeTAtMrUveGayman 3-4 Gñkem:AkarbnþEdrCaFmμtaGñkem:AkarTUeTAeFVIkarenAkñúgkariyal½y ]TahrN_elIkargarsagsg;s<an Gñk em:AkarTUeTAGacem:AkarbnþEdlCalkçN³em:AkartamEpñknimYy²b¤CatMNak;². RbkarmYy EdleKEtgCYbRbTH ehIyk¾CaRbkarEdlhYsehtuEdrenaHKW enAeBlEdleKEtCYbRbTH ehIyk¾CaRbkarEdlhYsehtuEdrenaHKW enAeBlEdlGñkem:AkarTUeTA nigGñkem:AkarbnþCamnusSEtmYy enARKb; kargarTaMgGs;rbs;KMeragenaHEdleyIgehAfaCaQμÜjkNþal ehIyEdlCaTUeTAvamineKarBesaHcMeBaHpl RbeyaCn_ rbs;m©as;sMNg; taMgBIkaredjéfø Gñkem:AkarTUeTA)anbBa©ÚlR)ak;cMeNjelIkargarsMrab;PaKITaMgBIr rYcCaeRsc ehIym©as;sMNg;rg;caMEtkarbEnßmtMéleTAelIkarsagsg; tamry³karxitxMRbwgERbgsMrbsMrYlBI Gñkem:AkarTUeTAEtb:ueNÑaH. tamEbbEpnKMeragsagsg; RbEhlCa 75° Cakargarrbs;Gñkem:Akarbnþ rIÉkarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;Gñk em:AkarTUeTAeRcIneTAelIbøg; karerobcM kardwknaM nigkarsMrbsMrYlkargar. RbsinebI 25°énkargarsagsg;GnuvtþedayGñkem:AkarTUeTA vaCakarbgáehtumYyEdlGacekItman eLIgBIeRBaHplcMeNjrbs;Gñkem:AkarTUeTA vamanTi§BleTAelIkarcMNaykñúgkarRtYtBinitüelIkargarenH. RbsinebIKMeragCYb]bsKÁ Gñkem:AkarTUeTARtUvkat;bnßy b¤edayRsaybBðakuMeGayekItmaneLIg kñúg krNI ehtuEdlbgáeLIgenaHekItmaneLIgGñkem:AkarTUeTA RtUveFVIy:ageNaeGayvaenAticbMputkñúgkarcMnay. dUcCakrNIxøHGñkem:AkarTUeTARtUvxitxMRbwgERbgrwHrk meFüa)ayedayxøÜnÉg. vaCakarlM)akmYydUcEdl)an Construction Work - 13 -
  14. 14. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eFVIkic©snüarYceRscehIy CamYyPaKIem:AkarTUeTA minEmnCamYyPaKIm©as;sMNg;eLIy ehIyvak¾minEmnCamYy Gñkem:AkarbnþNamñμak;eTotEdr. dUcCam©as;sMNg;xøH )andak;kMNt;kic©snüaelIcMeNamlT§plkargar EdlGñkem:AkarbnþcuHlkçxNн BitR)akdénkargardUcCa 15-20° RtUvEtGnuvtþedayGñkem:AkarTUeTAehIyRtUveRbIBlkrxøÜnÉg. kñúgkarpþl; nUvrUbPaBEbbenH Gñkem:AkarnigGnuvtþCamYyRkumh‘unrbs;xøÜnminticCag 25° énkargareLIyedayELk cMeBaHKMeragkargarsaFarN³xøH krNIenHRtUvkMNt;edayc,ab;. etIenAeBlNaEdleKRtUveRbIkic©snüaTUeTA? CakarsμanTUeTA Gñkem:AkarTUeTAeRcInmanEtCMnajmYyeBlenaHKYrEtbBa©úHtMélsagsg;dl;m©as;sMNg;. CMnajTaMgenaHrYmbBa©ÚlpgEdrnUvEpñkrdæ)al énRbtibtþkarsagsg; karpþl; b¤pÁt;pÁg;sMPar³karRKb;RKgkmμkr d¾manRbsiTi§PaB Epnkarm:t;ct; nigsMrbsMrYlrebobsagsg;y:agmansmtßPaB. ktþaeCaKC½y nigpþl;y:agKab;citþenaH mann½yfaGñkem:Akar)anrkSarTukCab;nUvbuKÁlikNa Edl)an bNþúHbNþalCaGñkem:Akar emkanic nigkmμkrCMnajpgEdr ehIyman]bkrN_RKb;RKan;edIm,IGnuvtþeTAtam CMnajnimYy² EdltMrUveGayman. RbsinebIm©as;sMNg; tMrUveGaymanCMnajEpñkRKb;RKgsMNg;viFIenH enAeBleFVIkic©snüa RbEhlRtUv Binitü minEmntamEtkarcUlcitþ rbs;m©as;sMNg;enaHeT. viFIenHRKan;EtCaKMnitEtb:ueNÑaH cMeBaHm©as;Rkumh‘un éntMélsrubcugeRkay munnigcab;dMeNIrkarsagsg;. 2>2 viFIeFVIkic©snüabMEbk viFIeFVIkic©snüabMEbkenH KWCakarcat;Ecg edaym©as;sMNg;EdlGnum½tedaykic©snüa eTAGñkem:AgkarpÞal;Edl manviC¢aÉkeTssMrab;kargarepSg². enHKWCasarvnþén viFIsa®sþkic©snüaTUeTAedayKμanGñkem:AkarTUeTAcUlrYm mann½yfa m©as;sMNg;RtUvEtTTYlra:g;rg kñúgkarRKb;RKgKMeragrIÉkarcat;EcgkarTUeTACatMNak;² RtUvGnuvtþ edayGñkem:Akar. kareRbIviFIsa®sþenH m©as;sMNg;RtUvmansmtßPaBeFVIkarenAkñúgkariyal½yedIm,IRKb;RKg KMerag. m©as;sMNg;manplRbeyaCn_l¥y:agxøaMg edayKat;)anRtYtBinitüGñkem:AkarTUeTAedayxøÜnKat;pÞal;. karpøas;bþÚrenAkñúgviFIsa®sþenH GacCalMhat;mYy enAeBlEdlm©as;sMNg; mintMrUveGaymansmtßPaBcat;Ecg karenAkñúgkariyal½y krNIenHm©as;sMNg;GacGnuBaØati[bMEbkkic©snüa edIm,IGnuvtþeKalkarN_énkar RKb;RKg. tYnaTIénkarRKb;RKgenH Rkumh‘unRtUvmanKMeragc,as;las;ehIyRkumh‘unRtUvkMNt;RBMEdnkargarrbs; Gñkem:AkarepSg² eTot. CakarBit PaBsμúKsμajGacekItmaneLIgBIkarcat;Ecg nigRKb;RKgenH. CaTUeTA GMNacénkarRKb;RKgrbs;Rkumh‘un vamanTMhMFMmhimadUcCaGñkem:AkarTUeTAEdr BieRBaHRkumh‘unk¾CaPaKImYy Construction Work - 14 -
  15. 15. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC EdlcUlrYmenAkñúgkic©snüaenHEdr dUcCalT§plkargarEdlm©as;sMNg;KYrEtdwgnig TTYlykkarRtYtBinitüxag karcat;EcgBIkareFVIkic©snüaTUeTAenH. etIenAeBlNaEdleKRtUveFVIkic©snüabMEbkenH? viFIenHeKGacGnuvtþ)ancMeBaHGñkcat;Ecgkarsagsg; d¾mansmtßPaB b¤k¾CavisVkrsMNg; edIm,Icat;EcgkargarenHtamkic©snüaepSg²Kña. ebIbuKÁlenaHRtUv)anCYl edaym©as;sMng; viFIenHvacUlenAkñúgKMeragBiess EdltMrUveGaymankarkat;bnßy kargarRbePTxøHBIkarsag sg;vaCaRbkar EdlmantictYcCaTIbMput enAeBlEdlmankargarCaeRcInRbePTcUlrYmkñúgkargarsagsg;. enA eBlEdlGnuvþviFIenH RtUvcgcaMCa m©as;sMNg;mankarRbfuyRbfan y:agxøaMgenAkñúgmhnþray ebIeRboeFob CamYyviFIem:AkarTUeTa. viFIsa®sþenH)anbM)at;ecalnUvR)ak;cMeNj rbs;Gñkem:AkarTUeTABItMélsagsg; ehIy vaRtUvEtcgcaMpgEdrfa R)ak;cMeNjrbs;Gñkem:AkarTUeTAtictYcNas; ¬ticCag3°¦ dUcenHehIyviFIenHeKBuM sUveRbIR)as;eLIy. 2>3 viFIsa®sþeFVIkic©snüaedaytMkl;R)ak;kk;Camun hirBaØvtßúKW CaemkanickñúgeBlEdlkic©snüa minTan;)ancuHCamYylaylkç½GkSrenAeLIy. m©as;sMNg;Edl manBlkrpÞal; b¤nieyaCikEtmYyKt; EdlxitxMRbwgERbgsMrab;karsagsg;enH. PaKIm©as;RtUvEtpþl;nUvsMPar³EdlcaM)ac; BlkreRKOgynþnig GñkRtYtRtakargar. KMeragCaeRcInEdl eRbIR)as;viFIsa®sþenH m©as;sMNg;mantYnaTICaGñkcat;EcgTUeTA ehIyeKBwgEp¥keTAelIGñkKUrbøg;tictYcCaTI bMput ehIyCaTUeTAeKeRcInEteFVIkarenAkñúgkariyal½yEtb:ueNÑaH. GñkxøHeKeRbIevcn³enH CamYytMélEdlbUk bBa©ÚleBlevla nigsMPar³EdleRbIR)as;EfmeToteTAkñúgenaH enAeBlEdlkic©snüaminTan;cUlCaFrmank¾ eday vaCaplcMeNjrbs;PaKIm©as;enAkñúgkarcMNayepSg² fVIebITMrg;cuHkic©snüaFmμtak¾eday eBlevlak¾ RtUvsnSMsMécpgEdr. viFIsa®sþenH)anbM)at;ecal nUvR)ak;cMeNjEdlGñkem:AkarTUeTAnig Gñkem:Akarbnþcg;)an CaxøaMg. kñúgkarbnßytMélk¾RtUvBinitüplEdr eTAelIEpñkvisVkmμ nigkareFVIGFikarkic© Gacniyay)anpgEdrfa Ca]bkrN_GacminsmRsbeTAtamEpnkarEdl)ankMNt;dUcenHeyIgKYrBinitüeGay)anl¥itl¥n;pgEdr. etIenAeBlNaEdleyIgRtUveRbIviFIsa®sþenH? eKeRbIR)as;viFIsa®sþenHenAeBlEdlKMeragmanTMhMtUc ehIymanRBMEdnsMNg;manlkçN³samBaØ nigdak;eGaytMeNIrkartamlkçN³FmμCati. vaCakarBitNas;m©as; sMNg;Cabzm RtUvmankMlaMgBlkmnig Gñkbec©keTsehIytamry³hirBaØvtßúenHEdrrYmKña EfrrkSaKMerag. ]bkrN_enAkñúgkarEfrTaM TIRkugFM² pøÚvfñl;CaFmμta eKeFVItamvIFItMkl;R)ak;kk;CamunenHÉg EtenAeBl Edlsagsg;pøÚvfμI RtUvGnuvtþtamviFIeFVIkic©snüaTUeTA. karEfrkSarpøÚvEdk k¾RtUvGnuvtþtamviFItMkl;R)ak;kk; CamunEdr EtenAeBlEdltMelIgpøÚvEdkfμI RtUvcuHkic©snüa. karEfrrkSabrievNeRkamdIk¾eFIVtamviFItMkl;R)ak;kk; CamunEdr. enAeBlfμI² viFIsa®sþenHTTYl)ankarriHKn;CaeRcIn BIsMNak;GñkeFVIkic©snüavaCalT§plén ninñakar Construction Work - 15 -
  16. 16. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CaeRcInCamYykartMkl;R)ak;kk;CamunenH. enHCakarritbNþwgcMeBaHm©as;sMNg;saFarN³ kñúgkardak;Éksar edjéføRbkYtRbECgCaBiesscMeBaHGñkedjéføTab². enAkñúgkarrNIxøHeTotm©as;KMerag minGnuBaØatieGayGñkem:AkarÉkCndak;edjéføeLIy eRBaHCYnkal BYkeK)andak;tMélmYy Edlminsmrmü ehIymanKuNvibtþieTot. TImYy³ BYkeKEtniyayfa PaKIm©as;sMNg;minmanPar³kic©enAelItMélénGclnRTBüsm,tiþenaHeLIy ehIyeRbIR)as;m:asuInFn;F¶n;EfmeTot. dUcKñaenHEdr enAeBlEdleFVIkarCYsCul b¤EfrkSaRkugFM² eRKOgm:asIun RtUv)anFanar:ab;rgedayPñak;garsaFarN³ bnÞab;mkRtUv)anbBa©úHtMélenAkñúgkaredjéføsMNg;fμIEfmeTot. TIBIr³ Gñkem:AkarRtUvkMkl;R)ak;mYycMnYny:agx<s; sMrab;bg;eTAelIGaCJaFr enAeBlEdleKmin)aneKarB b¤bMeBjeTAtambTbBa¢aepSg². Etvak¾GacCaKuNUbkar³mü:agEdr enAeBlEdleKeBalBaküdUcxagelIenH cMeBaHkarGnuvtþkartMkl;R)ak;kk;munenH EdlvaeFVIeGayb:HBal;dl;plRbeyaCn_EpñkÉkCn. 2>4 viFisa®sþKUrbøg; nigsagsg;³ viFIsa®sþenHPaKIm©as;GnuBaØati eGayGñkem:AkarEtmñak;Kt;TTYlrab;rgkñúgkarKUrbøg;pg nigsagsg;pg sMrab;KMeragkarsagsg;enaH. dwgehIyfaviFIsa®sþenHeKeRbIR)as;cMeBaHRkumh‘unsagsg;NaEdlmanbT BiesaFn_ kñúgkarKUrbøg;CatMNak;² CalT§plenAcugbBa©b;énKMeragEdlGacbegáIt)anenAkñúgBaØNKYrEtmankMrit x<s;. vak¾dUcCaenAkñúgviFIsa®sþem:AkarTUeTAEdr karTTYlykGñkem:AkarTUeTA eGayTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarKUrbøg; sMrab;KMeragpgEdr. karGnuvtþrebobenH)ankøayeTACakareBjniymkñúgkarsagsg;sMNg;]sSahkmμFn;FM dUcCa³>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>CaedIm. etIenAeBlNaEdleKeRbIviFIsa®sþenH? eKeRbIviFIenHenAeBlEdlRkumh‘unTTYlPar³kñúgkarKUrbøg;pg nig sagsg;pgevminGaccab;dMeNIrkarsagsg;enAeBlEdlminTan;bBa©b;karKUreLIy. dUcenHRtUvcab;epþImKUr bøg;CamuneTIbcab;epþImdMeNIrkarsagsg;. kargarenHvamanlkçN³RtYtsuIKña k¾b:uEnþvaeyageTAelIkartamdany:agrh½s mann½yfa RtUvpþl;bøg; KMeragmuneBlkMNt;. 2>5 viFIsa®sþviC¢aCIv³RKb;RKgkarsagsg; dUcCaeQμaHEdl)anbBa¢ak; viC¢aCIv³RKb;RKgkarsagsg; KWCaviFImYyenAkñúgviFIEdlm©as;sMNg;CYl Rkumh‘unsagsg;edIm,IbMeBjsavaviC¢aCIv³CaGñkRKb;RKgkarsagsg; (CM) CaTUeTARtUv)anCYledayPaKIm©as; sMNg;edayxøÜnÉgenAmuneBlEdlkarKUrbøg;nigkarsagsg;minTan;dMeNIrkar. kñúgTMrg;RtwmRtUv CM Ca ]bkrN_kñúgkareRCIserIsrbs;Rkumh‘un. kMLúgeBlEdlbøg;kMBugdMeNIrkarKUr CM RtUvRtYtBinitüCaRbcaMnUv tMélnig eBlevlaEdlRtUvbBa©b;GacbBa©úH b¤bnßy)an. kar[tMéleTAelIEpñkvisVkmμ vaRbEhlCatMélmYy Construction Work - 16 -
  17. 17. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC y:ags½kþisiT§i eRkamkal³eTs³GnuvtþkarKUrbøg;CatMNak;² enAmuneBlkarsnüaénrUbuIyvtßúcMeBaHkarsagsg; cUlCaFrman. GñkRKb;RKgkarsagsg; RtUv)anpþl;R)ak;kMérCamUldæan rIÉkareRbIR)as;eRKOgm:asuInepSg² CaRbcaM enaH RtUvb;edayGñkelIkKMeragenaH. dUcenH CM eFVIkaredIm,IplRbeyaCn_rbs;PaKIm©as;sMNg;. GñkKUrbøg;RtUv )anpþl;R)ak;kMér pÞal;eTAelItMélEdlTak;TgeTAnwgkarelIkKMeragsagsg;. eKCYl CM enAkñúgEpñk emIlkar xusRtUvkñúgkarsagsg;CMnYsPaKIm©as;EdlCanic©Cakal eKcg;)annUvPaBsmRsbmYyKWlkçN³esdækic© Edl PaKIm©as;sMNg;cg;)an. CakarelIkTwkcitþdl;m©as;sMNg;CaFmμta CM RtUvkMNt; b¤pþl;tMélcMeBaHKMeragmin x<s;hYsehtueBkeT. CYnkalenAeBlEdlKUrbøg;)anEpñkxøH² kargarsagsg;Gaccab;epþImsagsg; ]TahrN_ GñkRKb;RKgkargarsagsg;GnuBaØatieGayGñkem:AkareFVIkarenAelIkardæancMENkxøH² Edl)anbBa©b;karKUrehIy eRBaHvagayRsYlkñúgkarsegát nigRtYtBinitü. kMNt;cMNaMGñkRKb;RKgkarsagsg; minGnuBaØatieGayeFVIkarsagsg;EpñkNamYyénKMerageday eRbIR)as;BlkrpÞal;xøÜneLIy. b:uEnþ CM GaceRbIR)as;kMlaMgBlkmμcMeBaHkargarxøHdUcCakarsMGatCaedIm. RbsinebIkargarTaMgenaH)anbBa©b;tamkMNt;muneBlevla CM GacrMlwkGñkem:AkarTUeTA GMBIkargarEdlenA esssl;faetI kargarenHRtUveFVIedayGñkem:AkarTUeTA b¤edayGñkem:AkarbMEbktYnaTIrbs; CM KWeFVIeGayc,as; fa etIkarEbgEckkargarenaHtamEpnkarEdl)anbBa¢ak;Edrb¤eT? etIenAeBlNaEdlmanKMeragFM² b¤enAeBl bBa©b;KMerag CaBiessenAeBlEdlGñkCMnajkarRtUveFVIbøg;CatMNak;² enAkñúgkarsagsg;mnÞIreBTüeKniymeRbI viFIenH. enAeBlGnuvtþviFIenH Cabzmm©as;sMNg;RtUvmanCMenOCak;eTAelI smtßPaBnwgesckþIsuc©ritrbs; CM KMeragRtUvEbgEckeGay)anrh½s ¬tamdannig RtYtBinitüy:agrh½sehIyCaRbcaM KWCaebkçCnd¾l¥sMrab;kargar enH. 3> karedjéfønigkic©snüa karRbkYtRbECgkñúgkaredjéfø KWCaviFsa®sþmYyénkarkMNt;tMélTab sMrab;skmμPaBkargarEdl)an I kMNt;edayÉksarsagsg;. tMélnigrebobeFVIkic©snüa rbs;GñkedjéføedIm,IGnuvtþkargarsagsg;vaEp¥kelI kargarEdl)anbgðajenAkñúgÉksaredjéføenHÉg. karedjéføRtUverobcMenAkñúgPaBCMenOCak; rvagGñkedjéfønimYy². CaFmμtaeKRtUveFVIkare)aHRtaenAelI ÉksarenAeBlEdleKdak;eGayGtifiCn ¬b¤enAkñúgkrNIxøHrvagGñkem:AkarTUeTA nigGñkem:Akarbnþ¦. Éksar edjéfø RtUv)anebIeTAtameBlevla nigéf¶ ExEdl)anbBa¢ak;eRscBImunmkkñúgn½yRbkYtRbECgnigkar Construction Work - 17 -
  18. 18. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRbobeFob elIkElgEtmanmUlehtuénkarbgÁab; bBa¢ar b¤bgçitbgçM ebImindUecñHeT GtifiCnEdlQñHenAkñúgkar edjéføenaH KWCaGñkEdl)andak;tMélTabCageK. muneBledjéfø GtifiCn GacTTYl)annUvGVI²EdlCatMrUvkar rbs;Gñkedjéfø edIm,IkMNt; nigeFVitamstism,CBaسénKMerag. TUrelxRKb;RKan;EdlCaskþanuBl KYrEtpþl; eTAeGayGñkedjéfø edIm,IGnuBaØatieGayeKerobcMÉksar kñúgkaredjéfø. Baküfaedjéfø nigsMeNIrvaCaevcn³sB½ÞdUcenHsMeNIrGackMlat esckþIb¤kal³eTs³ sMrab;ykmk Binitünig BIPakSaCamYyGtifiCn sßabtükr b¤visVkr Gñkedjéfø nigkaredjéfø EdleKcUlcitþCageK edIm,ITb; sáat; nigkaryl;xusrbs;Gñkedjéfø. enAeblEdlGtifiCn yl;RBmTTYlyknUvÉksarsagsg;ehIy eFVIkareRCIserIsviFIsa®sþkñúgkaredj éføehIy sßabtükrGacCYykñúgkareRbIR)as; Gñkem:Akar nigerobcMTMrg;Éksarkñúgkaredjéfø karFanar:ab;rgén Éksar kñúgkarRbkYtRbECgedjéfø TMrg;sMNYr karsegátBIkaredjéfø nigkarerobcMepSg² EdlRtUvkarcaM)ac; dUcCaeBlevla nigÉksaredjéføCaedIm. mü:agvijeTot sßabtükr GacCYypgEdr kñúgkarerobcMkarkic©snüa kñúgkarsagsg;. GñkedjéfømansiT§isMerc b¤eFVIkarpøas;bþÚrkaredjéførbs;eK edayEp¥kelImUldæanénl½kçx½NÐCak;Esþg dUcCamankarKitxus kñúgkaredjéfø karpøas;bþÚrtMélplitpl GaRtaBlkr b¤BlkrminsmRsbBIeRBaHfa kargarxøHvahYssmtßPaB. GñkedjéføRtUvTTYlxusRtUv nigTTYlykkrNIGacCayfaehtuxøH² kñúgkMLúgeBlEdlÉksaredjéfø RtUv)anebIkeLIg. enAmuneBledjéfø y:agehacNas;RtUvpþl;eTAeGayGñkedjéfødUcCa bøg;EdllMGitBIEpñk epSg² énGaKar edIm,IeGayBYkeKsikSaeGay)anc,as;ehIy edIm,IeGayBYkeKsuxcitþTTYlykbøg;Edl)anKUr TaMgenaHehIyEdr. RbsinebIkarpþl;eGayeTAGñkedjéføRKb;lkçxNÐehIy eFVIkarBnül;ENnaMrYcehIy bnÞab; mkÉksaredjéføRtUvebIehIykaredjéfø RtUvvaytMél. cMeBaHGñkedjéføedjéføEdltMélTabCageKRtUveFVI karviPaK edIm,IeGayc,as;fa vaBitCaRtwmRtUv ehIyvaminCHT§iBlRtLb;mkvijnUvtMél Edl)ancuHkic©snüa ehIy. karedjéføRtUveFVIkareRbobeFobCamYytMélEdlsßabtükr)an):an;RbmaNTukrYcCaeRscehIyenAeBl edlerobcMÉksaredjéføenH. GtifiCnGacTTYlykkaredjéfø nigeq<aHeTAkareFVIkic©snüaEdlbnÞab;mkkøayeTACaGñkem:AkarsMrab; kargarKMeragenaH. 4> RbtiTinkargarsagsg; CaFmμtaGtifiCnEtEtsYreTAsßabtükr kñúgkar)a:n;RbmaNeBlevlaénkarsagsg;sMrab;KMeragenH. bnÞab;mkGtifiCnGaccUlrYmkñúgkar ):an;RbmaNkñúgkarGPivDÆsrubeTAelIRbtiTinkargar. Gñkem:AkarKYrerobcM Construction Work - 18 -
  19. 19. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC lMGittaragénkargarsagsg;sMrab;kareRbIR)as; kñúgkarcat;EcgnigRKb;RKgkargarénGñkem:Akarbnþ nigGñkem:A karEdleRbIR)as;BlkrpÞal;xøÜn. Gñkem:AkarKYrEteFVIsMeNIrbBa¢ÚntaragRbtiTinkargar eTAeGaysßabtükrkñúg ry³eBl 30éf¶ enAeBlEdlcuHkic©snüaCaFrmanehIy. TMrg;RbtiTinkargar RtUvEp¥kpgEdreTAelImUldæan énkarGPivDÆrbs;Gñkem:Akar nUvBRgagtaragkargarenH. edIm,IsMrYldl;kargartaragRbtiTin KYrbegáItenAkñúg Bar chart sMrab;kargarnimYy² b¤k¾bMEbkCakargartUc² BIkargarsMxan;² énKMeragenH. mü:agvijeTotRbtiTin kargarGacGPivDÆ)any:agl¥tamviFI CPM (Critical Path Method) .viFI CPM enHtMrUveGayeRbIR)as;enAkñúg KMeragkargarEdlFM² edIm,IRtYtBinitü enAelIRKb;cMncdUcCary³eBlehIyva k¾GaRs½yeTAelIlkç½xNнCak;Esþg u énkarsagsg;pgEdr. Gñkem:AkarKYrRtYtBinitü nigeFVIeGayRbesIreLIgnUvRbtiTinkargarCaerogral;Ex nUveBlevlaEdl)an sμanTukehIyRtUveFVIkarpøas;bþÚreBlevla EdlGaceFVI)an epÞógpÞat;b¤EktMrUv. eBlevlaEdl)ankMNt;rYcehIy minGacEkERbb¤ pøas;bþÚr)aneLIy ehIytaragRbtiTinEdl)anbegáIteLIgehIy RtUvykcitþTukdak;rIÉkargar EdlGnuvtþedayem:agbEnßm RtUvrkSarTukedIm,IkuMeGayeFVIkarEktMrUv taragRbtiTin vaGacmanTi§Bl enAelI tMélxøH EdlGaRs½yeTAtamkarRBmRBagrbs;GtifiCn Edl)ancuHkñúgrcnasm<½n§énkic©snüaehIy. tarag RbtiTinmanGtßn½y sMxanbMputeRBaHvaCa]bkrN_ kñúgkarRtYtBinitürebobsagsg; ehIyvaGacCYysßabtükr eGaydMeNIrkarkareTAtamKMerag nigRtYtBinitüKuNPaB enAEblEdlsagsg;tamdMNak;nimYy² ehIyvak¾ køayeTACakarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;Gñkem:AkarpgEdr. taragRbtiTin k¾Ca]bkrN_EdlmanGtßn½yeBjelgpgEdrsMrab;eRbIR)as; RtYtBinitüRKb;CMnajEdl cUlrYmkñúgkarsagsg;enH. taragRbtiTinkargar k¾manTi§BleTAelICMnajepSg² eTAtammeFüayepSg² edayGaRs½yeTAelI TMhM kMlaMgBlkr sMPar³RKb;RKan; eRKOgm:asuIn EdlGacTTYlykedIm,IlkçxNÐkargar énGñkem:AkarbnþEdl RtUveFIVkarCamYyGñkpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³ karviPaKelIsMPar³ Pñak;garEdlcUlrYmdak;bBa¢ÚnkarKUrtamry³kuMBüÚT½r kar cat;EcgTUeTAelIkargarsMNg;nig bBaðaepSg²eTot. Construction Work - 19 -
  20. 20. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk2 ³ karsagsg;sMNg;beNþaHGasnñ Construction Work - 20 -
  21. 21. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC niymn½y³ kargarbeNþaHGasnñ KWCaeRKOg sMrbsMrYlEdl)anbegáIteLIgCabeNþaHGasnñ kMLúgeBl sagsg;; kñúgeKalbMNg edIm,IeFVIeGaysMercnUvkarsagsg;. bnÞab;BIsg;sMercehIy sMNg;beNþaHGasnñ RtUv ruHerIecjvij. kargarbeNþaHGasnñ ³ KWCaGMeBIEdlmincMeBaH EpñkxageRkaménsMNg;vaCavtßúrYmenAelIsMNg;TaMgmUl sMNg;beNþaHGasnñman ³KWCaGMBIEdlmincMeBaH EpñkxageRkaménsMNg; vaCavtßúrYmenAelIsMNg;TaMg mUl. sMNg;beNþaHGasnñman rbgh‘u¿BT½§kardæan GaKarbeNþaHGasnñ karpÁt;pÁg;zamBlGKiÁsnI karbMPøWkar dæan karpÁt;pÁg;Twk nigkargard¾éTeTot. TisedAénkargarbeNþaHGasnñ eRKOgsMrYlkñúgkareRbIR)as; RtUvbBa¢ÚneTAkardæan sagsg;rYmman³ eQIsMrab;eFVIka)arI rnÞa nigbMram epSg² eTot. 1> GaKarbeNþaHGsnñ rUbPaB 2-1³ Epnkarsagsg;GaKarbeNþaHGasnñ Construction Work - 21 -
  22. 22. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>1 rbgkardæanbeNþaHGsnñ ³ eKalbMNgénkarsagsg;rbgbeNþaHGsnñ KWedIm,IRtYtBinitü karecj-cUl suvtßiPaB viFankñúgviFan karBar karlYc-bøn; nigkarrkSakarBar)anl¥. sMPar³sMrab;rbgkardæanbeNþaHGasnñrYmman³ eQIbnÞH sgá½sI ExSRbTak;Kña bnÞHfμsMrab;Tb;. rbgRtUv eFVIcMgay 1m BIkardæan kMBs;BIkMralpÞal;dI GL BI 2-3 Em:Rt RtUveFVITVarrbgRbEhl4 Em:RtsMrab;karnaM sMPar³cUlkardæan. 1>2 kariyal½y TItaMgRtUvmanTMhM BI5-8 m sMrab;CMnajmYy ¬tUcbMput 3/3 m2¦ eFVIeTAtammaRtdæaneGay)ansm 2 RsbeTAnwgmaRtdæanrbs;GaKar EdlkñúgenaH)anEbgEckCakariyal½ysMrab;emkar/ visVkr sMNg;nigXøaMg sMrab;dak;sMPar³. 1>3 karrkSaTuksuIm:g; suIm:g;RbePTNak¾eday munnigykeTAeRbIR)as; RtUvrkSaTukvaeGay)anRtwmRtUvenAkñúglkç½xNнl¥. suIm:g;RtUvTukenAkEnøgs¶ÜtminRtUveGay)ansMeNIm CaceBaH b¤CaRbeyal eRBaHvaGackkrwg)an. RbBn½§eRbI R)as;bgVilKYreFVIeGay)anc,as;fa cMnYnEdlykmkmunRtUv)aneRbIR)as;muneKbg¥s;. rUb2>2³ karrkSaTuksuIm:g;. Construction Work - 22 -
  23. 23. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1>4 karpÁt;pÁg;zamBlGKÁisnI ³ CaFmμtakarpÁt;pÁg;zamBl GKiÁsnItMrUveGaybegáIteLIgenAkñúgkic©snüaedIm,Ipþl;karbMPøWnig crnþcMeBaH karsñak;enAk¾dUcCaRbePTkargarxøHk¾tMrUveGaymanpgEdr dUcCa]bkrN_xøH edIredaycrnþGKÁisnI. karpÁt;pÁg;zamBlcMeBaH GaKarKWCaRbFanbTénkic©snüa rvagGñkem:AkarnigsßanIyenAkñúgtMbn;enaH eRBaHeKGaccg;dwg faetIeyIgRtUvkarzamBleBlNa? Gas½ydæannigRbGb; b¤karb‘ÍnEdlenACitenaH ehIy cMNucEdlsMxan;Cag KWbnÞúkEdlRtUvkar sMeNIrenHRtUvdak;esñIrsMrab;GaKarehIykar)a:n;RbmaNRtUvKitCa KILÚv:at;sMrab;ry³eBlsagsg;. eRkABIenaHRtUveFVIkar):an;sμanRbmaN 10W/ sMrab;karbMPøWtamCan;énGaKar m 2 edaybUkbBa©ÚlnUvkareRbIR)as;rfynþsÞÚcpg. kartMelIg nigkarpÁt;pÁg;zamBlKYrEtmankarFanar:ab;rgeday c,ab;bTbBa¢a niglkçnþik³sMrab;kardæansagsg;. 2> TisedAkargarbeNþaHGasnñ 2>1 cMNucedA (Bench Mark) enaelIkardæansagsg;sMrab;rcnasm<n§½ vaCakarsMxan;Nas;edIm,Idak;TItaMgKMerag nigeRKOgmYycMnYn enAelICeNþIreyag. karRtYtBinitünUvkMritnIv:UTab RtUveFVICatMbUgbg¥s;EdleyIgehAfa Bench Bark (MB) enACitTIkEnøgsag sg;edIm,I[c,as;las;kñúgkarsagsg;. karsagsg; BM beNþaHGasnñKYrEteFVIkñúgcMgay 30m b¤y:agq¶ay bMput 60m BITItaMgEdlRtUvkar. cMNucTaMgenaHKYrEtykcitþTukdak;[)anRKb;RKan;ehIyRtUvyl;dwgCamuneRBaH vaRtUvkareRbIR)as; enAkñúgcenøaHenaHedIm,Isg;cMnucdUcCakargartMelIgeRKag ssrRKwH EdlRtUvRtYtBinitüry³ kMBs;. 2>2 ka)arI ³ kareRKagnUvcMNucsMxan;² énGaKarnwgRtUv)andak; b¤erobcMedayka)arIenHÉg EdlbegáIteLIgedIm,I RtYtBinitüTItaMg TMhM nigCMerAreNþAEdlsMerc)antamkareRKagTuk. ka)arIKYrEtbegáIteLIg y:agehacNas; cMgay 2m BIreNþA GBa©wgvaminnaMeGayxUcxat b¤b:HBal;enAeBlEdleGsáav:aT½rCIkreNþA. kMBs;kþarkat;TTwg énka)arIRtUvEtmanTMnak;TMngeTAnwg kEnøgEdlkMNt;ehIyCab;maMl¥ edIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkareFVIclnaRtYtBinitü CMerAreNþA. CMerAreNþAqøas;GacRtYtBinitüedayeRbI Level nigbegÁalRkit EdlmanTMnak;TMngeTAnwgkEnøgEdl kMNt;pgEdr. TMhMreNþAGacRkitenAelI ka)arI edayeRbIEdkeKal rNaGaRkit eRbIfñaMRkit RbsinebItMrUveGay man. Construction Work - 23 -
  24. 24. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb2-3 ka)arI 3> GMBIrnÞa kargarenHKW CakargartMelIgeFVICuMvijbrievNénGaKar b¤rcnasm<n§½EdlRtUvpþl;suvtßiPaBkargardl; kmμkrEdleFVIkarenATIx<s;. rnÞaCaFmμta eKtMrUveGaymanenAeBlEdlkEnøgeFVIkarmankMBs;cab;BI 1.5m eLIg eTA. kartMelIgrnÞaRtUveKarBeTAtamsMNUmBr nigeKalbMNgénkarsagsg;. 3>1 rnÞaEdk ³ rnÞaEdkrYmpSMeLIgedayrcnasm<n§½CamUldæan3RbePTKW ³ - begÁal - emTTwg nig - embeNþay begÁalQrRtg;eTAelIdI b¤enAelITMrrwg emTTwgRtUvcab;P¢ab;CamYybegÁalkñúgPaBepþk tamry³TTwg. embeNþayRtUvcab;CamYybegÁalenABIeRkamemTTwgtamry³beNþayrnÞa. eRKOgTaMgbIenHCaFmμtaeFVIkart P¢ab; tamlkçN³sþg;dar ehIyenAkñúgkartenHRtUvQrelImuM L=90 kñúgtMN2eRKOg. Bakü “sþg;dar ” køaymk º BIRbCuMsB½Þbec©keTs énshKmn_GWrub Edl)aneGayQμaHbegÁal (upright) Casþg;dar. Construction Work - 24 -
  25. 25. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eRKOgbgÁúMTaMgbIRbePT )anbgðajtamrUbPaBxageRkam ehIynwgbgðajeLIgvijenAkñúgbøg; epþk nigbBaÄrénkartMeLIgrnÞa. embeBaäógeRbIR)as;sMrab;karTb;mineGayeRKOgbgÁúMTaMg3gaker b¤bt;)anvamansar³sMxan;enAkñúgTis edAGgát;RTUg. embeBa©óg b¤bg;)aj;CaFmμtaeFVIkartP¢ab;eTAnwgbegÁal kñúgPaBEdlGac saer: b¤bgVilCuMvij)an kñúgmuM 360 dUcenem 2EdlzitenAkñúgPaBRsbKñaGactP¢ab;kñúgmuM NamYyk¾)an. bg;)aj;Canic© CakalKYrEt º tP¢ab;eTAnwgbegÁalRtg;eTAelI[)anCitCaTIbMput ehIyCak;EsþgenaHKWP¢ab;eTAnwgfñaMg EdlmanRkitenAelIem beNþaynig emTTwgrYceRscehIy. Construction Work - 25 -
  26. 26. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 2>4 mUldæanRKwHkñúgkartMelIgrnÞa Construction Work - 26 -
  27. 27. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3>2 karGnuvtþ rnÞaEdk GacpÁúMtMelIgtamviFICaeRcIn ehIybt;EbneTAtamTMhMEdlRtUvpÁúMtMeLIg kñúgPaBbBaÄr b¤epþkén épÞrab ¬tamkarkMNt;énrcnasm<n§½rbs;eK¦ mindUcCarnÞaRbePTxøH EdleFVIeGaymankareTIsETgTaMgTMhM tam TisedATTwg cnÞúlEvg b¤k¾eRKagtamry³kMBs;x<s;eBk. ehtudUecñHehIyrnÞaEdk eKerobcMeLIgedIm,IcUlrYm kñúgkargarnig tamTIkEnøgEdlmanTMhMmineTotTat; b¤manragmUldUcCaRBHviharRKisþ salRbCuMcas;² nigrcnasm<½n§EdlplitsMrab;bMerIEpñkxagKImI. eRkABIenHCa jwkjab;eKEtCYbRbTH nigrcnasm<½n§EdlmanragEbøk² b¤PaCn_CamYynig TIland¾eRcInsn§wksn§ab;dUcCaeFVI kargar CeNþIrekag karnaMplitpltambMBg; EdlRtUvEteFVIkarenAelIrnÞaedIm,Isagsg; EdlCasMNg;RbePT RbePT lM)ak nigmanlkçNRbfuynwg eRKaHfñak;EfmeTot. mansMNg;xøHRtUvsg;lyecjeTAeRkAehIyCa jwkjab;RtUveFVIkarbEnßmrnÞa ehIykEnøgenaHCakEnøgEdleRbIR)as;rnÞa. rnÞaEdkvamanlkçN³l¥RbesIr enAkñúg kareRbIR)as;CYsCul EpñkxageRkAnigxagkñúgénviharkatUlik GaKarcas;²BIbUraN nigkarrcnak,ac;epSg². kartMelIgrnÞaEdk KWCakargarmYyEdlRtUvkarGñkÉkeTsEdlmanbTBiesaFn_edayehtufa minEmn RKb;eBlevla GnuvtþeTAtambøg;enaHeT ]TahrN_dUcCakartMelIgrnÞaEpñkxagkñúgénRBHviharRKisþ ¬GacekIt manmþg²¦ rhUtdl;mankareRKagTukrYcCaeRscehIyk¾Gac mankarpøas;bþÚr)anEdr dUcCakartubEtglMGEpñk kMBUlRBHviharCaedIm. ]bsKÁGacekItmanCajwkjab;EdleyIgminGacEsVgrklkçN³vinicä½y)aneLIy Et eyIgRtUvEteFVI “elIkargarenH” enAeBlEdl]bsKÁekItmanehIy eTIbeyIgGaceFVIkarvas;)an. Construction Work - 27 -
  28. 28. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk3³ karGegátdI Construction Work - 28 -
  29. 29. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1> TMrg;sikSaGMBIdI ³ karsikSaGMBIdIcaM)ac; RtUveFVIkarCIkb¤xYgnUvkEnøgEdlcaM)ac;xøH² edIm,Isg;mUldæanRKwHénrcnasm<½n§ eRkamdI rbs;GaKarehIycak;dIbMeBjvij. TMgn;pÞal;rbs;GaKar nigbnÞúkEdlmanmkelIGaKarTaMgGs; RtUvbBa¢ÚleTARKwHxageRkaménGaKar dUcecñHRtUvEteFVIeGayR)akdfa etIdIRKwHvamanesßrPaBEdrb¤eT? ktþaTaMgGs;enHKWedIm,IkarBarPaBRsutcuHén GaKar. dUecñHdIRKwHRtUvmanPaBrwgmaMRKb;RKan;enAkñúgkarRTRTg;bnÞúkEdlbBa¢ÚnmkBIelI. CYnkalvamanclna Biess BIkñúgdIxøH b:uEnþGaKarRtUvEtmanesßrPaB edayminRtUvgaykñúgkarxUcxat b¤KμanlMnwgeLIyenAeBlman bnÞúktUcmYyekItmaneLIg. clnarbs;dIEdlekIteLigedaysarbnÞúkvaekIteLIgPøam² dUecñHkarsagsg;RKwH GaKar KWRtUvEtEckcaybnÞúkTaMgenaHeTAeGayépÞdI RKwHTaMgGs;eGay)anesμI² Kña. dUcenHdIRKwHRtUvmanPaB rwgmaMedIm,IRTRTg;bnÞúkTaMgenaHCaBiesseTotenaHdI RKwHRtUvmanersuIsþg;RKb;RKan; kñúgkarpøas;bþÚrRTg;RTay cMeBaHbnÞúkEdlGacekIteLIgsMrab;ry³eBlxøI nigry³eBlEvg. 1>1 RbePTéndI RsTab;dIxagelI³ dIEdleBareBjeday memak dIOrganic dIxSac; dIl,b; dIdæCaTUeTAminsmRsb eLIysMrab;karRTRTg;RKwH. fμ Bed Rock ³CaFmμtafμ Bed rock vamansmtßPaBx<s; Fn;nigsMBaF ehtudUecñH ehIy)anCaeKcg;)an va ykmkeFVICaTMrGaKar. enAeBlEdleKrkeXIj Bed rock enACitépÞxageRkaméndI eyIgRKan;EtkaydIxag elIecjrYceyIgGacdak;eCIgtagenAelIva enHCalkçN³mYyEdlmanlkçN³esdækic©CaTIbMput. enAeBlEdlfμ Bedrock zitenAKrelIKña enAkñúgCMerAdIexSay varwtEtmanlkçN³esdækic©eTAeTot edayeyIgcat;TukfμTaMgenaH CaRKwHbukBIépÞdIxageRkamtamry³dI. dIexSay ehIyGacRTRtg;GaKar)an. dUcenHKYrEtykcitþTukdak;enAkñúgkarGegátdI edayminRtUveGay mankMhuseLIy GMBIGakasFatu pÞaMgsilaFM² sMrab; Redrock. fμhalxül; ³ KWCaeQμaHEdleRbIR)as;cMeBaHsMPar³xøH² EdlbegáIteLIgkñúgPaBlM)akén BedrockenAkñúg RsTab;dI. fμRbePTenHminGacRTRTg;)aneLIy. duMfμmUl² ³ fμRbePTenHbMEbkecjBIsilaEdlmanTMhMelIsBI 10 inch . fμRbePTenHvaminGacRTbnÞúkFn;)an eLIy BieRBaHenAeBlEdlbgáb; b¤bBa©úHvaeTAkñúgdIexSay vaGacRkLab;eLIgelI b¤RkLab;ecjenAeBlEdl Construction Work - 29 -
  30. 30. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC bnÞúkelIva. RKYs³ vaCabMENkénsilaEdlmanTMhMBI 2mm 6in. vamanlkçN³rwg ehIyeKniymykeTAeRbIR)as;enA kñúgkargarRKwH)anl¥. xSac; ³ CaPaKl¥it²énsilavamanTMhM BI 0.05mm nigrhUtdl; 2mm .vamanlkçN³rwg ehIyeKniymykeTA eRbIR)as;enAkñúgkargarRKwH KWsMrab;bgðab;. xSac;m:t;enAeBlRtUvTwkvaminGacrgnUvTMgn; sgát;)aneLIy vakøay eTACaxSac;pugeTaHbICabnÞúkenaHRsayk¾eday. dIl,ab;nig dIdæ dIl,ab; nigdIdærYmpSMeLIgBIPaKl¥it² EdleyIgminGacemIlnwgEPñk)aneLIy. enAkñúgRbBn§½cMnat;fñak; mYy l,b;manPaKl¥it² cUlrYmpSMFMCagdIdæ kñúgRbBn½§cMNat;fñak;mYyl,b;manPaKl¥itcUlrYmpSMFMCagdIdæ kñúg RbBn½§cat;fñak;epSgeTot )ankMNt;fa dIl,ab;dUcCaRKab;FuBaØCatil¥it² enAkñúgBBYkdI Organic EdlminGaceFVI eGayl¥itedaysarkaréltMrUvGRtaTwk)aneLIy ehIyminGacmanPaBrwgmaMenAeBls¶Ütedayxül;)aneLIy. dIdæGaceGayGtßn½ydUcCaRKab;FuBaØCatitUczitenAkñúgBBYkmanCIvitEdlGaceFVIeGayl¥it)an eday sarkaréltMrUvGaRtaTwk nigmanPaBrwgmaMenAeBls¶Ütedayxül;. dUecñHdIdæ)at;bg;PaBs¥itenAeBls¶Üt ehIy KμanPaBrwgmaMenAeBlesIm. eKGaceRbIR)as;vaCadIRKwH)ank¾ b:uEnþzitenAeRkamlkçxNÐCak;lak;mYy. dIl,b; minRtUv)anykmkBicarNaCadIsMrab;RKwHeLIyBIeRBaHenAeBlvaesIm PaBrwgmaMrbs;vaminGacsgÇwm)aneLIy. xSac; nigRKYsRtUv)aneRCIserIsCasMPar³sMrab;kMlaMgCab;s¥it BieRBaHPaKl¥it² rbs;va minCab;KñaeLIy eKTaj ykPaBrwgmaMrbs;va BIkarkkitxagkñúg. vamanPaBpÞúyKña rvagdIdænigl,b;vaCasMPar³ Edls¥itCab;BieRBaH PaKrYmpSMrbs;va eTarTn;rkKña ehIyCab;s¥itenAeBlGRtaTwkTab. fμRKaMg Hard pan ³ karekIteLIgedayrUbFatuénsuIm:g;rYmCamYy nigbMENkfμ. fμ Hardpan xøHrYmpSMeLIgedayl,ayxSac; RKYs dIdæ b¤l,b; dIdæb¤ l,b;. fμ Hardpan EdlekIteLIgedaypÞaMgTwkkkEdlmanPaKpSMl¥it² dUcCadIdæ rhUtdl;duMfμmUl rYmbBa©ÚlKñaedaysMBaFx<s;edaysarpÞaMgTwkkk. GaRs½yedaykMriténkarrYmmanfμ Hardpan xøHGacykeTAeFVICasMPar³RTRTg;RKwH)an. fμRKaMg Till ³ KWCal,b;pÞaMgTwkkk énkarrlaycUlKña dUcCadIdæ dIl,b; xSac; RKYs nigduMfμFM². RbsinebIkarsgát; kñúglkçN³FmμCatiedaysMBaFx<s;fμ Till GaceRbIR)as;CasMPar³RTRKwH)an. Construction Work - 30 -
  31. 31. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC fμ TillvamanlkçN³rUbERbRbYldUcsMNTn; RbsinebIeyIgykvaeTAeRbIR)as;enAkñúgkarRTRTg;vaGaceFVI eGayGaKarrbs;eyIgmanlkçN³minesμI ¬eXøag¦. RCaM b¤Pk; Cal,aylaybBa©ÚlKña éndInigTwkPk;eKkRm ykvamkeRbIR)as;CasMPar³RTRKwHNas; eRBaHvaKμanlMnwgenAkñúgkarsagsg; RbsinebICYbdIRbePTenH eKRtUv cak;bMeBjedaydIl¥eTAtamkMBs;EdleKRtUvkar. 1>2 rUbFatuéndI kareTaHTayeTAelIlkçN³rbs;dICYnkaleyIgeFVIkarsegátedaygay² eTAelIrUbFaturbs;va. TaMgenH rYmbBa©Úleday PaKepSg²dg;suIet GaRtasMeNIm PaBCab; PaBGacRCabTwk PaBEdlGacbMENn)an nigkMlaMg kat;EdlmankarTak;TgeTAvijeTAmk. TidæPaBBIeRkAéndI rUbPaBxageRkAéndIEdleyIgGacemIlvaeXIjrUbrag nigkarlUtlas; b¤k¾PaKryénTMhMRKab;nimYy² GaRs½yedayTMhMnig PaKbnSMenHÉg. BN’KWCa sar³sMxan;EtmYyKt; vaCakarcg¥úlR)ab;eGaydwgnUvvtþmanén sMPar³enaHBitR)akd. rUbFatusMxan;² rbs;dIxøHdUcCakar RsUbTwk TaMgenaHCaeKalkarN_énTMhM nigRTg;RTayEdlbgðaj eGayeXIjnUvépÞCak;lak; b¤épÞ1ÉktaénmaD. ktþaEdlCak;lak;pgEdr dUcCaépÞCak;lak;éndI dæFMCagxSac; 1000 dg enHmankarBnül;CaeRcInxus²Kña BIlkçN³énxSac;nig dIdæ. dg;suIetdI³ dg;suIetrbs;dIvaGaRs½yeTAelIkarx©b;bBa©ÚlKña nUvPaKbnSMl¥it²rbs;dI. dg;suIetGaccg¥úlbgðajGMBI smtßPaBénkarsgát;rbs;dIBIeRBaHdITn;vagayRsYlkñúgkarbgðab;eGayENn. dg;suIetrbs;dIGacpøas;bþÚr eday sarkareRbI]bkrN_bgðab; dUcCarUlUCaedIm. PaKryénkarbgðab; CaFmμtaeKvas;dg;suIeT EdlsMerc)an. CaTUeTAsþg;dar énkareFVIetsþ kñúgmnÞIrBiesaFn_KW edIm,IbegáIteGaymandg;suIeTCaGtibrmaéndI EdlcaM)ac;RtUv eFVIkarbgðab;eday Proctor Edlpþl;eGaykñúg 1b kñúg Cu Ft. enAeBlsagsg;GaKar b¤pøÚvfñl;cMeBaHdIEdlcak; bMebj 90 100° énkarbgðab;RtUvbBa¢ak;eGayc,as;. GRtasMeNIm³ GRtasMeNIméndI KWCaktþsMxan;BieRBaHlkçN³rbs;dIPaKeRcInGaRs½yeTAelIcMnYnTwkEdlenACamYy. dIEdlEq¥tTwk KWenAeBlEdlmaDTwkesμInwgmaDRbehagrbs;va. PaBefr PaBefrcg¥úlbgðajBIlkçxNÐ énRKab;Rkaml¥it² rbs;dIGac nigbgðajdUcCaPaBrelag PaBmaMmYn b¤ rwg. smtßPaBRTRTg;bnÞúkéndIvaGacERbRbYleTAtamPaBefrenHÉg. Construction Work - 31 -
  32. 32. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC PaBRCabTwkéndI KWCasmtßPaBéndIedIm,IbMeBjTwkecal. dIEdlmanRKab;RkamFMmankarRCabTwkx<s; EtcMeBaHdIEdl manRKab;Rkaml¥it² karRCabTwkmankMritexSay. PaBEdlGacsgát;)an karEdlGacsgát;)anvamansarsMxan;Nas; vadUcCaktþanuBlénkarvas; sMruténdIEdlRTRTg;RKwH. kMlaMgkat; kMlaMgkat;KW CakarKNnaepSgeTot eTAelIsmtßPaBRTRTg;bnÞúkéndI. kMlaMgkat;enHvaGaRs½yeTAelI ktþaepSgeTot edayrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgRbePTéndI CMerAxYg etImankarrMxanGVIxøH? enAeBlEdlykecjmkeRkAenA eBlCIk b¤enAeBlsagsg;ehIy nigGRtasMeNImpgEdr. cMeBaHdIEdlmanPaBs¥it dUcCa xSac; dIl,b;nigRKYs RbEhl30 . kMlaMkat;rbs;dIdæ)anbgðajeGayeXIjBIPaBxusKña vaeRcInEtTajykmkBIkMlaMgCab;s¥it nig º kMlaMgCab;s¥iteTAvij. cMeBaHdIlaykMlaMgkat;TajykmkBIkMlaMg s¥itCab; nigkarkkiteTAvij. tamc,ab; Coulomb EdleKykmkGnuvtþcMeBaHdIl,b; laydIdæ xSac;laydIdæ nigl,b;layxSac;)anpþl;nUvkMlaMgkat; tamrUbmnþ³ fv = c + fn tan ø Edl c PaBCab;s¥itrbs;dI fn sMBaFFmμtaelIépÞrbs;dI ø muMkkitkñúg dUecñHkMlaMgkat;rbs;dIlayCaTUeTA kMNt;edaykareFVIBiesaFn_BIeRBaHvamankarlM)akkñúgkarEbgEck nigviPaK. 1>3 kardæanxYgdI eKalbMNgénkarpSarsikSaRsavRCavdI KWedIm,ITTYlnUvTinñn½ydUcxageRkam³ 1> cMeBaHdwgénzanelxaviC¢aTUeTA rbs;dIkardæan eRBaHvamanT§iBleTAelIkarelIkKMeragBIRKwH nigkar sagsg; rUbFatu rUbragépÞdI sNæanEdlenACitenaH pøÚvTwk RsHTwk rbs;edImeQI edImeQI pÞaMgfμFM² fμduHecjBI kñúgdI nigktþaepSeTot dUcCakardwkCBa¢ÚnsMPar³CaedIm. 2> TItaMgEdlRtUvbgáb;EdlCaeRKOgsMrYl dUcCazamBlGKÁisnI nigbeNþjExSTUrs½BÞ RbPBTwk nig RbBn§½lUbgðÚrTwkkxVk;. Construction Work - 32 -
  33. 33. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 3> PUKBðsa®sþTUeTAénTItaMgenaH ehIyCaBiessenaHCamYyÉksareyagrbs;GñkPUKBðsa®sþ EdlCa nimiμtrUbénEpñkxageRkaménkardæan nigGVInigGacekIteLIgBIxniCenAeBlEdleyIgykecj nigkrNIepSg² eTot. 4> RbvtþiénkareRbIR)as;kardæanenHBImunrYmbBa©lTaMgkarcakecal b¤karxkxanénGaKarmunEdl)an Ú kMNt;cMeBaHlkçxNÐénRKwH. 5> lkçN³Biessd¾éTeTotdUcCa GVIGacnwgekItmanénkarrBa¢ÜyEpndI b¤ktþaFmμCatidUcCaTwkCMnn;tam rdUvkalkarehImRskéndI nigkarhUreRcaHéndI. 6> sikSaEsVgyl;BIKuNPaBsMPar³sMNg; enAkñúgtMbn;enaHdUcCa ebtuGaRKIeKðt¬xSac; fμ RKYs¦ GaKar nig fμpøÚv nigTwksMrab;karsagsg;. 7> sMrab;rcnasm<n§½EdlenACitsmuRT b¤Tenø Bt’manelIkMritTwkeCar b¤nacnigkMritkMBs; TwkTenøk¾dUcCa dMeNIrRskcuH b¤eCareLIgpøÚvTwk nig]tþúniym. 8> eFVIkarlMGiteTAelIdI nigfμ ¬TItaMgzitenA¦ niglkçxNÐénTwkeRkamdIenAkñúgtMbn;enaHEdlmanTi§Bl eTAelIsmtßPaBRTRTg;rbs;RKwH nigdMeNIrkarsagsg; b¤CMerAxøHeTotEdlmanT§iBleTAelIkardæan niglkçxNÐ epSgeTot. 9> lT§plrbs;mnÞIrBiesaFn_ eTAelIdInigfμ ¬BIsMNakKMrUsmRsb¦ CaBiesskñúgkarelIkKMeragRKwH b¤ k¾bBaðasagsg;. 10> lT§plénkarviPaKKImIeTAelIdI b¤TwkeRkamdI edIm,IkMNt;EdlGacTTYlyk)ancMeBaHsuxPaB nig CIvit nig T§iBleTAelIrcnasm<n§½RKwH. 1>4 TMrg;énkarsikSaGMBIdI karGegátedayEPñk CMha‘ndMbUgEdlRtUvkarcaM)ac;sMrab;karelIkKMeragGaKarenaH KWGñkpþl;eyabl;EpñkxagRKwH GñkRKb;RKg karsagsg; nigGñkedjéføsagsg;sMrab;GnaKt. karRtYtBinitüBic½yedayEPñk KYrEtpþl;Bt’manenAelIépÞdI fμ fμduHecjBIdI muxTwk CMral cMeNat sMrab;kardwkCBa¢Únbrikaç nig]bkrN_sMrab;karRsavRCavKuNPaBépÞdIxag eRkamnigkarrukrkRbPBTwkCaBiesskarxYg rkrcnasm<½n§BImunEdlGacmanenAelIkardæan. RbsinebIGackar GegátKYrEtkMNt;faetI GtßRbeyaCn_énEpñkeRkamdI EdlGacqøgkat;kardæanenHmanGVIxøH. EdkxYgdItUcGac eRbIR)as;kñúgkareFVIviPaKedayExVk)any:agqab;rh½s nigTItaMgénkMritkMBs;TwkeRkamdI. karRsavRCav Construction Work - 33 -
  34. 34. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC Bt’mansþIGMBIRbPBEdlmanmunmkRtUvykcitþTukdak; eGay)anx<s;eRBaHnaMmknUvBt’manEdlCapl RbeyaCn_ehIymantMélTabeTotpg. dUcenHehIyGñkelIkKMeragnig Gñkem:AkarKYrEt KitenAkñúgstiGMBI Bt’manGs;enaH enAeBlEdlsMercykGVImYyEdlCamUldæaneRBaHvaCaeCaKvasnarbs;sMNg;. ehIyy:ag ehacNas;k¾va)anbBa¢ak;GMBIdMeNIrrukrkénkardæanEdr. karRsavRCavrYmbBa©ÚlpgEdr nUvkarsaksYrGMBIsMNakRbCaCnEdlrs;enAkñúgtMbn;enaHGMBIRbvtþiénkar dæanenH dUcCaGMBITwkCMnn;BIqñaMknøgeTA lkçxNÐénTwkeRkamdICaedIm. eRcInCagenHeTAeTot eyIgGacsikSaBI GñkEdleFVIkarsagsg;enAkardæanEk,r² enaHdUcCa ³ sßabtükr/ visVkr nigGñkem:AkarCaedIm. RbkarmYyeToteyIgGacsuMkMNt;Rta énkarxYgdIEdleKeFVIenACitenaH RbsinebIGacTTYl)an. Bt’man EdlTTYlenaHKYrEteTAelIRbePT nigCMerArbs;RKwHEdlenAEk,renaHrcnasm<n§½ niglkçN³rbs;vaedayrYmbBa©Úl TaMgTUelxénsMrutpgEdr Cakarl¥kMNt;ehturbs;Rkug EpnTIPUmisa®sþEdlmansarRbeyaCn_kñúgkarsikSaedIm,I kMNt;GMBITItaMgénEpñkxageRkamdI nigEpñkxagelIdI kardæanenAEk,renaHedIm,IeFVIkareRCIserIsBitR)akdmYy. karsÞg;énPUKBÖsa®sþ CaFmμtaGnuvtþedayGñkÉkeTs EdlGacpþl;nUvBt’mand¾manRbeyaCn_eTAelIlkçxNÐéndI nigfμ. sMrab;eKaledAEdlmanlkçN³esdækic©karsÞg;kEnøgFM² vaRbesIrCa. BIlT§plénkarsÞg;enH GñkÉkeTsCa jwkjab;GacRsavRCavsMPar³FmμCatiEdlmanRbePTepSg²KñaenATIkEnøgenaH. karviPaKEdlmanRbeyaCn_CaBIessenaHKW bzmRtUvrukrkRsavRCavEpñkxageRkaménépÞdI EdlCa kBa©b;dIFMmYy. 1>5 viFIsa®sþénkarrukrkrsavRCavdI etsþedayeRbIbMBg; nigCIkreNþA Pits and Trench karviPaKenH)anpþl;nUvkarGegátedayEPñkedaypÞal; nigkareRCIserissMNakéndIedayéd b:uEnþvaman kMNt;cMeBaHtMélvamankMNt;cMeBaHCMerA)anRtwmEt 10 m b¤ticCag. karCIkreNþAvamanRbeyaCn_sMrab;Et TItaMMgépÞEdlTak;TgeTAnwgRsTab;licTwkcMeNatEtb:ueNÑaH. etsþPits vamanlkçN³esdækic© nigeGayGtßn½yrh½sénBt’manGMBIsNæandIEdlTTYl)anb:uEnþ minRtUv eRbIEtmYyeT y:agehacNas;sMPar³sMrab;dak;BIeRkambMBg; Pits RtUvnwgeGay)anRtwmRtUvpgEdr. dIEdlenA kñúgbMBg; Pit nigreNþAGaceRCIserIsCasMNakedayédedayrujbMBg;cUleTAkñúgEpñkxageRkaméndI. karbgðajPsþútag Construction Work - 34 -
  35. 35. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karxYg b¤karvas;CMerAeday minyksMNakeKeFVIeLIgedIm,IrkTItaMgEpñkxagelIénfμ b¤k¾edIm,IkarTTYl sÁal;énGtþsBaØaNkmμéndI. kareRbIR)as;]bkrN_xYgenHva)anbgðajnUvrUbFatuéndI. Rbdab;sÞg;fμ GacR)ab; CamunpgEdr GMBIPaBTak;TgKñaénfμ edaykarvas;EvgkMriténkarxYgbBa©ÚleRkamkarTMlak;sMBaFefrmYy. 2> karCIkGaKareRkamdI 2>1 RbePTénkarCIk vamanRbePTepSg²KñaCaeRcIn kñúgkarGnuvtþkarCIkdI kñúgkMLúgeBlsagsg;énKMerag. karCIkTl; karCIkTl;eKeRbIR)as;enAkEnøg b¤EpñkNaEdlCaTMrrbs;rcnasm<n§½Tb;. rUb 3-7 RbePTénkarCIk karCIkcMhr bBaðamYyEdlcMbgehIy EdlGacCYbRbTHenaHKWkarCIkGaKareRkamdI. EdlRtUvpþl;nUvTMrbeNþaHGasnñ b¤eRbI kUneQIcMeBaHkarCIkénEpñkxøH. enHKWCakrGacb:HBal;mYyenAeBlEdlkarsagsg;GaKareRkamdIdUcCakMral CBa¢aMgBitR)akd cab;epþImdMeNIrkarN_. viFIsa®sþmYyEdleKeRbIR)as;enAkñúgkarCIkdIpÞÜn² EpñkxageRkaykñúgmuM EdlmansuvtßiPaBmYyGBa©wgeyIgGacb)at;ecalnuvkargarTMrbeNþaHGasnñecjBIEpñkEdlRtUvCIk. enAkñúgEpñk esdækic©tMélénkarCIk nigkMlaMgénBlkrvaRKbdNþb;eTAelIkarkaydIbEnßm karcak;bMeBjdIvij nigkarbMENn RtUvTUTat;edaysnSMsMécedaykarlubbM)at;ecalnUvkargareFVITMr beNþaHGasnñeTAkEnøgEdlRtUvkaydI. KuN vibtþid¾FMenAkñúgkareRbIviFIenH vatMrUveGaymankEnøgTMenreRcIneTIbGacGnuvtþ)an. Construction Work - 35 -
  36. 36. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karCIkreNþAbrievN enAkñúgviFIsa®sþenH reNþAmanTMhMTUlayRKb;RKan;sMrab;sagsg;CBa¢aMgTb;raMgkñúgkarCIk nigTMrkUneQI dUcEdlRtUvkar. vaGaccaM)ac;sMrab;embeNþay b¤emTTWgnigbegÁalGMBIEdk edIm,IdMeNIrkareTAmuxkñúgkargar CIk. viFIsa®sþenHGaceRbIR)as;enAkEnøgNaEdlCYbRbTHRsTab;dIexSay GBa©wgCBa¢aMgRKWHvargnUvGMeBIdUcCa CnÞúlelIbeNþaHGasnñxNEdlKMnrGacn_dI RtUv)ankayecjehIydak;Ep¥kmkelIkMralebtuenaH. karCIkreNþA CabrievNGacGnuvtþn_pgEdrcMeBaHRsTab;dIEdlrwg enAeBlenaHeKtMrUveGayCIkedayemkaniccMeBaH karkay Gacn_dIvamincaM)ac;eBlevlaeLIy. rUb 3-8 karCIkRbLay karCIksMerc viFIsa®sþenHeKeRbIcMeBaHRsTab;dIEdlrwg Edlp©itrbs;RKwHGacRtUv)ankayCamunsin edIm,IGnuBaØati eGayeKcak;kMral)an edaymincaM)ac;eRbICnÞúl. RbGb;RKwH ¬ekHsug¦ KWCaRbGb;rcnasm<n§½EdldUcKñaeTAnwgTMnb;TwkpgEdr b:uEnþCaFmμtava)anbegáIt )anCaEpñkTaMgmUlén rcnasm<n§½sMerc. eKGacCIkRbGb;RKwHenAkñúgTwk b¤enAkñúgdIEdlmanCMerAelIsBI 18 m. manRbGb;RKwH4y:agKW³ - ekHsugRbGb; - ekHsugcMh - ekHsugRbGb;mYy b¤m:UNUlITic - ekHsugePñIm:aTic Construction Work - 36 -
  37. 37. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CaFmμtavaeFVIBIebtucak;Rsab;ehIyeRbIkarenAkñúgTwkKW BnøiceTAkñúgTwkb:uEnþ cMeBaHekHsugEdleRbIenAkñúgdICa RbePTekHsugcMh)atEdlRtUvsg;enAnwgkEnøg. rUb 3-9 karCIkdIsMrab;ekHsug ekHsugeFVIm:aTic CYnkal eKeGayeQμaHvafa ekHsugxül;bMENn. vaRtUv)aneRbIenAkñúgRsTab;dIxageRkamd¾lM)ak Edl zitenAkñúgTwk ehIymansMBaFTabCagsMBaFeFVIkarrbs;RbGb;ekHsugenH edIm,IFanasuvtßiPaBénkareFVIkars¶Üt ehIyekHsugePñIm:aTicGaceFVIBIebtug dUcenHehIyvaF¶n;ehIyliceTAkñúgTwk edaysarTMgn;rbs;va b¤Gacsag sg;GMBIEdkEdlmanCBa¢aMgkat;ExVgcuHeLIg ehIybMeBjedaysarTwk vaeFVIkarkñúgnamCa)alas;. eKKNnaekHsugEdlCaEpñkmYyénrcnasm<n§½sMerc. 3> CBa¢aMgTb;dI ³ viFIsa®sþsagsg; 3>1 RbePTCBa¢aMgTb;dI Construction Work - 37 -
  38. 38. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eKalbMNgénCBa¢aMgTb;beNþaHGasnñ KWedIm,IkayykdIecjedIm,I)an»kassagsg;GaKarCaedIm. RbePTénrcnsm<n§½ beNþaHGasnñ nigviFItMelIgTak;TgnwgkkþaemCaeRcIn dUcCaRbePTdI karrt;eLIgénTwkeRkam dI CMerArbs;dIEdlRtUvRT rcnasm<n§½Citxag EdlRtUvrgT§iBledaysarEtkarkayykdIecj ehIyRbsinebIeK eRbIviFIsa®sþCaeRcInedIm,IeFVIKMeragenaHva eFVIeGaytMélekInx<s; nigry³eBlEvgkñúgkartMelIg. rUb 3-10> rUbCBa¢aMEdksnøwk CBa¢aMgkþarbBaÄr kareRbICBa¢aMkþar KWCaviFIcas;bUraNkñúgkarTb;dI b:uEnþCYnkaleKenAEteRbI eRBaHvamanlkçN³esdækic©. eKniymeRbIcMeBaHkarkaydI cMeBaHEpñkEdlmanRbeyaCn_dUcCaTwks¥at TwkkxVk; TUrsBÞ½CaedIm nigsMrab; RbLayEdlmanCMerABI 3,6 4,6m. viFIbgðajmknUvkarKab;citþd¾RbesIr. begÁalebtu nigembeNþay RbBn§½Tb;dIEdlmanembBaÄr eKehAfassrRKwHebtu CaTUeTAvamankMBs; BI 1/8 eTA 3Em:Rt tMelIg xageRkamfñak;kñúgEpñkxagkñúg EpñkxagmuxénkarkaydI nigkugkartMelIgembeNþayedayeRbIesarrvagbegÁal ebtugnigembeNþayEdlRtUveFVIbnÞab;BIkayehIy. begÁalebtugCaFmμta GacplitenAkardæanb:uEnþGacman EpñkpliteRscBIeragcRkCabMBg; b¤BIeRKOgepSg²eTot. CaFmμtavatMelIgCamYym:asuIn bukRKwH b:uEnþGac tMelIgedaykarxYgreNþAdak;eTAkñúg Pits b¤edaymeFüa)ayepSg²eTot dUctMrUvkaredayEp¥keTAelIlkçxNÐ rbs;kardæan. embeNþayCaFmμta eFVIeLIgBIeQIehIytMelIgBIxageRkayénEKmssreTACit nigkarkaydI EdkxøHb¤k¾ebtugEdlpliteRsckMNat;kþarGaceRbIR)as;kñgkEnøgénkþarbnÞH. bnÞHTaMgenaHGactMelIgedaymux ú Construction Work - 38 -
  39. 39. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC cUlmkkñúgTl;nwgEKmbegÁalehIyvaRTKYckññúgkEnøgedayviFIepSg²dUcCa³ eRbItem,ótxÞas;/ pSar/ eRbIEdkbBa©úH b¤r)aEvg>>>>.l. Edk KWCamUlEdlmanRTg;RTay nigTMgn;epSgKñaCamYynigtMNrBiessEdlmanGMeBIdUcCaesarxagkñúgrvag muxkat;énbnÞHEdkenH. eRbIR)as;sMrab;karTb;rcnasm<n§½beNþaHGasnñ Edlmanmuxkat;CaGkSr Z b¤k¾tYeRCA ¬PøWFM¦ Edlmanm:UDuleGLasÞicFMehIyCaTUeTAeKniymeRbIR)as;. rUb 3>11 karbuksnøwkEdk KuNsm,tþid¾BiessénkareRbIR)as; snøwkEdkenHenAeBlNaEdlmankMritkMBs;Twk eRkamdIx<s; nigdI EdlTb;minmansPaBl¥enAmuneBlbgðÚrecj b¤RbsinebIeKykmkeRbIR)as;kñúgkareRbIR)as;kñúgkarEfrrkSaTwk eRkamdIBIxageRkAkñúgkarCIkdIenAelIkMritkMBs;EldmanRsab;ehIy. Construction Work - 39 -
  40. 40. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eKbBa¢ÚnsnøwkEdkeTAkñúgdICamunsinedayeRbIm:asuInbukRKwHrYcehIy eTIbkaydIecjtameRkay. edIm,I eGaymanRbsiTi§PaBkan;EtFM eKGacdMsnøwkEdkrhUtdl;RsTab;minRCabTwk b¤eGayhYsCMerAEdlRtUvkay edIm,IlubbM)at; TwkeRkamdI EdlxitenAeRkamsnøwkEdk. eKRtUveRKagTukCamuncMeBaHTwkEdlGacelcecjtamCBa¢aMgEdk. CBa¢aMgGMBIsnøwkEdk)at;RbsiT§iPaB rbs;vakalNatMNsnøwkEdkmin)ancUlKñas‘ub b¤snøwkEdkTaMgGs;min)andMbBa©ÚleGay)anl¥. lkçxNÐTaMg Gs;enHGacbNþalmkBI]bsKÁenAkñúgdI b¤RsTab;dIrwgebk b¤kardMsnøwkEdkmin)anRtwmRtuv. dIxSac;FU b¤dIcak;bMeBjGacrgnUvbMENnkñúgeBlEdleyIgdMsnøwkEdkbBa©ÚldUecñHkareRbIviFIsa®sþenH RtUv)anvaytMélkalNaeKdMeLIgsnøwkEdkenAEk,rGaKarEdlmanRsab;. edaysarsMPar³mantMélx<s;eKKYr TajdksnøwkEdk)anRtwmRtUvvamansar³sMxan;Nas;kñúgkareFVIeGayc,as;eLIg GMBIRbsiT§iPaBénRbBn§½. mun nigbBa¢ÚnsnøwkEdkeTAkñúgdI KYrEtdak;eTAtamxñatKMrUmYy edIm,ITTYl)annUvrebobCaCYr. kMBUléne)abg;)aj; rbs;RbBn§½CBa¢aMgGaceRbIkarCabegÁaltMruymYy. eKKYrdMbBa©ÚlsnøwkEdkEdlEpñkxagcugénsnøwknimYy²man ragCakaMCeNþIrKW tamlMdab;cuH b¤eLIg b¤eLIgcuH² ragCarlk. EdlxagcugsnøwkEdkBIrEdlenACitKñaminRtUv manKMlatelIsBI 1/5 Em:Rt 1/8Em:RteLIy. ssrRKwHEdlxYgbBa©Úl eKniymeRbIkarxYgdICamun eTIbdak;ssrRKwHCaeRkay minsUvniymeRbIkarbukb¤ dMbBa©ÚleLIy.enAEpñk xøHénRbeTsEdldIenAcMh dEdlenAeBldkéføxYgecj viFIenHcMeBaHdINaEdlminmanGMeNaypl dl;karxYg tMélekInx<s;ehIykargarRbRBitþeTAy:agyWt. eK)at;bg;lkçN³esdækic©xøHkalNalkçxNÐrbs;dItMrUveGayeRbIs‘u¿beNþaHGsnñ b¤karxYgdIPk;. cMeBaHdIxagkñúgmanduMfμFM² vanaMeGayraMgsÞHdl;karxYgdUecñHeFVIeGay)at;bg;lkçN³esdækic©. rUb 3-12 yufáaP¢ab;eTAnigdI Construction Work - 40 -
  41. 41. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kareRbIbegÁalRKwHedayxYgmanlkçN³Tn;Pøn;CakareRbIbegÁalRKwHedaydMbBa©Úl. reNþAGacRtUvbMeBj edayebtugedIm,IbegáIt)anCassrebtug ¬KμansésEdk¦ kññúgkrNIcaM)ac;eKdak;sésrEdkrYbehIyeTIbcak; ebtugeK)anssrRKwHebtugGaem b¤CYnkaleToteKdak;ssrEdkeTAkñúgreNþAxYg. kEnøgNaEdlRtUveRbIEdksMrab;Tb;GactMeLIgenAelIssrRKwH muneBlEdldak;eTAkñúgreNþARKwH. enAeBlEdldak;rcnasm<n§½eTAkñúgreNþA CaFmμtaeRKRtUvtMerobssrebtugenAtIvasin eFVIy:agenHedIm,I CYytMrg;vamunnig bBa©ÚleTAkñúgreNþAehIyreNþARtUvcak;bMeBjedayebtugLaMEL¬)ann½yfa suIm:g;1)avRtUv layeGay)an 0/76 m énebtug¦. RbkarenHvaCYyTb;ssrebtugeGayenAnwgkEnøgdUcCakarkaydIbnþ 3 ehIybnÞúkrbs;dIdak;enAelIssrebtugdUecñHEdr. enAkñúgdIs¥itdIGacmanlkçN³CakMeNagFñÚenAcenøaHssrebtugEdlKμanGVICaTMr dUecñHvaCaRbkarl¥RtUv tMelIgTMrRbePTxøHsMrab;CaRTRTg; ¬sés mesh rbgRcvak;P¢ab;¦ edIm,ITb;sáat;nigkareFVIeGayFøak;dI. vaCakar rYmKñakan;EtsmrmüeLIg kñúgkarR)ak;eGayCak;lak;enAkñúgkareRbIR)as; ]bkrN_xYgreNþAsMrab;KMeragenAkar dæankñúgTIRkugedImI,kMcat;ecalnUvsMelgxøaMg² ehIybnßynUvrMj½rEdlekItmaneLIgenAeBlbukRKwH. RbkarmYy eTotEdlRtUvykcitþTukdak;xøaMgbMputenaH KWenAeBleFVIkarviPaKeTAelIlkçxNÐénKMeragenaH. RKwHcas;² fμFM² GaceFVIGnþraKmn_y:agxøaMCamYyreNþAxYgehIyeFVIeGayTMrg;kargarenHBi)akCaTIbMput. CBa¢aMgBIkakEr:elah³ Baküfa CBa¢aMgkakEr:Gacmann½yepSgeTot enAeBlEdleKkayreNþAtamviFI Slurry . ehtudUecñH ehIysMrab;eKalbMNgénkarsikSarbs;eyIg eyIgnigeRbIBaküepSgedIm,IGFib,ayCBa¢aMgBIebtug eGem sag sg;edaykarkaydIeRbIR)as;bg;tUnIttamviFI slurry ehIycak;bMeBjvijCamYyebtugFunRsal. enAeBlenH eyIgkMBugBiPakSaGMBIrcnasm<n§½ beNþaHGasnñtamBitedayEpñkelIlkçN³esdækic©sMNg;RbePTenH eyIgsag sg;enAeBlEdleyIgeRbIR)as;CBa¢aMgenaH dUcCaEpñkmYyénrcnasm<n§½efrEdr. CaTUeTATMrg;énkarsagsg; CBa¢aMg Slurry GnuvtþdUcxageRkam³ sg; ¬RbLaydMbUg¦ GaKarenHmanCBa¢aMgBIrnaMpøÚvEdlCaTUeTAsg;eLIgBIebtugGaem. cenøaHBICBa¢aMg mYyeTAmYyeTotRbEhl 2/5 cmFMCagTMhMrbs;CBa¢aMg. RbLaydMbUgsagsg;eLIgsMrab;karcat;CaCYrén CBa¢aMg Slurry TaMgGs;ehIyCYynaMpøÚvm:asuInkaydIpg. cak;bMeBjRbLaydMbUgCamYynwgkakEr:elah³bg;tUnIt. vamansar³sMxan;EdlkMritkMBs;én Slurry nig rkSarRbEhlkMritkMBs;dIedIm ehIyy:agehacNas; 60cm elIsBIkMritTwkeRkamdI. karcab;epþImCIkdI ¬CaFmμtaCamYyFugvilRbWkaMg¦ bnþkarcak;bMeBjreNþACamYykakEr:elah³ bg;tUnIt CMnYsdIEdlkayecj. RbEvgénCBa¢aMgEdlCIkmYyelIk² GacepSg²Kña BI 7/6m eTA 9/1m. muxkat;nimYy² Construction Work - 41 -
  42. 42. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ehAfabnÞH (Panel) . kñúgmYyeBlGacCik 2-3 Paneltamry³beNþayk¾dUcCacenøaHBIbnÞH Panel mYyeTAmYy eTotEdrminGnuBaØatibg;tUnIt BICYrnimYycUlCYrmYyeToteLIy. bnÞab;BI)andwkbnÞH Panel smRsbtamkMrit kMBs;ehIy reNþARtUvsMGatGacn_dIecjehIy ¬cugbMBg;¦ b¤k¾EdkFñwmRtUvdak;;eTAkñúgreNþAEdlCIkrYc. cak; ebtugcUleTAtamcenøaHbMBg;eTACMnYskakEr:elah³bg;tUnIt. RbsinebIbMBg;RtUveRbIR)as;bnþRtUvcak;ecjmun eBlEdlebtugcab;epþImkk. RbsinebIEdkFñmRtUvTukeRbIR)s;eTotsMrab;FñwmcugeKCaFmμtaeKRtUvbnSl;TukeTA w nwgkEnøg. GnuvtþeTAtamCMh‘an² rhUtdl;CBa¢aMg)anbBa©b;. RbsinebIbMBg;RtUveRbIR)as;sMrab;bnÞH Panel Cit²Kña EttMrUvEtcugbMBg;mYyb:ueNÑaHrhUtdl;tMNmansNæaneTAelIcugmYy. enAeBlEdlCYbRbTH b¤b:HTgÁicdIrwg b¤fμ m:asuInxYgnig e)akxøaMgdUecñHGactMrUveGayyksMPar³enaHecj. 4> m:asuInkaydI enHKWCaEpñkmYy y:agsMxan;énGñksagsg; ehIyEdlRtUvkareRbIR)as;bzmenAkñúgkarCIk b¤kaydICa eRcInRbePT. karkay b¤CIkdIedaym:asuInvamanlkçN³y:agTUlMTUlayehIymankarpøas;bþÚrCaerIy² BIGñk EdlelIkKMeragk¾b:uEnþeTaHbICamankarpøas;bþÚrm:asuIn RbePTNak¾edayk¾eKcat;cUlEpñkEtmYyEdr. 4>1 RtakT½rcUkdI EpñkenHCaeKalRKwHbzménkarcUkdI BIEpñkxagelIéneRKOgynþ b¤k¾tamclnavilCuM. vamanlkçN³Ca sklehIygayRsYlkñúgkareRbIR)as;edayzamBl EdlEp¥kelIRbGb;zamBlénm:asuIn b¤eRbIR)as;eday RbBn§½GuIRtULiceTAtamEtkarEdleKplitmk. Rtak;T½rRbePTenH CaTUeTAGaccUkdI)anRKb;RbePTelIkElgEt fμ EdlCabzmRtUvbMEbkeGaytUc²sin CaFmμtaeKeRcIndak;mIn CamunsineTIbcUk)an. muxEb:lCaTUeTAtMrUv eGayykcitþTukdak; CaBiiessenAeBleFVIclna cUksMPar³epSgehIyRtUvpÞúksMPar³ Rsallμm minGnuBaØati eGaycUkeRcIneBkeT enAeBlEdleFVIclnaenAkñúgkardæan. PaKeRcInénRtak;T½rRbePTenH smtßPaBmankMNt; BI300 400 sMrab;karcUkxagelIénrfynþ b¤clnaCargVg;. Construction Work - 42 -
  43. 43. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb 3>15 RbePTénRtak;T½rkaydI 4>2 Backacters Rtak;T½rRbePTenHsmRsbCamYykargarCIkreNþARKwH nigreNþARKwH CBa¢aMgRtak;T½rRbePTenHman lkçN³gayRsYlenAkñúgkareRbIR)as;dwkCBa¢ÚndI EdlminRtUvkareTAkan;TIkEnøgEdlCit² enaH b¤kaydImkcak; bMeBjvij. m:asuInRbePTenHtMrUveGaymankarbnßybnÞúkenAkñúgkardwkCBa¢Ún. Backacters eRbIR)as;kñúgkarCIk reNþAEdlpþl;nUvTinñplx<s;ehIymanPaBsuRkiteTotpg. 4>3 Rtak;T½rkaydI Draglines Construction Work - 43 -
  44. 44. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rfynþRbePTenHEpñkeTAelIzamBlsklCamUldæan rYmpSMeLIgedayRKgExSr:k P¢ab;CamYyFugsMrab; kaydI. m:asuInRbePTenHeKpliteLIgsMrab;kaydIEdlmanlkçN³exSay )anCMerArhUt 3m xageRkamén TItaMgEdlrfynþenHzitenA edayclnavileTAvilbkénFugkaydI nigGacTaj b¤ekordIeTAmxfyeRkayeday RbBn§½bBa¢ar. Rtak;T½rkaydIenH GactMrUvpgEdrCamYy FugvilRbWkaMgb¤FugsMrab;karkaydIEdlexSay. 4>4 b‘uldUhSWr (Bulldozer) b‘uldUhSW KWCaRtak;T½rQUs b¤rujdIrYmpSMeLIgeday³ -tYm:asuIn -tMb;nkg; nig - RbGb;zamBl b¤RbGb;bBa¢aCamYynwgEb:l sMrab;QUsnig rujenAxagmux EdlCaFmμtaedIreday RbBn§½GIRtUlIc Etk¾manb‘uldUhSWxøHeRbIExSkabedIm,IeFVIclnaEdr. b‘uldUhSWPaKeRcInmansmtßPaB kñúgkarep¥óg Eb:lsMrab;QUs b¤rujdI)anBIGkS½kNþalénm:asuIn. 4>5 RtakT½rBRgabdI (Scrapers) Rtak;T½rRbePTenHmanEb:lsMrab;ekordI EdlragdUccaneRCAEdlGacTMlak;Eb:leGayTabsMrab;kat; b¤ RbmUldIkEnøgNaEdleKcak;ehIy nigkEnøgNaEdlmannIv:Ux<s; RbtibtþikarN_enHtMrUveGaymanbrimaNdIeRcIn ehIyenAeblEdl]bkrN_ekoreBareBjeTAedaydIvaRtUvykdITaMgenaHeTAecalenAkEnøgNamYyEdlenAEk,r enaH. enAeBleFVIclnadwkCBa¢ÚndIykeTAdak;kEnøgepSgEb:lRtUvelIkeLIgelI ehIyenAeBlmkdl;kEnøgekor RtUvTMlak;Eb:lcuH[Tab. 4>6 RtakT½rekordI (Graders) Rtak;T½rRbePTenHmaneKalkarN_dUc b‘uldUhSWEdr EdlenAP¢ab; nigtYmanEb:lmYyy:agEvglélEdl GacéltMrUv)an ehIyCaFmμtazitenAcMcMNuckNþalénm:asuIn. eKalkarN_rbs;m:asuInenHKWekorsMGat b¤cak; tamlMdab;épÞxagelIénRsTab;dI EdlGnuvtþbnþBI Bulldozer nig Scrapers ehIyGnuvtþcMeBaHTIkEnøgNaFM TUlay. 4>7 Tractor Shovels Rtak;T½rRbePTenH CYnkareKehAfa GñknaMmux eKalkarN_Cabzm KWcUkeLIgnUvsMPar³Tn;EdlenACit muxEb:l. karelIkEb:leLIgelIcUleTATItaMgkargar ehIycak;ecjnUvsMPar³EdlTn;²enaHvij vacUleTAkñúg karykcitþTukdak;kñúgkareFVIclnarbs;yanynþ. 5> karRtYtBinitüTwkeRkamdI 5>1 karbeBa¢ósTwkCaRbcaM Construction Work - 44 -
  45. 45. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karbeBa¢ósTwkCaRbcaM mann½yfa Cakardak;cUlnUvr)aMgkarBarCMrabTwkedIm,I bBaÄb;karhUrénTwk eRkamdI. 5>2 karbeBa¢ósTwkbeNþaHGasnñ karGnuvtþn_tamviFIenH)ancMeBaHTwkEdlmankMritTabEtvamanlkçN³esdækic© ehIyvamanRbsiT§PaB )anRtwmEtCMerA 1,5m Etb:ueNÑaH edayeRbIvIFIbgðÚrecjtamRsTab;dI. cMeBaHTwkEdlmanCMerAeKykm:asuInbUm TMlak;cUlTwk rYceFVIkarbUmecjEtmþg. 5>3 karbUmTwkbeBa©jtamviFIsmBaØ tamviFIenHvamanlkçN³smRsb enAeBlEdleKCikreNþAehIymanTwkecj b¤enAkEnøgNaEdlman brimaNFarTwktic. 5>4 kar)aj;beBa©j karGnuvtþn_tamviFIsa®sþenH k¾maneKalbMNgdUcKña nigviFIbUmTwkbeBa©jedayFmμtaEdr KWbnßy brimaNTwk EtRtUvbgáarmineGaydImanclnacUldUcviFId¾eTotEdr. reNþAxYgedaymanenAkñúgRsTab;dI eday kar)aj;bBa©ÚlbMBg;eTAkñúgCMerARsTab;dI edaysMBaFTwkTwkbWteLIgelItamry³bMBg; nigb:umbUmTwk. bMBg;Edk RtUvdkecjBIrn§ehIy CMnYseTAvijeday Well point nigbMBg;)øasÞicEdleRbIehIye)aHecal. enACuMvijbMBg; )aøsÞic RtUvbMeBjedayxSac;RKab;FMeRBaHeyIgeRbIR)as;vadUcCasMPar³cMeraH. rUb 3>16 reNþAm:UT½rbUm 5>5 Weelpiont Construction Work - 45 -
  46. 46. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC viFIsa®sþenHeKeRbIR)as;sMrab;eFVIeGayTwk mankMritTabCagTItaMgeFVIkargaredIm,I[kEnøgenaHs¶Ütgay RsYlkñúgkareFVIkargar. eKalkarN_CamUldæan KW)aj;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgdIesrI Wellpoint EdleK)antP¢ab;enAk,al bMBg;rYcehIy EtenAkñúgkartenHRtUvbnSt;xül;eGayGs;BIb:umsin. RbBn½§ Wellpoint manlkçN³smRsb CamYydICaeRcInRbePTrhUtdl;karCikreNþAb¤ RbLay. RbsinebIkMritnimiμtkmμxageRkamRtUv)aneFVIeLIg smtßPaBénkarRsUbeLIgénb:umbUmTwk tamRbBn§½cMrHGacnig RtUvykmkeRbIR)as;. rUb 3-17 Wellpoint 6> viFIsa®sþeFVIeGaykardæanRbesIreLIg 6>1 viFIrMedaHdIecj karCIk nigkarcak;bMeBj eKalkarN_ ³ KμankMlaMgRKb;RKan; kñúgkardwkCBa¢Ún sMPar³minKb,IeRbIR)as; ehIyRtUvcak;bMeBjmkvijnUvdIl¥. RbePTdIsmRsb³ RbePTNak¾)an kMNt;cMNaM³ TItaMgEdlmantMélsmrmü ehIyCMerARtUveTAtamkarkMNt;mYyCaTUeTA ≤ 9m . Construction Work - 46 -
  47. 47. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC karbMlas;TI ³ eKalkarN_ ³ dImannIv:Ux<s;eBk dImanersuIsþg;exSay RtuvCMnYsedaydIl¥ RbePTdIsmRsb ³ dIRbePTl¥it² kMNt;cMNaM ³ enAelIkardæanCak;EsþgGacCYbRbTH nigPk;rlk nigkMralfñl;GacRsutdIzitenAeRkamTMnb;karBar Twk. 6>2 viFIsaRsþbeBa©jTwk rUb 3>18 viFisa®sþbeBa¢ósTwk karCIkreNþA eKalkarN_³ GnuBaØatieGaybgðÚrTwkecj lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itRKab;RkamdIs¥it nigeBareBjedayTwk kMNt;cMnaM³ CMerAx<s;bMput 3m el,ÓnénkarRskvaGaRs½yeTAnwgreNþA sñamePøaH nigRbePTdI RsTab;dIEdl eRkob² enAépÞxagelIGaceFVIeGayRbesIeLIgedayclPaB. muneBlbgðab; Construction Work - 47 -
  48. 48. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eKalkarN_³ bnÞúkEdlGnuvtþmkelI)aneFVIeGaydIRsut lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itRKab;RkamdIs¥it² nigeBareBjedayTwk kMNt;cMnaM³ CaTUeTAmanlkçN³esdækic© RtUvkarry³eBlyUrkñúgkarbMENndI manRbsiT§iPaBcMeBaHCMerACak;lak; mYy ehIyEdlGacsMercnUvsmtßPaBkugRtaMg. muneBlbgðab;CamYy nigkarbgðÚrtamExSbBaÄr eKalkarN_³ pøÚvénkarbgðÚrTwkxøI BenøÓnkarRskcuHénTwk lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itRKab;RkamdIs¥it nigeBareBjedayTwk kMNt;cMnaM³ mantMélx<s;rkGVICak;lak;BuM)an manplRbeyaCn_cMeBaHkEnøgxøHEtb:ueNÑaH l¥sMrab;kEnøgtUc² min manplRbeyaCn_cMeBaHkEnøgxøHEtb:ueNÑaH l¥sMrab;kEnøgtUc²minmanplRbeyaCn_cMeBaHdI EdlmanlkçN³ cMlgcrnþ. 6>3 viFIsa®sþeFVIeGaykardæanRbesIreLIg karbgðab;edayDINamiuc eKalkarN_³ bnÞúkFMEdlGnuvtþeTAelIkarbgðab;edaykarTMlak;eRcIndgEdl manTMgn;BI 5-35etan. lkçN³rbs;dI³ lkçN³dIs¥itl¥ viFIenHcMeBaHdIs¥it² dIs¥itEtminl¥cMeBaHdIEdlzitenAeRkamkMritTwkeRkamdI. kMNt;cMnaM³ manlkçN³smBaØehIyelOn manplRbeyaCn_cMeBaHdIEpñkxagelI nigxageRkamdI CMerAEdlman RbsiT§iPaBKW 18m mantMélCamFüm T§iBlénrMj½reFVIeGaymanPaBb:HBal;dl;rcnasm<n§½EdlenACitxag. rUb 3>19 viFIsa®sþrMj½r karbgðab;rMj½r Construction Work - 48 -
  49. 49. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC eKalkarN_³ ]bkrN_rMj½r lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itEdlmanPaBs¥itcUlrYmpSMticCag 20° kMNt;cMnaM³ GacsMerc0andg;suIetrbs;dIl¥ nigmanPaBÉksNæan)anCMerARtwmEt 30m b:ueNÑaH tMélminCak; lak;ehIymantMélx<s;. karbþÚr Vibro eKalkarN_³ ]bkrN_rMj½r lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itehIyTn; kMNt;cMnaM³ tMélx<s;ehIyminCak;lak; Vibro cl½t eKalkarN_³ manlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhleTAnwg karCMnYs Vibro EdrelIkElgEt dIcMehogEdlpøas;bþÚrenaH zit enAkñúgBBYkdIEdlelIkElgEt dIcMehogEdlpøas;bþÚrenaHzitenAkñúgBBYkdIEdlykecjBIreNþAxYg. lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥itehIyTn; kMNt;cMnaM³ tMélx<s; ehIyminCak;lak; 6> 4 kar)aj;bBa©ÚlTwksuIm:g;t_ karcak;bBa©Úl Trout eKalkarN_³ bMeBjdIRbehagedayPñak;garsuIm:g;t_ edIm,IeFVI[rwgmaMnig bnßykarRCabTwk. lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIEdlmanRKab;FM² nigdIEdlmanRKab;Rkaml¥it² kMNt;cMnaM³ mantMélx<s;CaBiessTwksuIm:g;t_ EdlRtUvkarsMrab;dIEdlmanRKab;Rkaml¥it² bec©keTsenAñúgkar bgðab;dIGaceRbIR)as;sMBaFkñúgkarcak;bBa©Úl. karlayenAkñúgCMerAdI eKalkarN_³ eRbIR)as;karxYg b¤cak;bBa©ÚledayeRbIkMlaMgefrenAkñúgkarlay lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIEdlmans<itFM éndIEdlmanRKab;RkamFMnigl¥it kMNt;cMnaM³ karcak;bBa©ÚlminTTYllT§pll¥ cMeBaHdIdæEdls¥itxøaMg nigdIlayRKYsCMerAEdllay)anl¥Rtwm 150 m> ehIy)ancMeBaHEtdIl,ab;. 6>5 GMBIkMedA kMedA eKalkarN_³ eRbIR)as;kMedAedIm,IeFVIeGaydImanrbwgedIm,ITab;Tl;nig PaBgayxUcsxat. lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIs¥it Construction Work - 49 -
  50. 50. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC kMNt;cMnaM³ tMrUveGaymanzamBlxøaMgtMélsmrmü karbgák eKalkarN_³ bgáksMeNImEdlenAkñúgdI edIm,IcgritPaKpSMrbs;dIeGayenACamYyKña edIm,IbegáInkMlaMgkat; nig bnßynUvkareRCobTwk. lkçN³rbs;dI³ dIRKb;RbePTEdlzitenAeRkamnIv:UTwkeRkamdI/ dIs¥itenAxagelInIv:UTwkeRkamdI kMNt;cMnaM³ mantMélx<s; kñúgkarCIkrUgkñúgdI lMhUrénTwkeRkamdIxøaMg dMeNIrkaryWt. 6>6 Geosynthetic karbgðab;edayDINamiuc Geogrids, Geotextiles, Geontesnig Geomembranes eKalkarN_³ eRbIR)as; Geosynthetic sMrab;cMeraH RtYtBinitücMeraH ragMgmineGayTwkhUrkat; b¤edIm,IeFVIeGay dI manPaBrwgmaMeLIg. lkçN³rbs;dI³ CacMeraHd¾manRbsiT§iPaBsMrab;dIRKb;RbePTCaBiesssMrab;dIl,ab; kMNt;cMnaM³ eRbIR)as;)any:agTUlMTUlay kñúgPar³kic©epSg²Kña. 7> karsagsg;RKwH EpñkxageRkabénGaKarKWCaépÞdIEdleyIgehAfaRKwH. RKwHGacCatMNag b¤mantMélmYyEpñktUcén KMerag b:uEnþvaRtUvEtpþl;nUvPaBlMng dl;rcnasm<n§½TaMgGs;rbs;GaKar. RKwHTTYlrgnUvTMgn;BIGaKarnig CMTMrRT w nUvbnÞúkTaMgLaydUcCa bnÞúkrs; ¬b¤ehAfabnÞúkefr¦ nwgbnÞúkpÞal;rbs;GaKar ¬b¤ehAfabnÞúkefr¦ CaenHeTA eTotépÞxageRkamRtUvEtFMTUlayRKb;RKan;edIm,IeGaymanesßrPaB kñúgkarTb;Tl;CamYyPaBRsut b¤karkac;én GaKar. munnig eRCIseIsykRbePTRKwHmkeRbIR)as; CabzmRtUvsikSaeTAelIRbePTdIEdlbgðajBIlkçN³rbs; va ehIyktþaTaMgGs;enHehIyeEdlGackMNt;BIRbePTRKwHEdlRtUveRbIR)as;. bnÞúksrubEdlFøak;mkelIRKwH RtUveFVIkarKNna eGay)ansuRkitedaybBa©ÚlnUvTMgn;RKb;bnÞb;TaMgGs; sMPar³EdleRbIR)as;brikça nigXøaMgdak;v:an;pg. RbePTRKwH EdlRtUv)anGnuBaØatieGayeRbIR)as; nigsMBaF RTRTg;sMrab;RbePTdInimYy² RtUvykeTAtamkUdGaKarénTItaMgenaH. CaeKalkarN_RKwHrYmpSMeLIgeday3RsTab;KW³ -)atRKwH - karbukbgðab;fμ nigmuxkat;énRKwHEdlbBa©b;enAelI)atRKwH RKwHCBa©aMgCaFmμtavamanRbEvgEvg ehIy vaCaEpñkmYyénRKwHEdlecjBIeCIgtagenAcMNucxagelIéndI. ssrKWCaepñkmYyenAeRkayeKbg¥s; b¤k¾ehAfa eCIgRTCBa¢aMg. Construction Work - 50 -
  51. 51. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 7>1 RbePTénRKwH RKwHCagtag ³ CaTUeTARKwHeCIgtammanragCakaer: enAkñúgKMehIjBImux pliteLIgBIebtugGaem esþIg eKeRbIR)as;Ca eRKOgTMr cMeBaHssreTal edIm,IRTbnÞúkpÞal;enAcMcMNuckNþaléneCIgtag. RKwHCab;³ RKwHCab;b¤ RKwHExS eRbIR)as;sMrab;RTbnÞúkCBa¢aMg. RKwHExSpliteLIgBIebtugGaem tambeNþayén CBa¢aMg CamYynigTMhMÉkPaBKña nigCMerArak;. rUb 3-20 RKwHCab;nig RKwHeCIgtag RKwHcMruH RKwHcMruHpliteLIgBIebtugGaem GacRTssr)aneRcInCagmYy RbsinebIeyIgemIlBImux eRcInmanrag ctuekaNEkg b¤ctuekaNBñay. RKwHExSBIebtugFmμta RKwHExS b¤RKwHCBa¢aMgEdlpliteLIgBIebtugGaemFmμta CaTUeTAmanbgáb;EdksésenAkñúgeCIgtag nig sés mesh enAkñúgeCIgtag nigsés mesh enAkñúgbnÞHebtug. Construction Work - 51 -
  52. 52. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC RKwHExSBIebtugeRbkugRtaMg RKwHExSEdlpliteLIgBIebtugeRbkugRtaMg EdlbegáIteLIgedaykarrwtbNþwgEdksésBYr b¤Edkkab Edlbgáb;enAkñúgebtug. RKwHebtugRtaMgrYmshkarN_edaybnÞHRKwH california EdlmanbeNþayEvg nigRKwH PTI. kartMelIgkMralBIeQI eCIgtagmantYnaTIenAkñúgkarRTFñwm nigkMral nigTMrxagkñúgpgEdr¬GacRKwHCab;¦ enAEpñkxageRkamén kMraleQI KWCarnUt. rUb 3-21 kartMelIgkMraleQI RKwHlat ³ KWlatCaTUeTAmanTMhMehIy kMras;manlkçN³ÉkPaBKñapliteLIgBIebtugGaem ehIyCab;bnþman tYnaTIRTRTg;rcnasm<n½§TaMgmUl. RbsinebIeyIgeFVIkarBicarNaeTAelIRKHlat vaCaRKwHrak;RbsinebIeyIgsag sg;vaenAelI b¤enACitépÞdI. RKwHbuk RKwHbuk KWCaRbCuMRKwHRsYc Rtg;cuHeTAeRkam pliteLIgGMBIeQI Edk b¤ebtug EdlbukbBa©ÚleTAkñúgdI edaym:asuInbukRKwH. Construction Work - 52 -
  53. 53. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ssrRKwHRbePTepSgeTot manRKwHRbePTepSgeTotdUcCa ssrxYg ssrcak;enAnwgkardæan nigssrsmasPaK. sMNg;laykñúgTwk vamanlkçN³Rbhak;RbEhlnigssrRKwH Edlcak;enAnwgkEnøgsMNg;lyeTAkñúgTwk b¤Ep CaFmμta manmuxkat;FMehIyEvg P¢ab;CamYybnÞHebtugGaem. sMNg;lyeTAkñúgTwk b¤EpmanFñwmFMRtUv)aneKeRbIR)as; CaRKwHsMrab;RTRTg; enAelIépÞdIEdlFMTUlay. RKwHekHsug sMrab;lykñúgTwk b¤sMNg;EpCYnkalvak¾GaRs½yedayRKwHekHsugenHpgEdr. RKwHekHsugCarcnasm<½n§ eRkamdIEdleKsagsg;eLIg ehIyRKwHekHsugvamansmtßPaBenAkñúgkarTb;Tl;nwg TwkpgEdr. RKwHlat RbsinebIeKsagsg; RKwHlatenAeRkam épÞdI b¤RKwlatRTRTg;edayRKwHbuk b¤sMNg;lyeTAkñúgTwk¬Ep¦ eKKYrEtBicarNaeTAelIRbBn§½CMerARKwHenaH. RKwHbENþt CaRbePTRKwHBiess enAeBlEdlTMgn;rbs;rcnasm<n§½xagelIsmmUl nigTMgn;dIEdlkayecjehIy karsagsg;enHsMrab;Can;eRkamdI. RbePTRKHGaKareRkamdI KWCaRKwHrYmKñarvaglMenAdæan nigGaKarepSgeTot enAkEnøgEdlmanTwkkkFøak;. RKwHRbePTenHrYmman brievNeCIgtag nigCBa¢aMgRKwHeRkamdI EdlRTRTg;RbB½n§kMraleQI. kMralCan;rbs;GaKareRkamdICaFmμtasagsg;BIbnÞHebtug. 7>2 lkçN³énRKwHbuk RKwHbukeQI RbEvg FmμtaBI 5,4m 7m bnÞúk x<s;bMput 10etan cenøaHBIssrmYyeTAssrmYyeTot Gb,brman 2,5 énmuxkat;rbs;ssrRKwH 60 cm KuNvibtþi Bi)akkñúgkart/ gayRsYlkñúgPaBs¶Üt/ rwg KuNsm,tþi tMélTab/ Fn;nwgkarBukpuyRbsinebIRtaMTwk/ gayRsYlenAkñúgkarkan; kMNt;cMnaM manlkçN³cuHl¥CamYydIEdlmanRKab; Construction Work - 53 -
  54. 54. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC ssrRKwHbukGMBIEdk³ RbEvg FmμtaBI 30m 70m bnÞúk x<s;bMput 100etan cenøaHBIssrmYyeTAssrmYyeTot 2,5m 90m énmuxkat;ssrRKwH KuNvibtþi gaykñúgkareRcHrab; muxkat; HP GacnwgxUtxat b¤pøatecj KuNsm,tþi gayRsYlenAkñúgkart/ smtßPaBkargarx<s;/ gayRsYlkñúgkarbMlas;TI kMNt;cMnaM EpñkxagcugénRKwHFn;nwgfμ/ smtßPaBkargayfycuHenAeBlEdlman sar³FatusuI b¤kat; rUb 3-22 ssrRKwHbukGMBIeQI ssrRKwHbukGMBIebtugplitenAeragcRk ³ RbEvg FmμtamanBI 30m 70m / x<s;bMput 15m bnÞúk x<s;bMput 50etan cenøaHBIssrmYyeTAssrmYyeTot TabbMput 2,5cm énmuxkat;ssr nigx<s;bMput 75cm KuNvibtþi mantMélx<s;enAkñúgkarbMlas;TI KuNsm,tþi smtßPaBrgnUvbnÞúkx<s; Fn;nwgPaBkat;b¤suIGacqøgkat;TItaMgEdlrwg)an kMNt;cMnaM ssrEdlmanragmUlFn;CamYynwgersuIsþg; Construction Work - 54 -
  55. 55. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUbPaB 3>23 ssrRKwHebtugplitBIeragcRk ssrRKwHebtugEdlplitenAnwgkardæan RbEvg FmμtamanBI 30m 70m bnÞúk x<s;bMputRT)an 50etan cenøaHBIssrmYyeTAssrmYyeTot 2,5cm énmuxkat;ssr/ nigx<s;bMput 90cm KuNvibtþi mantMélx<s;enAkñúgkarbMlas;TI KuNsm,tþi sMbkebtugxageRkAmingayxUtxat kMNt;cMnaM ssrRKwHEdlmanRbEvgmFüm manlkçN³l¥RbesIenAkñúgkarkkit Construction Work - 55 -
  56. 56. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk 4³ ebtug Construction Work - 56 -
  57. 57. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC 1> sésBRgwg 1>1 karBRgwgedaysésEdk EdkmUl³ enAelIépÞrbs;sésEdkeckecjCa ³RTng;tMNrnigEpñkepSgeTot. EdkfñaMGMeBA³ enAelIrbs;EdkmanRTng;nig tMNr. karbegáItzamBlCag 40°CagEdkFmμta)aneFVI eGayEdkfñaMgGMeBACab;sñitl¥. rUb 4-1 EdkfñaMGMeBA ExSlYssésrs; ³ vaCakareFVIeGayEdksésrwtEtrwgmaMeLIg edIm,IykeTAeRbIR)as;enAkñúgebtugeRbkugRtaMg. GaMgtg;suIet rbs;EdkRbePTenH vaxøaMgCagEdksésFmμtacMnYn5dg. GRtakabUnBI 0>6 eTA 1>05° )aneFVIeGaykabUnEdkeLIgx<s;tamry³karGnuvtþsareLIgvijtammeFüa)ayRtCak;. kugRtaMgrbs;EdkRbePT enHmanBI 150 350kg/mm . 2 karRtYBinitüsuItuNðPaBEdksés sésEdkBRgwgRtUvdak;eGayelIsépÞéneRKOg PC TaMgmUlbnþicedIm,IeFVIeGaymansñameRbHtUcCaTI bMputenAeBlEdlsItuNðPaBpøas;bþÚr. 1>2 sés Mesh Construction Work - 57 -
  58. 58. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC sés Mesh erobcMeLIgdUcPaCn_EdkEdlmanmuxkat;BI 4-12mm dak;ExVgRbsBVKñaedayEdkbnSar. enHKWCaviFIdak;nig tYnaTIrbs;va . RTg;RTayEdkEdldak;kat;ExVgKña KWCaragkaer: b¤ ctuekaNEkg. 1>3 viFIsaRsþ EnkarrkSaTuk nig karsnSMsMécEnEdksés - bnÞab;BIkarEbgEckEdkeTAtammuxkat;nig RbEvgehIy RtUvTukdak;eGay)anRtwmRtUveTAtamRbePT nimYy²rbs;va edayminRtUvTuklayLMCamYyEdk EdlminRtUvkareLIy. - eFñIrEdldak;Edk RtUvmankMBs;x<s;lμm EdlGaceQagcab;ykBIdIpÞal;)an. -karerobcM nig rkSaTukRtUveFVIeTAtamlMdab;EnrebobpÁúMtMelIg. 1>4 karbegáIt nig rebobplit Construction Work - 58 -
  59. 59. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC CMBUk 4 ³ ebtugGaem Construction Work - 59 -
  60. 60. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC enHKWCaviFImYydak;nigtYnaTUrbs;va. RTg;RTayEdkEdlkat;exVgKña KWCaragkaer: b¤ctuekaNEkg. 1>3 viFIsa®sþénkarrkSaTuk nigkarsnSMsMécénEdksés ³ - bnÞab;BIEbgEckEdkeTAtammuxkat; nigRbEvgehIyRtUvTukdak;eGay)AnRtwmRtUveTAtamRbePT nimYy²rbs;va edayminRtUvTuklaylMCamYyEdkEdlminRtUvkareLIy. - eFVIrEdldak;Edk RtUvmankMBs;x<s;lμm EdlGaceQagcab;ykBIFIpÞal;)an; - karerobcM nigrkSaTukRtUveFVIeTAtamlMdab;énrebobpÁúMtMelIg 1>4 karbegáIt nigrebobplit ³ Shop drawing ³ vaCakarKUrenAkñúgeragCagedIm,IeFVIkarkat;EdkCak;Esþg nigBt;vaeTAtamcMnucénkarKUrrbs;rcnasm<½n§ Edk. RtUvEtsresreGay)anRtwmRtUveTAtamTItaMgmuxkat;énEdksés/ RbEvg nigcMnYnedIménkarBt;rag nigTMhMrbs;va. karKUrlMGitBIsésEdksMrab;RKWH ³ - yupáaénsésEdksMrab;CBa¢aMg/ bøg;es/ FñwmRKwH nigsésEdksMrab;ssr. - TItaMgb‘ULúgcab;yufÁaRbEvgCamUldæanéneRKagEdk nigviFIP¢ab;. - CBa¢aMgGaKareRkamdI/ bnÞHmUldæanénRsTab;karBarCMrabTwk nigkargarbBa©b;. karKUrlMGit ssr nigCBa©aMg ³ - kEnøgtMNrénsésEdkssr - rebobeFVIbnþenAeBlEdlmuxkat;ssrRtUv)anbnßy - RbEvgénkarbnáb;yufáakñúgTMnak;TMngCamUldæaneTAEpñkmYyeTot - RbEvgRTg;RTay nigGgát;p©it nigTItaMgénTMBk; - RbEvg/ cMnYnedIm nigRTg;RTay énkarebIkeRKagq¥wgEdk karKUrlMGitBIFñwm ³ - RbEvgRTg;RTay nigGgát;p©it/ rebobdak;énsésEdkem nig - kMBs;énkarBt; énsésEdk nigRbEvgénPaBep¥ógénEpñkepþk - RbEvgénb‘ULúg nigk,alva - kardak;sésEdkFñwmeTAkñúgssr RbEvg nigRTg;RTayyufáa nigEpñkEdlExVgrvagFñwm nigkøwmem. karKUrlMGiténbnÞHkMralCan; ³ Construction Work - 60 -
  61. 61. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - G½kSénFñwm nigTItaMgénFñwmrgénCBa¢aMgBIebtugGaem/ karcab;epþIménEpñkCeNIþr/ karebIkTItaMgén bMBg; nigkUnssr. - BidaneRkamdI ³ karrkTItaMgénkardak;bMBg; nigkargarEdk - kMras;énkMral nigTisedA/ Ggát;p©it/ RbEvg/ TItaMgénkarBt; nigrebobdak;sésEdkem. 1>5 karGnuvtþbnþénsésEdk ³ karGnuvtþbnþénsésEdk KWEckecjCakarkat; nigkarBt;. kñúgeBlfμI²enHeK)anbegáIteragcRk sMrab;plitEdk nigkat; EdlRtYtBinitütamry³kMBüÚT½redaym:asuInsV½yRbvtþRBmTaMgkarpÁt;pÁg;Edr eTA tamcMNuc b:uEnþvamineFVI»kaskmμ BIeRBaHkarkMNt;énkarpøas;bþÚrTisedA. dUecñHehIykargarCaeRcInmaneTA tamkEnøg. karBt;sésEdk ³ - EdkEdlman d < 25mm karGnuvtþtammeFüa)ayRtCak;enAelIsItuNðPaBFmμta. - EdkEdlman d > 28mm karGnuvtþtammeFüa)aykMedA - enAEpñkxagcugénsésEdkmUlRtUvEtdak;TMBk;CakarcaM)ac; ¬cMeBaHm:asuInTat;kugRtaMg¦ - cMeBaHEdkfñaMgGMeBAGacminbBa©ÚlTMBk;eTAkñúgeKalkarN_enaH b:uEnþkarBt;TMBk;enH begáItenAkñúg krNIepSgeTot. xagcugénEpñkxageRkAénCBa©aMg sésEdksMrab;Fñwm/ ssr/ bMBg;EpSg/ sésEdkRtv:at;/ sésEdk nwg ¬mingaker)an¦ EdlTItaMgTaMgenaHRtUvEtsresrenAkñúgkarKUr. 1>6 RbEvgyufáa nigRbEvgtMNrénsésEdk ³ tMNrTUeTA ³ rUb4>2 viFIkñúgkartP¢ab;Edk rUb4-2 viFIkñugkartP¢ab;Edk - kEnøgtMNrénsésEdkRtUveCosvagTItaMgkEnøgEdlkugRtaMgeFVIGnþrkmμeRcIn. - minRtUvtP¢ab;sésEdkenAkEnøgdEdleRcInCagBak;kNþaléncMnYnEdkeLIy. Construction Work - 61 -
  62. 62. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - RbEvgEpñkxagmuxéntMN RtUvdak;enAcenøaHcMNuckNþalénTMBk; - tMNrénEdkemRtUvdak;elIEpñkEdlkMlaMgTaj - RbEvgtMNrénsésEdk nigRbEvgénsésEdknwg RtUvdak;enAkEnøgEdlTTYlrgkMlaMgsgát; b¤k¾ kMlaMgTajtUc elIkElgEtenAkñúgkrNItYEdkFMCag 25d (d : Ggát;p©itrbs;sésEdk ) . RbsinebIeyIgcg; dak;kEnøgtMNrenATIEdlTTYlrgnUvkMlaMgTajeRcInenaHluHRtaEtEdkenaHFMCag 40d . - RbEvgtMNrénkarsgát;tictYcGaceFVIeday 20d - EdkEdlmanminFMCag 28mm minRtUvtP¢ab;edayviFIdak;ep¥abelIKñaeLIy. rUb4-3 kEnøgtMNénEdk rUb4>4 ³ TItaMgdak;Edkbgáb; nigtMNr - sésEdkeménFñwmyufáakñúgssr - sésEdkeménFñwmyufáakñúgFñwmrg - sésEdkemrbs;ssrRtUv)anbgáb;enAkñúgRKwH - sésEdkeménFwñmeRkamdI mUldæanyufáa b¤ssr - sésEdkCBa¢aMgyufáaelIssr/ Fñwm/ bnÞHkMralCan; - sésEdkkMralCan; yufáaFwñm b¤CBa©aMg viFIsa®sþenAkñúgkartsésEdk ³ Construction Work - 62 -
  63. 63. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - bnþedaydak;ep¥abelIKña - bnþeddaypSar ³ dak;ep¥abKñaehIypSarP¢ab;/ dak;Cl;KñaehIypSarP¢ab; 1>7 kMras;énkarRKb nigkEnøgdak;énEdksés ³ kEnøgénsésEdk ³ - eRcInCag1/5dgénmuxkat;rbs;Edksés - eRcInCag 25mm - eRcInCag 1/25dg énTMhMGtibrmarbs;GRKIeKÞtRKab;FM GnuvtþtamtMélEdlFMCageKéntMél3 xagelI . eKaledACMerAénkarRKbEdk ³ - Fn;nwgcMehH - BRgIkPaBCab;lab; - suvtißPaBeTAelIkarsagsg;énPaBrav sþg;daCMerARKbEdk ³ muxkat; CMerAb¤kMras; kMNt;sMKal; bnÞHCBa¢aMgminRTTMgn; FMCag 2cm cMENkEdlb:HpÞal;eTAnwgdI ³ eRcInCag 4cm enA ssrFwñmEdlCaRbePT FMCag 3cm eBlEdlbBa©b;vtßúykCa)ankarEdlmuxxagkñúgeRcIn CBa¢aMgRTbnÞúk Cag 2 cm RKwH FMCag 6cm elIkElgEtkMras;ebtugRsTab;xageRkam bMBg;EpSg FMCag 5cm FMCag 4cm enAeBlmuxkat;sésEdktUcCag 16cm FMCag 5cm enAeBlEdlmuxkat;sésEdkFMCag 19cm CBa¢aMgTb; enAeBlEdlminbegáItRTg;RTayeTAkan;EpñkEdlTak; FMCag 7cm TgnwgdI. Construction Work - 63 -
  64. 64. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC rUb4>5 CMerAénRsTab;RKbEdk nigkEnøgdak;Edksés 1>8 karpÁúMtMeluIgEdksés ³ kartMelIgrYcCaeRscénEdksésEkg ³ enAmuneBltMelIgsésEdkRtUveFVIkarsMGatykeRcH nigFUlIecj ehIyrkSaTukedayELkedIm,I bnßyfamBlénkarCab;s¥itedayFUlI nigeRcH. lMdab;lMedayénkartMelIgEdksés ³ - enAeBlsagsg;GaKarBIebtugGaem ³ dak;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgebtugnUveRKagEdkEdl)anpÁúMtamlMdab; lMeday ehIytMelIgeTAEpñkxagelIeTotedaycab;epþImBIEpñkxageRkameTA. sésEdkRKwH sésEdkssr sésEdkCBa¢aMg sésEdkFwñm sésEdkkMral sésEdkCeNþIr - enAeBlEdlsagsg;GaKarcUleTAkñúgeRKagEdk nigebtugGaem ³ tMelIgBIEpñkEdl)anpÁMú ehIy nigbnÞHepSgeTotRtUvbBa©b;. sésEdkCaeKal sésEdkssr sésEdkFñwm sésEdkCBa¢aMg sésEdkkMral sésEdkCeNþIr 1>9 kargartMelIgsésEdkBRgIg ³ lMdab;énkartMelIgsésEdkeKal ³ - BRgagRTg;RTayTItaMgénebtug - karbg¥újbgðajBITIkEnøgénsésEdkBRgwg - reboberobcMénsésEdk - reboberobcMénsésEdktamExSbeBa¢óg Construction Work - 64 -
  65. 65. Department of Civil Engineering NPIC - karbegáItcenøaH - karbegáIteLIgnUvsésEdkemsMrab;ssr - karerobcMsésrEdkkgmUl kartMelIgsésEdksMrab;CBa©aMg nigssr ³ - kEnøgtMNrRtUvyk2¼3énkMBs;Can; - kartMelIgsésEdksMrab;ssrminRtUveGayCab;KñaeRcInCag1¼2éncMnYnrbs;sésEdkemenAkñúg Can;EtmYyeT. - cenøaHénkardak;sésEdkBImYyeTAmYyminRtUvTMlak;eRcInCag 3d b¤ 2,5 cm enAkñúgssrEtmYy - muxkat;énEdkkg minRtUvFMCag 9mm eT ehIycenøaHBIEdkkgmYyeTAmYyeTotKWticCag 15d. - GRtaEdkminRtUvFMCag8°énmuxkat;rbs;ssr - TTwgrbs;ssrminRtUvticCag1¼15 énkMBs;Can;GaKar kartMelIgEdkséssMrab;Fñwm ³ - vaCakarsMxan;Nas;EdleGayEdkénFwñmmincab;P¢ab;mkCamYy. b:uEnþtMNrRtUvEteFVIeLIgCadac; xat - TItaMgtMNrRtUvenAepñkxageRkambg¥s;éntMNrFñwm ehIyEpñkxagelIEdkemrbs;FñwmRtUvenAcM kNþalFñwm. r)adgEr:kRtUvP¢ab;mk nigkEnøgrbs;va. 2> kargarBum<³ enHKWCakarsagsg;beNþaHGasnñsMrab;RTRTg;ebtugEdlminTan;rwg. 2>1 eKaledAénkargarBum<³ - PaBravrbs;ebtug KWkMNt;ragrbs;ebtug - viFankarkñúgkarRCab b¤licénTwkEdlCatMrUvkarcaM)ac;enAkñúgkarBRgwg - GMeBIénkMedABIsINðPaBenAxageRkAGaKar 2>2 ktþaEdlcaM)ac; nigbMrugRby½tñénkargarBum<³ - sMeNIrRKb;RKan;cMeBaHsMPar³EdlmanPaBrwgbuwg - sMeNIrcMeBaHkarTb;Tl;nwgTwk - viFankarEdlbgáeLIgedaykars¶ÜtPøam²énebtug - kñúgkrNIElebtugenAhalval eKmanviFIeFVIRbRBwtþkmμdUcteTA ³ Construction Work - 65 -

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