7.simple connections

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7.simple connections

  1. 1. T.chhay VII. tMNsamBaØ Simple Connections 7>1> esckþIepþIm Introduction kartP¢ab;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMEdkCaEpñkmYyEdlmansarsMxan;bMput. kartP¢ab;EdlminmanlkçN³ minRKb;RKan; EdleKGaceGayeQμaHfa “weak link” enAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúM GacbegáItnUvkar)ak;CaeRcInkrNI. kar)ak;rbs;Ggát;eRKOgbgÁúMKWkMrnwgekIteLIgNas; kar)ak;rbs;rcnasm<n§½PaKeRcInKWbNþalmkBIkar KNnakartP¢ab; nigkarlMGitkartP¢ab;. bBaðaenHbNþalmkBIkarTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarKNnakartP¢ab;. kñúgkrNIxøH kartP¢ab;minRtUv)anKNnaedayvisVkrEdlKNnaGgát;rbs;eRKOgbgÁúMeT EtvaRtUv)anpþl; eGayedayplitkrEdlpÁt;pÁg;sMPar³sMrab;KMerageTAvij. b:uEnþvisVkreRKOgbgÁúMEdlplitbøg;KNna Ca GñkTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarKNnaTaMgGs;rYmTaMgkartP¢ab;. kñúgkrNIEdltMNRtUv)anKNnaedayvisVkr epSgeTot epSgBIvisVkrEdlKNnaGgát;eRKOgbgÁúM dUcenHeKRtUvkarvisVkrEdlmanCMnajc,as;las;kñúg karKNnakartP¢ab;. eRKOgbgÁúMEdkTMenIbRtUv)antP¢ab;edaykarpSar nigedayb‘ULúg ¬ersIusþg;x<s; b¤Fmμta¦ b¤eday bnSMénkartP¢ab;TaMgBIr. BIeBlmun kartP©ab;eFVIeLIgedaykarpSar b¤edayrIev. enAkñúgqñaM 1947 Research Council of Riveted and Bolted Structural Joints RtUv)anbegáIteLIg ehIy Specification dMbUgrbs;vaRtUv)anecjpSayenAkñúgqñaM 1951. ÉksarenH)anGnuBaØateGayCMnYs edayb‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;sMrab;rIev. taMgBIeBlenaHmk b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;TTYl)anRbCaRbiyPaBy:ag elOn ehIyeKk¾gakmkeRbIb‘ULúgersIsþg;x<s;enAkñúgsMNg;sIuvilvij. eKmanmUlehtuCaeRcInkñúgkar pøas;bþÚrenH. kmμkrBInak;EdlKμanCMnajGactMeLIgb‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;)an cMENkkartMeLIgrIevvij eKRtUv karkmμkrEdlmanCMnajdl;eTAbYnnak;. elIsBIenHeTot vapþl;nUvsMelg nigeRKaHfñak;tictYckñúg RbtibtþkarN_tP¢ab;rIev edaysarkarpþl;kMedAkñúgkartMeLIgrIev. b:uEnþkartP¢ab;edayrIevk¾enAEtmanerob 230 tMNsamBaØ
  2. 2. T.chhay rab;enAkñúg AISC Specfication nig Manual of steel construction edaysarEtsMNg;cas;²eRbItMN rIev dUcenHkaryl;dwgBIkarRbRBwtþeTArbs;vamansar³sMxan;Nas;sMrab;karvaytMélersIusþg; nigkarCYs CulnUvsMNg;TaMgenaH. karKNna nigkarviPaKtMNrIevmanlkçN³RsedogKñanwgtMNb‘ULúgFmμtaEdr Et vaxusKñaRtg;lkçN³sMPar³Etb:ueNÑaH. tMNpSarmanGtßRbeyaCn_eRcInCagtMNb‘ULúg. kartP¢ab;edaykarpSarmanlkçN³samBaØ nig RtUvkarrn§ticCagtMNb‘ULúg. kartP¢ab;EdlmanlkçN³sμúKsμajCamYynwgeRKOgP¢ab;Gacman lkçN³ gayRsYlCamYynwgkarpSar dUckrNIkñúgrUbTI 7>1. muneBlEdlkarpSarmanlkçN³eBjniym kar tMeLIgrUbrag built-up RbePTenHRtUv)anplitedayrIev. edIm,IP¢ab;bnÞHEdksøabeTAnwgbnÞHEdkRTnug EdkEkg (angle shape) RtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbMElgbnÞúkcenøaHFatuTaMgBIr. RbsinebIeKbEnßmbnÞHEdkBI elImYyeTot enaHplitplsMercnwgmanlkçN³kan;EtsμúKsμaj. b:uEnþkartP¢ab;edaykarpSarman lkçN³gayRsYlCag. b:uEnþsMrab;tMNpSar eKRtUvkarkmμkrCMnajxagpSar ehIyvaBi)ankñúgkarGegát nigcMNayR)ak;eRcIn. EtKuNvibtþienHeKGacedaHRsay)anedaykarpSarenAkñúgeragCagCMnYseGaykar pSarenAkardæanenARKb;eBlEdlGaceFVIeTA)an. enAeBlEdlkartP¢ab;eFVIeLIgedaybnSMénkarpSar nig b‘ULúg enaHeKeRcInpSarenAeragCag ehIycab;b‘ULúgenAkardæan. sMrab; single-plate beam-to-column connectioction EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>2 bnÞHEdkRtUv)anpSarP¢ab;eTAnwgsøabrbs;ssrenAerag Cag ehIycab;b‘ULúgCamYynwgRTnugrbs;FñwmenAkardæan. edIm,IBicarNaBIkarRbRBwtþeTAénRbePTepSg²rbs;tMN eKRtUvEbgEckvaeTAtamRbePTénkar dak;bnÞúk. rUbTI 7>3 a bgðajBI tension member lap splice EdlmaneRKOgP¢ab;rgnUvkMlaMgkat;. dUc Kña tMNpSarenAkñúgrUbTI 7>3 b RtUvTb;Tl;nwgkMlaMgkat;TTwg. tMNrbs; bracket eTAnwgsøabssr dUckñúgrUbTI 7>3 c edaykarpSar b¤edayb‘ULúg eFIVeGayeRKOgP¢ab; b¤TwkbnSarrgnUvkMlaMgkat;enAeBl EdlbnÞúkGnuvtþmkelIva. tMNBÜürEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>3 d dak;eGayeRKOgP¢ab;rgkMlaMgTaj. kartP¢ab;EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>3 e begáItTaMgkMlaMgkat;TTwg nigkMlaMgTajenAkñúgeRKOgP¢ab;CYr xagelI. ersIusþg;rbs;eRKOgP¢ab;KWGaRs½yelIfaetIvargnUvkMlaMgkat; b¤kMlaMgTaj b¤k¾kMlaMgTaMgBIr. 231 tMNsamBaØ
  3. 3. T.chhay karpSarmankMlaMgexSaysMrab;kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat; ehIyCaTUeTAvaRtUv)ansnμt;fadac;edaykMlaMgkat; edayminKitBITisedAénkardak;bnÞúk. enAeBlEdlkMlaMgkñúgeRKOgP¢ab;mYy b¤kMlaMgkñúgmYyÉktþaRbEvgrbs;TwkbnSarRtUv)ankMNt; vaCaerOgmYyEdlgayRsYlkñúgkarkMNt;PaBRKb;RKan;rbs;tMN. karkMNt;enHQrelIeKalkarN_én kartP¢ab;cMbgBIr. RbsinebIExSskmμrbs;kMlaMgpÁÜbEdlRtUvTb;Tl;kat;tamTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;tMN enaH EpñknImYy²rbs;tMNRtUv)ansnμt;faTb;Tl;nwgbnÞúkEdlEbgEckesμI ehIytMNEbbenHRtUv)aneKeGay eQμaHfa tMNsamBaØ. enAkñúgtMNEbbenH ¬EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>3 a nig b¦ eRKOgP¢ab;nImYy² nigRbEvgÉktþrbs;TwkbnSarnwgTb;Tl;nUvkMlaMgesμIKña*. bnÞab;mkeKGacrklT§PaBTb;Tl;bnÞúkrbs;tM * Cak;EsþgvamancMNakp©ittUcenAkñúgtMNTaMgBIrenH EtvaRtUv)anecal 232 tMNsamBaØ
  4. 4. T.chhay NedayKuNlT§PaBTb;Tl;kMlaMgrbs;eRKOgP¢ab;nImYy² b¤RbEvgÉktþarbs;TWkbnSar CamYynwgcMnYn eRKOgP¢ab;srub b¤RbEvgsrubrbs;TwkbnSar. kartP¢ab;énkMlaMgcakp©it RtUv)anerobrab;enAkñúgCMBUkTI 8 EdlExSskmμrbs;bnÞúkmineFVIGMeBIkat;tamTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;tMN. kartP¢ab;enAkñúgrUbTI 7>3 d nig e Ca RbePTéntMNenH. kñúgkrNIenHbnÞúkninRtUv)anTb;Tl;esμIKñaedayeRKOgP¢ab;nImYy² b¤RbEvgÉktþarbs; TwkbnSareT ehIykarkMNt;énkarEbgEckbnÞúkKWCaktþad¾sμúKsμajkñúgkarKNnaénRbePTtMNenH. AISC Specification erobrab;BIkartP¢ab;EdlrYmman b‘ULúg rIev nig karpSarenAkñúg Chapter J, ”Connections, Joints and Fasteners”. EtenAkñúgesovePAenH eyIgmin)anBicarNaBItMNrIeveT. 7>2> Bolted Shear Connections: Failure Mode munnwgBicarNaBIersIusþg;Cak;lak;rbs;b‘ULúg eyIgRtUvBicarNaBIrebobénkardac;EdlGacekIt manenAelItMNEdlmaneRKOgP¢ab;rgkMlaMgkat;TTwg. eKmanrebobénkardac;FMBIr³ kardac;rbs;eRKOg P¢ab; nigkardac;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;. BicarNa lap joint EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>4 a. kardac;rbs; eRKOgP¢ab;GacRtUv)ansnμt;fanwgekIteLIgdUcEdl)anbgðaj. kMlaMgkat;TTwgmFümenAkñúgkrNIenHKW P P fv = = A πd 2 / 4 Edl P CabnÞúkEdlmanGMeBIelIeRKOgP¢ab;nImYy² A CaRkLaépÞmuxkat;rbs;eRKOgP¢ab; nig d CaGgát; p©itrbs;va. enaHbnÞúkenHGacsresrCa P = fv A eTaHbICakardak;bnÞúkkñúgkrNIenHmincMcMnucl¥k¾eday k¾cMNakp©itmantMéltUcEdlGacecal)an. kart enAkñúgrUbTI 7>4 b manlkçN³RsedogKña EtkarviPaKdüaRkamGgÁesrIrbs;eRKOgP¢ab;bgðajfamuxkat;nI 233 tMNsamBaØ
  5. 5. T.chhay mYy²rgEtBak;kNþalbnÞúksrub b¤eKGacniyayfamuxkat;TaMgBIrTb;Tl;nUvkMlaMgsrub. kñúgkrNIenHkM laMg P = 2 f v A ehIybnÞúkenHRtUv)aneKehAfa double shear. karbEnßmbnÞHenAkñúgkartnwgbegáIn cMnYnbøg;kat; ehIyvanwgkat;bnßykMlaMgenAkúñgbøg;nImy². b:uEnþ vanwgbegáInRbEvgrbs;eRKOgP¢ab; ehIy Y vanwgrgnUvkugRtaMgBt;. rebobénkadac;mYyeTotsMrab; shear connection Bak;Bn§½nwgkardac;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUv)anP¢ab; ehIyCaTUeTAvaRtUv)anEbgEckCaBIrEpñk³ !> kardac;EdlbNþalBI karTaj/ kMlaMgkat; b¤m:Um:g;Bt;FMenAkñúgEpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab;. RbsinebI Ggát;rgkarTajRtUv)antP¢ab; kMlaMgTajelI gross area nig effective net area RtUv)anGegát. GaRs½ynwgrUbragénkartP¢ab; block shear k¾RtUv)anBicarNa. eKk¾RtUvRtYtBinitü block shear enA kñúgkartP¢ab; beam-to-column ¬Edlmanerobrab;enAkñúgCMBUkTI 3 nigTI5 ehIyvak¾RtUv)anerobrab;enA kñúg AISC J4.3¦. GaRs½ynwgRbePTénkartP¢ab; nigkardak;bnÞúk ral;kartP¢ab;eTAnwg gusset plate nig framing angle TamTarnUvkarviPaKsMrab; kugRtaMgkat; kugRtaMgTaj kugRtaMgBt; nig block shear. karKNnakartP¢ab;rbs;Ggát;rgkarTajRtUv)aneFVIeLIgRsbKñaCamYynwgkarKNnaGgát;rgkarTajBI eRBaHdMeNIrkarTaMgBIrenHTak;TgKñaeTAvijeTAmk. @> kardac;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;edaysar bearing EdlbegáIteLIgedayeRKOgP¢ab;. RbsinebI RbehagmanTMhMFMCageRKOgP¢ab;bnþicbnþÜc ehIyeRKOgP¢ab;RtUv)ansnμt;faRtUv)andak;y:agENnenAkñúg Rbehag épÞb:HrvageRKOgP¢ab; nigEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;nwgekItmaneRcInCagBak;kNþalénbrimaRtrbs; eRKOgP¢ab;enAeBlEdlbnÞúkGnuvtþ. krNIenHRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>5. kugRtaMgnwgERbRbYlBI 234 tMNsamBaØ
  6. 6. T.chhay GtibrmaenARtg; A eTAsUnüenARtg; B . edIm,IgayRsYl eKeRbIkugRtaMgmFümEdlRtUv)anKNna edayEckkMlaMgnwgépÞRbeyalb:H. dUcenH bearing stees RtUv)anKNnaeday f p = P /(dt ) Edl P CakMlaMgEdlGnuvtþmkelI eRKOgP¢ab;/ d CaGgát;p©iteRKOgP¢ab; nig t CakMras;rbs;EpñkEdlrgnUv bearing. dUcenH bearing load KW P = f p dt karKNna bearing GacmanlkçN³sμúKsμajedaysarvtþmanrbs;b‘ULúgEdlenAEk,r b¤eday sarcMgayBIrn§eTARCugEKmkñúgTisedArbs;bnÞúkmancMgayxøI dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>6. KMlatrvagb‘U Lúg nigcMgayBIrn§eTARCugEKmmanT§iBlelI bearing strength. 7>3> Bearing Strength, Spacing and Edge-distance Requirements Bearing strength minTak;TgnwgRbePTrbs;eRKOgP¢ab;eT BIeRBaHkugRtaMgEdlRtUvBicarNasßit enAelIEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; minEmnenAelIeRKOgP¢ab;eT. sMrab;mUlehtuenH bearing strength k¾dUcCag tMrUvkarKMlat nig edge-distance k¾minTak;TgnwgRbePTeRKOgP¢ab;Edr ehIyvaRtUv)anBicarNamunkug RtaMgkat;kñúgb‘ULúg nigersIusþg;Taj. karpþl;eGayrbs; AISC Specification sMrab; bearing strength k¾dUcCatMrUvkarepSg²sMrab; b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s; KWQrelIkarpþl;eGayrbs; specification of the Research Council on Structural Connections of the Engineering Foundation (RCSC, 1994). kare)aHBum<pSayfμI²rbs;ÉksarenH minTan;CaEpñkrbs; AISC Specification (AISC, 199a) EtvaRtUv)aneRbIenAkñúgesovePAenH d¾rabNa manlkçN³minRtUvKña eKnwgeRbIkarpþl;eGayeday AISC. enAeBlsmIkarenAkñúg RSCS Specification RtUv)anbgðajelxsmIkarmkBIÉksarenaHnwgRtUv)aneRbI ¬]TahrN_/ RCSC Equation 235 tMNsamBaØ
  7. 7. T.chhay LRFD ¦. karerobrab;xageRkam EdlQrelI Commentary EdlENnaMeday RCSC 4.3 Specification nwgBnül;BIeKalkrN_rbs;smIkar RCSC sMrab; bearing strength. rebobdac;EdlGacekItmanEdl)anBI bearing FM KWkMlaMgkat;rEhk (shear tear-out) enAxag cugrbs;FatuEdlRtUvtP¢ab; dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>7 a. RbsinebIépÞdac;manlkçN³l¥dUcrUbTI 7>7 b, failure load enAelIépÞmYyénépÞTaMgBIresμInwg shear fracture stress KuNnwgRkLaépÞkat; b¤ Rn = 0.6 Fu Lc t 2 Edl 0.6 Fu = shear fracture streesrbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; Lc = cMgayBIRCugEKmrbs;RbehageTAcugrbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; t = kMras;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; ersIusþg;srubKW Rn = 2(0.6 Fu Lc t ) = 1.2 Fu Lc t ¬&>!¦ kMlaMgkat; tear-out enHekItmanenAxagcugrbs;EpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab; dUcEdlbgðaj b¤enAcenøaH rn§BIrkñúgTisedAén bearing load. edIm,IkarBarsac;lUtFMrbs;Rbehag eKRtUvkMNt;EdnkMNt;x<s;bMput rbs; bearing load EdleGayedaysmIkar &>!. EdkkMNt;enHsmamaRteTAnwg fracture stress KuNnwg bearing area b¤ Rn = C × Fu × bearing area = CFu dt ¬&>@¦ 236 tMNsamBaØ
  8. 8. T.chhay Edl C=tMélefr d = Ggát;p©itb‘ULúg t = Ggát;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab; RCSC Specification eRbIsmIkar &>! sMrab; bearing strength RbQmnwgEdnkMNt;EdleGayeday smIkar &>@. RbsinebIeKminKitkMhUcRTg;RTay tMélefr C GacykesμInwg 3.0 . RbsinebIkMhUcRTg; RTayFMRtUv)anKit C GacykesμInwg 2.4 ehIyCaTUeTAvaCatMélEdleKykmkeRbI. tMélenHRtUvKña nwgsac;lUtrbs;RbehagRbEhl 1 / 4in. = 6mm ¬RCSC, 1994¦. enAkñúgesovePAenH eyIgBicarNa kMhUcRTg;RTaysMrab;karKNna. RCSC bearing strength sMrab;b‘ULúgeTalGacRtUv)ansMEdgCa φRn Edl φ = 0.75 nig Rn = 1.2 Lc tFu ≤ 2.4dtFu ¬RCSC Equation LRFD 4.3¦ Edl Lc = clear distance enAkñúgTisRsbnwgbnÞúkEdlGnuvtþ BIcugénrn§b‘ULúgeTARCugEKmrbs;rn§Edl enAEk,r b¤eTARCugEKmrbs;sMPar³. t = kMras;rbs;eRKOgP¢ab; d = Ggát;p©itb‘ULúg ¬minEmnGgát;p©itrbs;RbehageT¦ Fu = ultimate tensile stress rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; ¬minEmnrbs;b‘ULúg¦ rUbTI 7>8 bgðajbEnßmeTotBIcMgay Lc . enAeBlEdlKNna bearing strength sMrab;b‘ULúg eKRtUv BicarNacMgayBIb‘ULúgenaHeTAb‘ULúgEdlenAEk,r b¤eTARCugEKmkñúgTisedArbs; bearing load elIEpñkEdl RtUvP¢ab;. sMrab;krNIEdl)anbgðaj bearing load sßitenAEpñkxageqVgrbs;rn§nImYy². dUcenHersIusþg; sMrab;b‘ULúg ! RtUv)anKNnaCamYy Lc Edlvas;eTAb‘ULúg @ ehIyersIusþg;sMrab;b‘ULúg @ RtUv)anKNna CamYy Lc Edlvas;eTARCugEKmrbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;. RCSC Equation LRFD 4.3 mantMélsMrab; standard, oversized, short-slotted and long 237 tMNsamBaØ
  9. 9. T.chhay slotted holes CamYynwg slot EdlRsbeTAnwgbnÞúk. eyIgeRbIEt standard holes enAkñúgesovePAenH ¬RbehagEdlmanGgát;p©itFMCagGgát;p©itb‘ULúg 1/16in. = 2mm ¦. enAeBlEdlKNnacMgay Lc eRbIGgát;p©itRbehagCak;Esþg nigmincaM)ac;bUkbEnßm 2mm dUc EdlRtUvkarenAkñúg AISC B.2 sMrab;KNna net area rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj. müa:gvijeTot eRbIGgát;p©it d + 1 / 16in. = d + 2mm minEmn d + 1 / 8in. = d + 4mm . RbsinebI h bgðajBIGgát;p©itRbehag enaH h = d + 1 / 16in. karKNnarbs; bearing strength BI RCSC Equation LRFD 4.3 GacRtUv)ansMrYlxøHdUcxageRkam. EdnkMNt;nwgmanRbsiT§PaBenAeBl 1.2 Lc tFu = 2.4dtFu b¤ eRkayeBlEdlsMrYlehIy Lc = 2d TMnak;TMngenHGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IKNnaenAeBlEdlEdnkMNt; 2.4dtFu lub³ RbsinebI Lc ≤ 2d eRbI Rn = 1.2Fu Lct RbsinebI Lc > 2d eRbI Rn = 1.2Fu dt Spacing and Edge-Distance Requirments edIm,IrkSacenøaHTMenrrvagex©Ab‘ULúg nigedIm,Ipþl;nUvTIFøaRKb;RKan;sMrab; wrench socket AISC J3.3 tMrUvfaKMlatBIGkS½eTAGkS½ (center-to-center spacing) rbs;eRKOgP¢ab; ¬enARKb;Tis¦ minRtUv tUcCag 2 2 3 d ehIyCakarniymKWminRtUvtUcCag 3d Edl d CaGgát;p©iteRKOgP¢ab;. cMgayBIRCugEKm sMPar³ ¬RKb;Tis¦ Edlvas;BIGkS½rbs;Rbehag RtUv)aneGayenAkñúg AISC Table3.4 CaGnuKmn_eTA nwgTMhMrbs;b‘ULúg nigRbePTrbs;RCug ¬sheared, rolled or gas cut¦. KMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKm EdlsMKal;eday s nig Le RtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>9. 238 tMNsamBaØ
  10. 10. T.chhay Summary fo Bearing Strength, Spacing and Edge-Distance Requirements (standard hole) a. Bearing strength: φRn = 0.75(1.2 Lc tFu ) ≤ 0.75(2.4dtFu ) (RCSC Equation LRFD 4.3) b¤ eyIgGacsresrmüa:geTot RbsibebI Lc ≤ 2d / φRn = 0.75(1.2 Lc tFu ) RbsinebI Lc > 2d / φRn = 0.75(2.4dtFu ) b. KMlat nigsMgayeTARCugEKmGb,brma³ sMrab;RKb;Tis TaMgRsbnwgExSskmμ nigEkgnwgExS skmμ s ≥ 2 23 d ¬CakareBjniym 3d ¦ Le ≥ tMélBI AISC J3.4 sMrab; single- nig double-angle shapes CaTUeTA gage distances RtUv)aneGayenAkñúg Part 9 of the Manual, Volume II (emIlEpñk 3>6)EdlGaceRbICMnYseGaytMélGb,brma. ]TahrN_ 7>1³ RtYtBinitü KMlatb‘ULúg nigcMgayeTARCugEKmsMrab;kartP¢ab;EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>10. dMeNaHRsay³ BI AISC J3.3, KMlatGb,brmasMrab;RKb;TisTaMgGs;KW ⎛3⎞ 2 2 3 d = 2.667⎜ ⎟ = 2in. ⎝4⎠ KMlatCak;Esþg = 2.5in. > 2in. (OK) cMgayeTARCugEKmGb,brmasMrab;RKb;TisTaMgGs;EdlTTYlBI AISC Table J3.4. RbsinebI eyIgsnμt; sheared edges ¬krNIEdlGaRkk;CageK¦ enaHcMgayeTARCugEKmGb,brmaKW 1 14 in. dUcenH 239 tMNsamBaØ
  11. 11. T.chhay cMgayeTARCugEKmCak;Esþg = 1 1 in. (OK) 4 edIm,IKNna bearing strength eRbIGgát;p©itrn§ 1 3 1 13 h=d+ = + = in. 16 4 16 16 RtYtBinitü bearing TaMgelIGgát;rgkarTaj nig gusset plate. sMrab;Ggát;rgkarTaj nigEdl enAEk,rRCugEKmrbs;Ggát;CageK h 13 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.25 − = 0.8438in. 2 2 φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) ≥ φ (2.4dtFu ) ⎛1⎞ φ (1.2 Lc tFu )0.75(1.2)(0.8438)⎜ ⎟(58) = 22.02kips ⎝2⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4 )⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) = 39.15kips > 22.02kips ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ dUcenHyk φRn = 22.02kips / bolt sMrab;rn§epSgeTot 13 Lc = s − h = 2.5 − = 1.688in. 16 φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) ≤ φ (2.4dtFu ) ⎛1⎞ φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(1.688)⎜ ⎟(58) = 44.06kips ⎝2⎠ φ (2.4dtFu ) = 39.15kips < 44.06kips dUcenHyk φRn = 39.15kips / bolt sMrab;Ggát;rgkarTaj bearing strength KW φRn = 2(22.02) + 2(39.15) = 122kips > 65kips (OK) sMrab; gusset plat nigrn§EdlenAEk,rRCugEKmrbs;bnÞHCageK h 13 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.25 − = 0.8438in. 2 2 φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) ≤ φ (2.4dtFu ) ⎛ 3⎞ φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(0.8438)⎜ ⎟(58) = 16.52kips ⎝8⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4 )⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ = 29.36kips > 16.52kips 240 tMNsamBaØ
  12. 12. T.chhay dUcenHyk φRn = 16.52kips / bolt sMrab;rn§d¾éTeTot 13 Lc = s − h = 2.5 − = 1.688in. 16 φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) ≤ φ (2.4dtFu ) ⎛3⎞ φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2 )(1.688)⎜ ⎟(58) = 33.04kips ⎝8⎠ ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) = 29.36kips < 33.04kips ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ dUcenHyk φRn = 33.04kips bearing strength sMrab; gusset plate KW φRn = 2(16.52) + 2(29.36) = 91.8kips gusset plate man bearing strength tUcCag bearing strength rbs;Ggát; dUcenH gusset plate lub φRn = 91.8kips > 65kips (OK) cMeLIy³ tMrUvkar bearing strength, KMlat nig cMgayeTARCugEKmmanlkçN³RKb;RKan;. KMlatb‘ULúg nigcMgayeTARCugEKmenAkñúg]TahrN_ 7>1 mantMéldUcKñasMrab;Ggát;rgkarTaj nig gusset plate. vaxusKñaEtkMras; dUcenH gusset plate lub. sMrab;krNIdUc]TahrN_enH eKRtYt BinitüEteRKOgbgÁúMNaEdlmankMras;esþIgCag. b:uEnþRbsinebIcMgayeTAcugEKmmantMélxusKña dac;xat eKRtUvEtRtYtBinitüTaMgGgát;rgkarTaj nig gusset plate. 7>4> b‘ULúgFmμta Common Bolts eyIgcab;epþImkarerobrab;BIersIusþg;rbs;eRKOgP¢ab;CamYynwg b‘ULúgFmμta EdlxusKñaBIb‘ULúger- sIusþg;x<s;minRtwmEtlkçN³sMPar³b:ueNÑaHeT EfmTaMgkMlaMgrwtbNþwgb‘ULúgeTotpg. b‘ULúgFmμta Edl eKsÁal;Ca unfinished bols RtUv)ansMKal;Ca ASTM A307. Design shear strength rbs; A307 KW φRn / EdlemKuNersIusþg; φ = 0.75 ehIy nominal shear strength KW Rn = Fv Ab Edl Fv = ultimate shearing stress 241 tMNsamBaØ
  13. 13. T.chhay Ab = RkLaépÞmuxkat;rbs;EpñkEdlKμaneFμjrbs;b‘ULúg ¬EdleKsÁal;Ca nominal bolt area b¤ nominal body area¦ Ultimate shearing stress RtUv)aneGayenAkñúg AISC Table J3.2 KW 24ksi = 165MPa Edl eGay nominal strength Rn = Fv Ab = 24 Ab ]TahrN_ 7>2³ kMNt; design strength rbs;kartP¢ab;EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>11 edayQrelI kMlaMgkat;TTwg nig bearing. dMeNaHRsay³ kartP¢ab;GacRtUv)ancat;cMNat;fñak;CatMNsamBaØ ehIyeRKOgP¢ab;mYy²RtUv)anBicar- NaedIm,ITb;Tl;karEbgEckMlaMgesμIKña. kñúgkrNICaeRcInvamanlkçN³gayRsYlkñúgkarkMNt;ersIusþg; rbs;eRKOgP¢ab;mYy rYcbnÞab;mkKuNnwgcMnYneRKOgP¢ab;srub. Shear strength: vaCakrNI single shear ehIy design shear strength rbs;b‘ULúgmYyKW φRn = φFv Ab = 0.75(24 Ab ) Nominal bolt area KW πd 2 π (3 / 4 )2 Ab = = = 0.4418in 2 4 4 dUcenH design shear strength sMrab;b‘ULúgmYyKW φRn = 0.75(24 )(0.4418) = 7.952kips sMrab;b‘ULúgBIrKW φRn = 2(7.952) = 15.9kips Bearing strength: edaysarcMgayeTARCugEKmrbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj nigrbs; gusset plate dUcKña enaH beaing strength rbs; gusset plate nwglub BIeRBaHkMras;rbs;vaesþIgCagkMras;rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj. sMrab;karKNna bearing strength eRbIGgát;p©itRbehag 242 tMNsamBaØ
  14. 14. T.chhay 1 3 1 13 h=d+ = + = in. 16 4 16 16 sMrab;rn§EdlenAEk,rRCugEKmrbs; gusset plate CageK h 13 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.5 − = 1.094in. 2 2 ⎛3⎞ 2d = 2⎜ ⎟ = 1.5in. ⎝4⎠ edaysar Lc < 2d ⎛3⎞ φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2 )(1.094)⎜ ⎟(58) = 21.42kips ⎝8⎠ sMrab;rn§déTeTot 13 Lc = s − h = 3 − = 2.188in. > 2in. 16 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) = 29.36kips ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ Bearing strength sMrab;tMNKW φRn = 21.42 + 29.36 = 50.8kips Bearing strength enHFMCag shearing strength dUcenH shear strength lub ehIyersIusþg;rbs;tMNKW φRn = 15.9kips cMNaMfaRKb;tMrUvkarKMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKmTaMgGs;RtUvEtRKb;RKan;. sMrab; sheared edge cMgay eTARCugEKmEdlTamTareday AISC Table J3.4 KW 1 14 in. = 30mm ehIykarTamTarenHKWRKb;RKan; sMrab;TaMg TisbeNþay nigTisTTwg. KMlatb‘ULúgKW 3in = 75mm EdlFMCag 2 2 3 d = 2.667(3 4 ) = 2in. . cMeLIy³ edayQrelI shear nig bearing, design strength rbs;tMNKW 15.9kips . ¬cMNaMfa sßanPaB kMNat;d¾éTepSgeTotEdlminTan;)anRtYtBinitüdUcCa kugRtaMgTajenAelI net area rbs;Ggát;Gacnwg CaGñkkMNt; design strength¦. ]TahrN_ 7>3³ r)arEdk 4 × 3 / 8in. RtUv)aneRbICaGgát;rgkarTajedIm,ITb;Tl;nwg service dead load 8kips nig service live load 22kips . Ggát;enHRtUv)anKNnaeRkamkarsnμt;fa b‘ULúg A307 Ggát; p©it 3 / 4in. mYyCYrRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IP¢ab;Ggát;enHeTA gusset plate EdlmankMras; 3 / 8in. . TaMgGgát; rgkarTaj nig gusset plate CaEdk A36 . etIeKRtUvkarb‘ULúgb:unμanRKab;? 243 tMNsamBaØ
  15. 15. T.chhay dMeNaHRsay³ bnÞúkemKuNKW Pu = 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2(8) + 1.6(22) = 44.80kips KNnalT§PaBrbs;b‘ULúgmYy. BI]TahrN_ 7>2 shear strength KW φRn = 7.952kips / bolt sMrab; eKminsÁal;KMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKm dUcenHeyIgsnμt;fa EdkkMNt; bearing strength, φ 2.4dtFu nwglub enaHeyIgTTYl)an ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ φRn = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) = 29.36kips / bolt ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ Bearing strength Cak;EsþgsMrab;tMNenHnwgGaRs½yelItMélrbs; Lc sMrab;b‘ULúgnImYy². enAeBl EdltMélenHRtUv)ankMNt;enAkñúgkarKNnacugeRkay enaH bearing strength RtUv)anRtYtBinitüeLIg vijb:uEnþ shear enAEtTMngCalub. cMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUvkarKW 44.80kips = 5.63bolts 7.952kips / bolt cMeLIy³ eRbIb‘ULúg A307 Ggát;p©it 3 / 4in. cMnYnR)aMmYyRKab;. 7>5> b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s; High-Strength Bolts b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;sMrab;tMNrbs;eRKOgbgÁúMmanBIry:agKW ASTM A325 nig ASTM A490 . karpþl;eGayrbs; AISC sMrab;ersIusþg;x<s;KWCaEpñkxøHrbs;karpþl;eGayrbs; specification of the Research Council on Structural Connections of the Engineering Foundation (RCSC, 1994). b‘ULúg A490 man ultimate tensile strength FMCagb‘ULúg A325 ehIyRtUv)ankMNt;faman nominal strength FMCag. b‘ULúg A490 RtUv)andak;eGayeRbIR)as;ry³eBly:agyUrbnÞab;BIb‘ULúg A325 RtUv)aneRbICaTUeTA sMrab;eRbICamYyEdkEdlmanersIusþg;x<s; ¬Bethlehem, 1969¦. b‘ULúg A490 mantMéléføCag A325 b:uEnþCaTUeTAeKRtUvkarvacMnYnticCag. kñúgkrNIxøH b‘ULúg A490 nig A325 RtUv)antMeLIgCamYynwgkMrittwgEdleFVIeGayBYkvargnUvkM laMgTajFMEmnETn. ]TahrN_ kMlaMgTajdMbUgenAkñúgb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 5 / 8in. GacFMesμInwg 19kips = 85KN . bBa¢IénkMlaMgTajGb,brmasMrab;tMNTaMgenaHRtUvkarRtUv)aneGayenAkñúg AISC Table J3.1, Minimum Bolt Tension. tMélnImYy²esμInwg 70% énersIusþg;TajGb,brmarbs;b‘ULúg. 244 tMNsamBaØ
  16. 16. T.chhay eKalbMNgEdleKRtUvkarkMlaMgTajFMEbbenHKWedIm,ITTYl)ankMlaMgrwtEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>12. b‘ULúgEbbenHRtUv)aneKehAfa fully tensioned. enAeBlEdlex©ARtUv)anmYlP¢ab;eTAnwgb‘ULúg EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;rgnUvkMlaMgsgát; ehIyb‘ULúglUt. düaRkaGgÁesrI (free body diagram) enAkñúgrUbTI 7>12 a bgðajfakMlaMgsgát;srubEdlmanGMeBIelI EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;esμInwgkMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘ULúg. RbsinebIeKGnuvtþkMlaMgxageRkA P kMlaMgkkitnwg ekItmanenAcenøaHEpñkP¢ab;. kMlaMgGtibrmaEdlGacekItmanKW F = μN Edl μ CaemKuNkkitsþaTicrvagEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; ehIy N CakMlaMgsgát;EdlmanGMeBIenAelIépÞxag kñúg. tMélrbs; μ GaRs½ynwglkçxNÐépÞrbs;Edk ]TahrN_dUcCa épÞrbs;vamanlabfñaM b¤manERcHsIu. dUcenHb‘ULúgnImYy²enAkñúgkartP¢ab;RtUvmanlT§PBedIm,ITb;Tl;nwgbnÞúk P = F . RbsinebIkMlaMgkkit minFM vanwgminman bearing b¤ shear. RbsinebI P FMCag F slip ekIteLIg enaH shear nig bearing nwg CHT§iBldl;lT§PaBrbs;tMN. 245 tMNsamBaØ
  17. 17. T.chhay kartMeLIg Installation etIeKTTYl)ankMlaMgTajFMEdlmanPaBsuRkitedayrebobNa? bc©úb,nñeKmanviFIsaRsþEdl GnuBaØateGaycMnYnbYnsMrab;kartMeLIgb‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s; (RCSC, 1994). !> Turn-of-the-nut method. viFIenHQrelIlkçN³bnÞúk-kMhUcRTg;RTay (load-deforma- tion characteristic) rbs;eRKOgP¢ab; nigEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;. ex©AEdlmYlP¢ab;eTAnwgb‘ULúgGaceFVIeGay b‘ULúglUtsac;. TMnak;TMng stress-strain sMrab;sMPar³b‘ULúgGacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IKNnakMlaMgTajenA kñúgb‘ULúg. dUcenHsMrab;RKb;TMhM nigRbePTrbs;b‘ULúg cMnYnCMumYlex©AEdlRtUvkaredIm,IbegáItkMlaMgTaj GacRtUv)anKNna. Table 5 enAkñúg high-strength bolt specification (RCSC, 1994) eGaynUvcMnYn CMurbs;ex©AEdlRtUvkarsMrab;TMhMepSg²rbs;b‘ULúgkñúgTMrg;pleFobRbEvgelIGgát;p©it. viFIsaRsþenHeK eRbI ordinary spud wrench. @> Calibrated wrench tightening. kñúgviFIsa®sþenHeKRtUveRbI torque wrench. kMlaMgrmYl EdlRtUvkaredIm,ITTYlkMlaMgTajkMNt;enAkñúgb‘ULúgRtUv)ankMNt;edaykarrwtbNþwgb‘ULúgenHCamYy]b krN_EdlbgðajkMlaMgTah. #> Alternated wrench bolts. eKRtUvkar wrench BiessedIm,ItMeLIgb‘ULúg. karRtYtBinitükar gartMeLIgenHmanlkçN³gayRsYlCaBiess. $> Direct tension indicators. sMPar³EdleKniymeRbIenAkñúgviFIsaRsþenHKW washer Edlman protrusion enAelIépÞrbs;va. enAeBlEdleKrwtb‘ULúg protrusion rgnUvkMlaMgsgát;EdlsmamaRteTA nwgkMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘ULúg. 7>6> Shear Strength of High-Strength Bolts Design shear strength rbs;b‘ULúg A325 nig A490 KW φRn EdlemKuNersIusþg; φ = 0.75 . dUc Kñanwgb‘ULúgFmμtaEdr nominal shear strength rbs;b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;RtUv)aneGayeday ultimate shearing stress KuNnwg nominal bolt area. Etb‘ULúg A307 mindUcb‘ULúg A325 nig A490 Rtg; shear strength rbs;b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;GaRs½ynwgeFμjrbs;b‘ULúgsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;b¤ minsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;. edIm,IsMrYlkñúgkareRbI reduced cross-sectional area enAeBlEdlEpñkEdlmaneFμjrgnUvkMlaMgkat; TTwg enaH ultimate shearing stress rbs;vaRtUvKuNnwg 0.75 EdlCapleFobRbhak;RbEhlénRkLa 246 tMNsamBaØ
  18. 18. T.chhay épÞEdlmaneFμj elIRkLaépÞEdlKμaneFμj. ersIusþg;RtUv)aneGayenAkñúg AISC Table J3.2 ehIy RtUv)ansegçbenAkñúgtarag 7>1 . AISC Table J3.2 sMedAeFμjenAkñúgbøg;kat;Ca “not excluded from shear planes” ehIysMedAeFμjEdlminenAkñúgbøg;kat;Ca “excluded from shear planes”. RbePTTI mYy eFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; eKsMedACaRbePTtMN “N” ehIyb‘ULúg A325 énRbePTenHGacsMKal; eday A325 − N . karsMKal; “X” GacRtUv)aneRbIedIm,IbgðajfaeFμjminsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;eT ]Ta- hrN_ A325 − X . tarag 7>1 Nominal shear strength eRKOgP©ab; Rn = Fv Ab US IS A325/ eFμjenAkñúgbøg;kat; 48 Ab 330 Ab A325 / eFμjminenAkñúgbøg;kat; 60 Ab 415 Ab A490 / eFμjenAkñúgbøg;kat; 60 Ab 415 Ab A490 / eFμjminenAkñúgbøg;kat; 75 Ab 520 Ab ]TahrN_7>4³ kMNt; design strength rbs;tMNEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>13. GegÁt bolt shear, bearing nig tensile strength rbs;Ggát;. b‘ULúgEdleRbICaRbePT A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. ehIyeFμj rbs;vaminsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;. Ggát;CaRbePTEdk A572 Grade 50 . dMeNaHRsay³ shear strength sMrab;b‘ULúgmYy π (7 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.6013in.2 4 247 tMNsamBaØ
  19. 19. T.chhay φRn = φFv Ab = 0.75(60)(0.6013) = 27.06kips sMrab;b‘ULúgbI φRn = 3(27.06) = 81.2kips Bearing strength ³ sMrab;karKNna bearing strength eRbIGgát;p©itrn§ 1 7 1 15 h=d+ = + = in. 16 8 16 16 RtYtBinitü bearing EdlekItmanTaMgelI Ggát;rgkarTaj nig gusset plate. sMrab;Ggát;rgkarTaj nig b‘ULúgEdlenAEk,rRCugEKmCageKrbs;Ggát; h 15 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.25 − = 0.7812in. 2 2 2d = 2(7 / 8) = 1.75in. edaysar Lc < 2d ⎛1⎞ φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(0.7812)⎜ ⎟(65) = 22.85kips ⎝2⎠ sMrab;RbehagepSgeTot 15 Lc = s − h = 2.75 − = 1.812in. > 2d 16 ⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(65) = 51.19kips ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ Bearing strength sMrab;Ggát;rgkarTajKW φRn = 22.85 + 2(51.19) = 125kips KNna bearing strength rbs; gusset plate. sMrab;rn§EdlenAEk,rRCugEKmrbs; gusset CageK h 15 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.5 − = 1.031in. < 2d 2 2 ⎛3⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(1.031)⎜ ⎟(65) = 22.62kips ⎝8⎠ sMrab;Rbehagd¾éTeTot 15 Lc = s − h = 2.75 − = 1.812in. > 2d 16 ⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(65) = 38.39kips ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ Bearing strength rbs; gusset plate KW φRn = 22.62 + 2(38.92 ) = 99.4kips 248 tMNsamBaØ
  20. 20. T.chhay Gusset plate man strength tUcCag dUcenH bearing strength sMrab;tMNKW φRn = 99.4kips RtYtBinitü tensile strength rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj. Tension on the gross atea: ⎛ 1⎞ φt Pn = φt Fy Ag = 0.90(50 )⎜ 3 × ⎟ = 67.5kips ⎝ 2⎠ Tension on the net area: muxkat;TaMgGs;rbs;Ggát;RtUv)antP¢ab; dUcenHvaminman shear lag eT dUcenHeyIg)an Ae = An . eRbIGgát;Rbehag 1 7 1 h = d + = + = 1.0in. 8 8 8 Design strength KW φt Pn = φt Fu Ae = φt Fu t (wg − ∑ h ) = 0.75(65)⎜ ⎟[3 − 1(1.0)] = 48.8kips ⎛1⎞ ⎝2⎠ karTajenAelI net section mantMéltUcCageK cMeLIy³ Design strength rbs;tMNKW 48.8kips 7>7> Slip-Critical Connections eKcat;cMNat;fñak;kartP¢ab;EdleRbIb‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;Ca slip-critical connection b¤ bearing- type connection. Slip-critical connection CakartP¢ab;EdleKminGnuBaØateGayman slip Edlmin RtUvFMCagkMlaMgkkit. sMrab; bearing-type connection eKGnuBØateGayman slip ehIy shear nig bearing ekIteLIgFmμta. enAkñúgRbePTeRKOgbgÁúMxøH CaBiesss<an kMlaMgEdlmanGMeBIelItMNGacekIt eLIgCalkçN³xYb. kñúgkrNIEbbenH fatigue rbs;eRKOgP¢ab;GackøayCaeRKaHfñak;RbsinebIeKGnuBaØat eGayman slip rYmCamYynwgkarekIteLIgsarcuHsareLIg enaHeKRtUvRtYtBinitü slip-critical connec- tion. enAkñúgeRKOgbgÁúMCaeRcIn eKGnuBaØateGayman slip ehIy bearing-type connection RtUvEt RKb;RKan;. ¬b‘ULúg A307 RtUv)aneRbIsMrab;Et bearing-type connection¦. sMrab; slip-critical connection eKcaM)ac;RtUvEteFVIkartMeLIgeGay)anl¥ edIm,ITTYlnUvkMlaMgTajdMbUgRKb;RKan;dUcEdl)an erobrab;. AISC J1.11 erobrab;BIsßanPaBkMNt;Edlb‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;RtUvEtmankMlaMgTajeBj. enA kñúg bearing-type connection tMrUvkarcaM)ac;EtmYyKt;kñúgkartMeLIgb‘ULúgKWeKRtUvpþl;nUvkMlaMgTaj 249 tMNsamBaØ
  21. 21. T.chhay RKb;RKan;edIm,IeGayépÞb:HKñaGacTb;Tl;Kña)aneTAvijeTAmk. kartMeLIgenHbegáItnUv snug-tight condition Edl)anerobrab;enAkñúg turn-of-the-nut method. eTaHbICatamRTwsþI slip-critical connection minRbQmnwg shear nig bearing k¾eday k¾eKRtUvEtman shear strength nig bearing strength RKb;RKan;sMrab;krNI overload EdlGaceFVIeGay ekItman slip. edIm,IkarBar slip eKRtUvmanEdnkMNt;sMrab; service load b¤ factored load. eTaHbICakar karBar slip mansar³sMxan;sMrab; serviceability requiremnent k¾eday k¾ AISC Specification GnuBaØateGay slip-critical strength GacQrelI service load b¤ factored load. dUcEdl)anerobrab;BIxagelI lT§PaBTb;nwg slip CaGnuKmn_énplKuNrvagemKuNkkitsþaTic nig normal force cenøaHEpñkP¢ab;. TMnak;TMngenHRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúg RCSC Specification Edl eyIgeRbIenATIenHsMrab; slip-critical connection (RCSC, 1994). Slip-critical strength rbs;tMN KW φRstr Edl φ = 1.0 sMrab; standard hole ehIy Rstr = 1.13μTm N b N s (RCSC Equation LRFD 5.3) Edl μ = mean slip coefficient ¬emKuNkkitsþaTic¦ = 0.33 sMrab;épÞ Class A Tm = kMlaMgTajrbs;eRKOgP¢ab;Gb,brmaEdl)anBI AISC Table J3.1 b¤ RCSC Table 4 N b = cMnYnb‘ULúgenAkñúgtMN N s = cMnYn slip plan ¬bøg;kat;¦ épÞ Class A CaépÞEdlmanEdkG‘uksIutenAépÞrbs;va. enAkñúg Specification manENnaMnUvRbePTépÞ CaeRcIneTot EtenAkñúgesovePAenH eyIgeRbIEt épÞ Class A Edlpþl;nUv slip coefficient tUcCageKbMput. Slip-critical design strength sMrab;b‘ULúgmYyén single shear KW φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s ) = 1.0(1.13)(0.33)Tm (1)(1) = 0.373Tm kips ]TahrN_ 7>5³ kartP¢ab;EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>14 eRbIb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 3 / 4in. EdleFμj rbs;vasßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;. eKminGnuBaØateGayman slip. TaMgGgát;rgkarTaj nig gusset plate Ca RbePTEdk A36 . kMNt; design strength. 250 tMNsamBaØ
  22. 22. T.chhay dMeNaHRsay³ Shear strength: sMrab;b‘ULúgmYy π (3 / 4 )2 Ab = = 0.4418in.2 4 φRn = φFv Ab = 0.75(48)(0.4418) = 15.90kips sMrab;b‘ULúgbYnRKab; φRn = 4(15.90) = 63.60kips Slip-critical strength: edaysareKminGnuBaØateGayman slip enaHkartP¢ab;enHRtUv)ancat;Ca slip- critical. BI AISC Table J3.1 kMlaMgTajkñúgb‘ULúgGb,brmaKW Tm = 28kips . BIsmIkar &>#/ φRstr = 0.373Tm = 0.373(28) = 10.4kips / bplt sMrab;b‘ULúgbYn φRstr = 4(10.4) = 41.6kips Bearing strength: edaysarcMgayeTARCugEKmmanRbEvgdUcKña ehIy gusset palte esþIgCagr)ar enaH eyIgenwgeRbI gusset plate EdlmankMras; 3 / 8in. edIm,IKNna bearing strength. Ggát;p©itRbehag 1 3 1 13 h=d+ = + = in. 16 4 16 16 sMrab;RbehagEdlenACitRCugEKmrbs; gusset plate CageK h 13 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.5 − = 1.094in. 2 2 ⎛3⎞ 2d = 2⎜ ⎟ = 1.5in. ⎝4⎠ edaysar Lc < 2d 251 tMNsamBaØ
  23. 23. T.chhay ⎛3⎞ φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2 )(1.094)⎜ ⎟(58) = 21.42kips / bolt ⎝8⎠ sMrab;d¾éTeTot 13 Lc = s − h = 3 − = 2.188in. > 2d 16 dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 29.36kips / bolt Bearing strength sMrab;kartMNKW φRn = 2(21.42) + 2(29.36 ) = 102kips RtYtBinitü tensile strength rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj karTajenAelI gross area: ⎛ 1⎞ φt Pn = φt Fy Ag = 0.90(36 )⎜ 6 × ⎟ = 97.2kips ⎝ 2⎠ karTajenAelI net area: muxkat;TaMgmUlrbs;Ggát;RtUv)antP¢ab; dUcenHvaKμan shear lag eT enaHeyIg TTYl)an Ae = An . Ggát;p©itRbehag 1 3 1 7 h=d+ = + = in. 8 4 8 8 Design strength KW φt Pn = φt Fu Ae = φt Fu t (wg − ∑ h ) = 0.75(58)⎜ ⎟ ⎢6 − 2⎜ ⎟⎥ = 92.4kips ⎛ 1 ⎞⎡ ⎛ 7 ⎞⎤ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎣ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎦ Block shear stredngth: failure blocksMrab; gusset plate manTMhMdUcTMhMsMrab;Ggát;rgkarTajEdr EtxuxKñaRtg;kMras; ¬rUbTI 7>14 b¦. Gusset plate EdlmankMras;esþIgCagnwgmanersIusþg;tUcCag. vaman shear-failure plane cMnYnBIr³ Agv = 2 × 3 (3 + 1.5) = 3.375in.2 8 edaysarvaman 1.5 Ggát;p©itRbehagkñúgmYyCYredkrbs;b‘ULúg 3⎡ ⎛ 7 ⎞⎤ Anv = 2 × ⎢(3 + 1.5) − (1.5)⎜ ⎟⎥ = 2.391in.2 8⎣ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎦ sMrab;RkLaépÞrgkarTaj Agt = 3 (3) = 1.125in.2 8 3⎛ 7⎞ Ant = ⎜ 3 − ⎟ = 0.7969in.2 8⎝ 8⎠ 252 tMNsamBaØ
  24. 24. T.chhay AISC Equation J4-3a eGay [ ] φRn = φ 0.6 Fy Agv + Fu Ant = 0.75[0.6(36 )(3.375) + 58(0.7969 )] = 0.75[72.90 + 46.22] = 89.3kips AISC Equation J4-3b eGay [ ] φRn = φ 0.6 Fy Anv + Fy Agt = 0.75[0.6(58)(2.391) + 36(1.125)] = 0.75[83.21 + 40.50] = 92.8kips tY fracture ¬EdlBak;Bn§½nwg Fu ¦ enAkñúgsmIkarTIBIrmantMélFMCagenAkñúgsmIkarTImYy dUcenH AISC Equation 4.3b lub. design strength sMrab; block shear = 92.8kips kñúgcMeNamsßanPaBkMNt;TaMgGs;Edl)aneFVIkarGegát eyIgeXIjfaersIusþg;EdlRtUvKñanwg slip mantM éltUcCageK. cMeLIy³ Design strength rbs;tMNKW 41.6kips ]TahrN_ 7>6³ Ggát;rgkarTajkMras; 5 / 8in. RtUv)antP¢ab;eTAnwg splice plate kMras; 1 / 4in. cMnYnBIr dUcEdl)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>15. bnÞúkEdl)anbgðajCabnÞúk service load. eKeRbIEdk A36 nig b‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 5 / 8in. . RbsinebIeKGnuBaØateGayman slip etIeKRtUvkarb‘ULúgb:unμanRKab;? GkS½rbs;b‘ULúgnImYy²EdlbgðajKWCaCYrrbs;b‘ULúgkñúgTisTTwgrbs;bnÞHEdk. 253 tMNsamBaØ
  25. 25. T.chhay dMeNaHRsay³ Shear: sMrab; shear, norminal bolt area KW π (5 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.3068in.2 4 snμt;fa eFμjb‘ULúgsßitenAkúñgbøg;kat;. enaH design strength sMrab;b‘ULúgmYyKW φRn = φFv Ab × 2planes of shear = 0.75(48)(0.3068)(2) = 22.09kips Bearing: Beating force enAelIGgát;rgkarTajkMras; 5 / 8in. nwgFMCag bearing force enAelI splice plate kMras; 1 / 4in. nImYy² BIrdg. edaysarbnÞúksrubenAelI splice plates esμInwgbnÞúkenAelIGgát; rgkarTaj enaH splice plate nwgmaneRKaHfñak;enAeBlEdlkMras;srubrbs; splice plate esþIgCag kMras;rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj. eRbIGgát;p©itRbehag 1 5 1 11 h=d+ = + = in. 16 8 16 16 sMrab;RbehagEdlenAEk,rRCugEKmCageK h 11 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.5 − = 1.156in. 2 2 ⎛5⎞ 2d = 2⎜ ⎟ = 1.25in. ⎝8⎠ edaysar Lc < 2d / bearing strength KW ⎛1 1⎞ φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(1.156)⎜ + ⎟(58) = 30.17kips / bolt ⎝4 4⎠ sMrab;rn§déTeTot 11 Lc = s − h = 3 − = 2.312in. > 2d 16 ⎛ 5 ⎞⎛ 1 1 ⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ + ⎟(58) = 32.62kips / bolt ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 4 4 ⎠ Shearing strength kñúgb‘ULúgmYyKWtUcCagtMél bearing TaMgBIr dUcenHersIusþg;rbs;tMNKW 22.09kips . bnÞúkemKuNKW Pu = 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2(25) + 1.6(25) = 70kips cMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUvkar = total load load per bolt 70 = = 3.17bolts 22.09 cMeLIy³ eRbIb‘ULúgbYn EdlkñúgmYyCYrmanBIrRKab; enAelIRCugnImYy²rbs; splice. b‘ULúgcMnYn R)aMbI RKab;GacRtUvkarsMrab;kartP¢ab;enH. 254 tMNsamBaØ
  26. 26. T.chhay ]TahrN_ 7>7³ C 6 ×13 EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>16 RtUv)aneRCIserIsedIm,ITb;Tl;nwgbnÞúkTajem KuN 108kips . Ggát;enHRtUv)anP¢ab;eTAnwg gusset plate kMras; 3 / 8in. CamYynwgb‘ULúg A325 EdlmanGgát;p©it 7 / 8in. . ]bmafaeFμjrbs;b‘ULúgsßitenAkñúgbøg;énkMlaMgkat;TTwg ehIyeKGnuBaØat eGayman slip sMrab;kartP¢ab;enH. kMNt;cMnYn nigeFVIkartMerobb‘ULúgy:agNaedIm,ITTYl)anRbEvgt P¢ab; h Gb,brma. eKeRbIEdk A36 . dMeNaHRsay³ kMNt;lT§PaBrbs;b‘ULúgeTal kMlaMgkat;TTwg³ π (7 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.6013in.2 4 φRn = φFv Ab = 0.75(48)(0.6013) = 21.65kips bearing³ edaysarkMras;rbs; gusset plate esþIgCaRTnugrbs;Edk channel dUcenH bearing strength rbs; gusset plate nwgtUcCagEdk channel. snμt;faRbEvg Lc EdlRsbnwgkMlaMgEdlGnuvtþmantMél FMCag 2d sMrab;b‘ULúgTaMgGs;. enaH ⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58) = 34.26kips ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 8 ⎠ enaH kMlaMgkat;TTwglub. dUcenH cMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUvkar = 21.65 = 4.99 108 eTaHbICab‘ULúg 5 pþl;nUversIusþg;RKb;RKan;k¾eday k¾eKsakl,gb‘ULúg 6RKab;EdlGacerobCalkçN³ sIuemRTI edaymanb‘ULúg 3RKab;BIrCYr dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>17. ¬b‘ULúgBIrCYrRtUv)aneRbIedIm,I TTYl)anRbEvgtP¢ab;Gb,brma¦. eyIgmin)andwgfaetIkarKNnamuxkat;Ggát;rgkarTajenHQrelI karsnμt;eRKOgP¢ab;b:unμanCYr dUcenHlT§PaBTb;karTajrbs;Edk channel CamYynwgb‘ULúgBIrCYrRtUv)an RtYtBinitümunnwgdMeNIrkarKNnakartP¢ab;bnþ. 255 tMNsamBaØ
  27. 27. T.chhay karTajenAelI gross area: φt Pn = 0.90 Fy Ag = 0.90(36 )(3.83) = 124kips net area An = 3.83 − 2(1.0)(0.437 ) = 2.96in.2 edaysareyIgminTan;sÁal;RbEvgtP¢ab;BitR)akd dUcenHeyIgRtUveRbItMélmFümrbs; U BI Commentary. Ae = UAn = 0.85(2.96) = 2.51in.2 kMlaMgTajenAelI net area φt Pn = 0.75Fu Ae = 0.75(58)(2.51) = 109kips ¬lub¦ dUcenH lT§PaBrbs;Ggát;rgkarTajKWQrelIb‘ULúgBIrCYr. RtYtBinitüKMlat nigRbEvgeTARCugEKmtamTisEkgnwgkMlaMg. BI AISC J3.3 KMlatGb,brma = 2.667⎛ 7 ⎞ = 2.33in. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ BI AISC Table J3.4 RbEvgeTARCugEKmGb,brma = 1 18 in. KMlat 3in. nigRbEvgeTARCugEKm1 12 in. nwgRtUv)aneRbIkñúgTisEkgnwgkMlaMg. eKGackMNt;RbEvgtP¢ab;Gb,brmarbs;kartP¢ab;edayeRbIKMlat nigRbEvgeTARCugEKmGnuBaØat Gb,brmakñúgTisbeNþay ¬RsbnwgkMlaMg¦. KMlatGb,brmakñúgTisnImYy²KW 2 2 3 d = 2.33in. . sakl,g 2 12 in. . RbEvgeTARCugEKmGb,brmaKW 1 18 in. . cMgayGb,brmaTaMgenHnwgRtUv)aneRbI sMrab;epÞógpÞat; bearing strength rbs;kartP¢ab;. sMrab;karKNna bearing strength eKeRbIGgát;p©it rn§ 1 7 1 15 h=d+ = + = in. 16 8 16 16 sMrab;RbehagEdlenAEk,rRCugEKmrbs; gusset plate CageK 256 tMNsamBaØ
  28. 28. T.chhay h 15 / 16 Lc = Le − = 1.125 − = 0.6562in. 2 2 2d = 2(7 / 8) = 1.75in. edaysar Lc < 2d bearing strength KW ⎛3⎞ φRn = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(0.6562)⎜ ⎟(58) = 12.85kips / bolt ⎝8⎠ sMrab;Rbehagd¾éTeTot 15 Lc = s − h = 2.5 − = 1.562in. < 2d 16 dUcenH φRn = φ (1.2LctFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(1.562)⎜ 8 ⎞(58) = 30.58kips / bolt ⎛3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ Bearing strength srubsMrab;kartP¢ab;KW φRn = 2(12.85) + 4(30.58) = 148kips > Pu = 108kips (OK) rUbTI 7>18 bgðajBIkartP¢ab;sakl,gsMrab;RtYtBinitüemIl block shear enAkñúg gusset plate ¬sMrab;ragGrNImaRtén failure block enAkñúgEdl channel KWdUcKña b:uEnþ gusset plate mankMras;esþIg Cag¦. Shear areas: Agv = (2.5 + 2.5 + 1.125)(2) = 4.594in.2 3 8 ehIyedaysarEtvamanRbehag 2.5 enAtamépÞkat;nImYy² Anv = 3 [6.125 − 2.5(1.0)](2) = 2.719in.2 8 Tension area Agt = (3) = 1.125in.2 3 8 ehIy Ant = (3 − 1.0) = 0.75in.2 3 8 RtYtBinitüsMrab; tension yield nig shear fracture CamYynwg AISC Equation J4-3a: 257 tMNsamBaØ
  29. 29. T.chhay [ φRn = φ 0.6 Fy Agv + Fu Ant ] = 0.75[0.6(36 )(4.594 ) + 58(0.75)] = 0.75[99.23 + 43.50] = 107.0kips RtYtBinitüsMrab; tension fracture nig shear yield CamYynwg AISC Equation J4-3b: φRn = φ [0.6 Fu Anv + Fy Agt ] = 0.75[0.6(58)(2.719 ) + 36(1.125)] = 0.75[94.62 + 40.50] = 101.3kips tY fracture ¬tYEdlBak;Bn§½nwg Fu ¦ enAkñúgsmIkarTIBIrmantMélFMCagtY fracture enAkñúgsmIkarTImYy dUcenH smIkarTIBIrlub. Design strength sMrab; block shear = 101.3kips < 108kips (N.G.) viFIEdlsamBaØbMputkñúgkarbegáIn block shear strength sMrab;kartP¢ab;enHKWbegáIn shear area eday begáInKMlatb‘ULúg. RbsinebIeKbegáInKMlat AISC Equation J4-3b enAEtlubdEdl. ebIeTaHbICaKM latEdlRtUvkarGackMNt;eday trial and error k¾eday k¾eKGacedaHRsayedaypÞal;dUcEdleyIg nwgeFVIenATIenH. BI AISC Equation J4-3b, eKeGay 0.75[0.6(58)Anv + 40.50] = 108kips dUcenHeKRtUvkar Anv = 2.974in.2 Anv = 3 (2s + 1.125 − 2.5)(2) = 2.974in.2 8 dUcenH s = 2.67in. yk s = 3in. CamYynwgKMlat 3in. net shear area KW Anv = 3 (3 + 3 + 1.125 − 2.5)(2) = 3.469in.2 8 ehIy block shear strength BI AISC Equation J4-3b KW [ φRn = φ 0.6 Fu Anv + Fy Agt ] = 0.75[0.6(58)(3.469 ) + 36(1.125)] = 0.75[120.7 + 40.50] = 120.9kips edayeRbIKMlat nigRbEvgeTARCugEKmEdl)ankMNt; dUcenHRbEvgGb,brmaKW h = 1.125 + 2 × 3 + 1.125 = 8.5in cMeLIy³ eRbIkartP¢ab;lMGitEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>19. 258 tMNsamBaØ
  30. 30. T.chhay kartMerobb‘ULúgenAkñúg]TahrN_ 7>7 manlkçN³sIuemRTIeFobnwgGkS½RsbnwgGkS½TIRbCMuTMgn;. dUcenHkMlaMgpÁÜbEdlTb;Tl;kMlaMgEdlpþleGayedayeRKOgP¢ab;k¾eFVIGMeBItamGkS½enH ehIyragFrNI- maRtenHRtUvKñanwgkartP¢ab;samBaØ. RbsinebIeKRtUvkarcMnYnb‘ULúgess ehIyeKeRbIBIrCYr vanwgminman PaBsIuemRTIeT ehIykartP¢ab;nwgmanlkçN³cakp©it. kñúgkrNIEbbenH GñkKNnamuxkat;nwgmanCMerIs eRcIn³ ¬!¦ minKitcMNakp©it edaysnμt;faT§BlenHGacecal)an/ ¬@¦ KitcMNakp©it/ ¬#¦ eRbIkartM erobqøas; (staggered pattern) EdlGacrkSanUvPaBsIuemRTI/ b¤ ¬$¦ bEnßmcMnYnb‘ULúgedIm,ITTYl)an kartMerobEdlmanlkçN³sIuemRTI. visVkrPaKeRcInRbEhlCanwgeRCIserIsCMerIscugeRkay. ]TahrN_ 7>8³ Ggát;rgkarTajRbEvg 13 ft nigkartP¢ab;rbs;vaRtUv)anKNnasMrab; service dead load 8kips nig service live load 22kips . eKminGnuBaØateGayman slip sMrab;kartP¢ab;enHeT. Ggát;enHRtUv)antP¢ab;eTAnwg gusset plate kMras; 3 / 8in. dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>20. eRbIEdkEkg eTal (single angle) sMrab;Ggát;rgkarTaj. eRbIb‘ULúg A325 nigEdk A572 grade 50 sMrab;Ggát;rg karTaj nig gusset plate. dMeNaHRsay³ bnÞúkemKuNEdlRtUvTb;Tl;KW Pu = 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2(8) + 1.6(22) = 44.8kips 259 tMNsamBaØ
  31. 31. T.chhay edaysarTMhMb‘ULúg nigkartMerobb‘ULúgCHT§iBldl; net area rbs;Ggát;rgkarTaj eyIgnwgcab;epþIm CamYynwgkareRCIserIsb‘ULúg. yuT§saRsþKWkareRCIserIssMrab;karsakl,g/ kMNt;cMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUv kar/ rYcbnÞab;mksakl,gTMhMepSgeTotRbsinebITMhMEdl)ansakl,gFMeBk b¤tUceBk. Ggát;p©itb‘U LúgsßitenAcenøaHBI 1/ 2in. ≈ 13mm eTA 1 12 in. ≈ 38mm edayekIneLIgmþg 1 / 8in. ≈ 3mm sakl,gb‘ULúg 5 / 8in. . Nominal bolt area KW π (5 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.3068in.2 4 Shear strength KW φRn = φFv Ab = 0.75(48)Ab = 0.75(48)(0.3068) = 11.04kips / bolt ¬edaysnμt;faeFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;¦ edayeKminGnuBaØateGayman slip dUcenHkartP¢ab;enHCa slip-critical. eyIgsnμt;épÞ Class A ehIy sMrab;b‘ULúgGgát;p©it 5 / 8in. kMlaMgTajGb,brmaKW Tm = 19kips ¬BI AISC Table J3.1). BI RCSC Equation LRFD 5.3, slip critical strength sMrab;b‘ULúgeTalKW φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s ) = 1.0(1.13)(0.33)(19)(1)(1) = 7.085kips / bolt eday slip-critical strength tUcCag shear strength dUcenH slip-critical strength lub. eyIgnwgkM Nt;cMnYnb‘ULúgedayQrelI slip-critical strength ehIyRtYtBinitü bearing bnÞab;BIeRCIserIsGgát; ¬edaysar bearing strength minGackMNt;)an Tal;EteKsÁal;kMras;Ggát;sin¦. dUcenH cMnYnb‘ULúg = load per bolt = 7.085 = 6.3bolts total load 44.8 dUcenHeKRtUvkarb‘ULúgy:agtic 7 RKab;. RbsinebIeKeRbIBIrCYr eKRtUvbEnßmb‘ULúgmYyRKab;edIm,IrkSaPaB sIuemRTI. rUbTI 7>21 bgðajBIkartMerobb‘ULúgEdlmanCaeRcInTMrg;. kartMerobb‘ULúgTaMgenHeKGaceRbI )anTaMgGs; EtRbEvgénkartP¢ab;GacRtUv)ankat;bnßyedayeRbITMhMb‘ULúgFM nigcMnYntic. sakl,gb‘ULúgEdlmanGgát;p©it 7 / 8in. . Nominal bolt area KW π (7 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.6013in.2 4 Shear strength KW φRn = 0.75(48)Ab = 0.75(48)(0.6013) = 21.65kips / bolt ¬edaysnμt;faeFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;¦ 260 tMNsamBaØ
  32. 32. T.chhay kMlaMgTajGb,brmasMrab;b‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. KW Tm = 39kips dUcenH slip-critical strength KW φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s ) = 1.0(1.13)(0.33)(39)(1)(1) = 14.54kips / bolt ¬lub¦ eKRtUvkarb‘ULúgEdlmanGgát;p©it 7 / 8in. cMnYn 44.8 = 3.1bolts 14.54 dUcenHeyIgeRbIb‘ULúg A325 EdlmanGgát;p©it 7 / 8in. cMnYn 4 RKab;. BI AISC J3.3, KMlatGb,brmaKW ⎛7⎞ ⎛7⎞ s = 2.667 d = 2.667⎜ ⎟ = 2.33in. ¬b¤sMrab;karniym/ 3d = 3⎜ ⎟ = 2.62in. ¦ ⎝8⎠ ⎝8⎠ BI AISC Table J3.4, cMgayeTARCugEKmKW Le = 1.5in. ¬edaysnμt; sheared edges¦ edaysakl,gkartMerobdUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>22 eRCIserIsGgát;rgkarTaj. Gross area EdlRtUv karKW Pu 44.8 Ag ≥ = = 0.996in.2 0.9 Fy 0.9(50) Effective net area EdlRtUvkarKW Pu 44.8 Ae ≥ = = 0.9190in.2 0.75Fy 0.75(36) edaysar effective net area KW Ae = UAn / net area EdlRtUvkarKW requiredAe An = U BIkartMerobb‘ULúgEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>22/ CamYynwgb‘ULúgeRcInCagBIrkñúgTisénkMlaMgEdlGnuvtþ tMélmFümrbs; U BI Commentary to the AISC Specification KW 0.85 . ¬enAeBlEdleKeRCIserIs Ggát;rYcehIy eKGackMNt;tMél U CamYynwg AISC Equation B3-2¦. dUcenH 261 tMNsamBaØ
  33. 33. T.chhay 0.9190 An ≥ = 1.08in.2 0.85 cMNaMfa net area EdlRtUvkarKWFMCag gross area EdlRtUvkar. kaMniclPaBGb,brmaEdlRtUvkarKW L 13(12) rmin = = = 0.52in. 300 300 sakl,g L3 12 × 2 12 × 14 Ag = 1.44in.2 > 0.996in.2 (OK) rmin = rz = 0.544in. > 0.52in. (OK) sMrab;karKNna net area, eRbIGgát;p©itrn§ 7 8 + 18 = 1.0in. ⎛1⎞ An = Ag − Ahole = 1.44 − 1.0⎜ ⎟ = 1.190in.2 > 1.08in.2 (OK) ⎝4⎠ KNna U CamYynwg AISC Equation B3-2: x U =1− ≤ 0.9 L 0.785 = 1− = 0.913 9 edaysartMélenHFMCag 0.9 / dUcenHeRbI U = 0.9 . Effective net area KW Ae = UAn = 0.9(1.190) = 1.071in.2 > 0.9190in.2 (OK) RtYtBinitü bearing strength. cMgayeTARCugEKmsMrab;EdkEkgesμInwgcMgayeTARCugEKmsMrab; gusset plate ehIyedaysarEdkEkgmankMras;esþIgCag gusset plate dUcenHeyIgeRbIEdkEkgEdlmankMras; 1 / 4in. sMrab;KNna bearing strength. sMrab;karKNna bearing strength, eyIgeRbIGgát;p©itRbehag 1 7 1 15 h=d+ = + = in. 16 8 16 16 sMrab;RbehagEdlenAEk,RCugEKmGgát;CageK h 15 / 16 Lc = Lc − = 1.5 − = 1.031in. 2 2 262 tMNsamBaØ
  34. 34. T.chhay 2d = 2(7 / 8) = 1.75in. edaysar Lc < 2d / bearing strength KW ⎛1⎞ φRc = φ (1.2 Lc tFu ) = 0.75(1.2)(1.031)⎜ ⎟(65) = 15.08kips / bolt ⎝4⎠ sMrab;Rbehagd¾éTeTot 15 Lc = s − h = 3 − = 2.062in. > 2d 16 ⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ dUcenH φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(65) = 25.59kips / bolt ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ Bearing strength srubsMrab;kartP¢ab;KW φRn = 15.08 + 3(25.59) = 91.9kips > Pu = 44.8kips (OK) RtYtBinitü block shear. CamYynwgb‘ULúgEdlP¢ab;enAelIeCIgEvgCamYynwgcMgayKMlat ¬emIlCMBUk III/ rUbTI 3>22¦ failure block RtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>23. Shear area KW Agv = 1 (1.5 + 9) = 2.625in.2 4 Anv = [1.5 + 9 − 3.5(1.0)] = 1.750in.2 1 4 ¬Ggát;p©itRbehagmancMnYn 3.5 ¦ Tension area KW Agt = 1 (1.5) = 0.3750in.2 4 Ant = [1.5 − 0.5(1.0)] = 0.25in.2 1 4 ¬Ggát;p©itRbehagmancMnYn 0.5 ¦ AISC Equation J4-3a eGay [ φRn = φ 0.6 F y Agv + Fu Ant ] = 0.75[0.6(50 )(2.625) + 65(0.25)] = 0.75(78.75 + 16.25) = 71.2kips 263 tMNsamBaØ
  35. 35. T.chhay AISC Equation J4-3b eGay [ φRn = φ 0.6 Fu Anv + Fy Agt ] = 0.75[0.6(65)(1.75) + 50(0.375)] = 0.75(68.25 + 18.75) = 65.2kips smIkar J4-3bmantY fracture FMCag dUcenHsmIkarenHlub. dUcenH block shear strength KW φRn = 65.2kips > Pu = 44.8kips (OK) cMeLIy³ eRbI L3 1 2 × 2 12 × 1 4 CamYynwgkartP¢ab;enAelIeCIgEvg. eRbIb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 8 in. dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>24. 7>8> b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;rgkarTaj High-Strength Bolts in Tension enAeBlEdlkMlaMgTajEdlGnuvtþelIb‘ULúgedayKμankMlaMgTajedIm (initial tension) kMlaMg TajenAkñúgb‘ULúgesμInwgkMlaMgEdlGnuvtþ. b:uEnþ RbsinebIb‘ULúgrgeRbkugRtaMg Epñkd¾FMrbs;kMlaMgEdl GnuvtþRtUv)aneRbIedIm,Ibn§ÚrkMlaMgsgát; b¤kMlaMgrwt (clamping force) enAelIEpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab; dUcEdl kMNt;eday Kulak, Fisher, nig Struik (1987) ehIyRtUv)anbkRsayenATIenH. rUbTI 7>25 bgðajBI tMNBüÜr (hanger connection) EdlpSMeLIgeday structural tee shape EdlRtUv)ancab;b‘ULúgeTAnwg søabxageRkamrbs; W-shape nigrgnUvkMlaMgTaj. b‘ULúgeTal nwgcMENkénEpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab; RtUv)ansikSamun nigeRkayeBldak;bnÞúk. 264 tMNsamBaØ
  36. 36. T.chhay düaRkamGgÁesrIrbs;kartP¢ab;muneBldak;bnÞúkRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>26 a. ral;kMlaMg TaMgGs;CakMlaMgkñúg. edIm,IPaBgayRsYl kMlaMgTaMgGs;RtUv)ansnμt;sIuemRTIeFobGkS½rbs;b‘ULúg ehIycMNakp©itminRtUv)anKit. Rb sinebIeKBicarNaEpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab;dac;edayELk kMlaMgrYmmankM laMgTajrbs;b‘ULúg To nigkMlaMgrwt Ekg (normal clamping force) N o EdlbgðajenATIenHRtUv)an BRgayesμI. edIm,IeGaymanlMnwg eKRtUvkar To = N o . enAeBlEdleKGnuvtþkMlaMgxageRkA kMlaMg enAelIkartP¢ab;RtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>26 b Edl F tMNageGaykMlaMgTajsrubEdlGnuvtþ mkelIb‘ULúgmYy. rUbTI 7>26 c bgðajkMlaMgEdlmanGMeBIelIdüaRkamGgÁesrIrbs;Epñkénsøabrbs; structural tee nigEpñkEdlRtUvKñarbs;b‘ULúg. bUkkMlaMgtamTisGkS½b‘ULúg eyIgTTYl)an T =F+N kMlaMg F nwgbegáInkMlaMgTajrbs;b‘ULúg ehIyeFVIeGayvalUt)an δ b . kMlaMgsgát;enAkñúg søabrbs; structurel atee nwgRtUv)ankat;bnßy CalT§plvamanbMlas;TI δ fl EdlmanTisdUc δ b . TMnak;TMngrvagkMlaMgGnuvtþn_ nigbMErbMrYlkMlaMgTajrbs;b‘ULúgGacRtUv)ankMNt;dUcxageRkam³ BI elementary mechanics of materials, kMhUcRTg;RTaytamGkS½rbs;bnÞúktamGkS½Edl GnuvtþelIGgát;KW³ 265 tMNsamBaØ
  37. 37. T.chhay δ= PL AE ¬&>$¦ Edl P=kMlaMgtamGkS½ L = RbEvgedIm A = RkLaépÞmuxkat; E = m:UDuleGLasÞic BIsmIkar &>$ eyIgGacTajrkkMlaMg AEδ P= L ¬&>%¦ dUcenHbMErbMrYlkMlaMgenAkñúgb‘ULúgEdlRtUvKñaeTAnwgkMhUcRTg;RTay δ b KW A E δ ΔT = b b b Lb ¬&>^¦ BIsmIkar &>% eKTTYl)anbMErbMrYlkMlaMg N A fl E fl δ fl ΔN = L fl ¬&>&¦ Edl L fl CakMras;rbs;søab. RbsinEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; ¬søabTaMgBIr¦ enAb:HKña kMhUcRTg;RTayrbs; b‘ULúg δ b nigkMhUcRTg;RTaysøab δ fl nwgesμIKña. edaysar E fl esÞIresμInwg Eb (Bickford, 1981), ehIy A fl FMCag Ab A fl E fl δ fl A E δ >> b b b L fl Lb dUcenH ΔN >> ΔT pleFob ΔN elI ΔT sßitenAcenøaHBI 0.05 eTA 0.1 (Kulak, Fisher, nig Struik, 1987). dUcenH ΔT minRtUvFMCag 0.1ΔN EdlbgðajfakMlaMgEdlGnuvtþPaKeRcInKWbn§ÚrkMlaMgsgát;rbs;EpñkEdlRtUvtP¢ab;. KNnakMlaMgEdlRtUvkaredIm,IeFVIeGayEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;XøatecjBIKña emIlrUbTI 7>27. enAeBlEdl EpñkTaMgBIrXøatecjBIKña T =F b¤ To + ΔT = F ¬&>*¦ enAeBlEdlCitdl;cMnucEdlRtUvXøatKña sac;lUtrbs;b‘ULúg nigKMlatrbs;søabKWesμIKña A E A E ΔT = b b δ b = b b δ fl L L ¬&>(¦ b b 266 tMNsamBaØ
  38. 38. T.chhay Edl δ fl CakMhUcRTg;RTayEdlRtUvKñanwgkMlaMgsgát;edIm N o . BIsmIkar &>$ N o L fl δ fl = A fl E fl CMnYsvaeTAkñúgsmIkar &>( eyIg)an ⎛ A E ⎞⎛ N o L fl ⎞ ⎛ Ab Eb / Lb ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ N o = ⎜ Ab Eb / Lb ⎞ ΔT = ⎜ b b ⎟⎜ ⎜ L ⎟⎜ A E ⎟=⎜ ⎟To ≈ 0.1To ⎝ b ⎠⎝ fl fl ⎟ ⎜ A fl E fl / L fl ⎟ ⎜ A fl E fl / L fl ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ BIsmIkar &>* To + 0.1To = F b¤ F = 1.1To dUcenH enAxN³eBlEdlcab;epþImXøat kMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘ULúgFMCagkMlaMgTajedImEdlmanenAeBl tMeLIgb‘ULúgRbEhl 10% . b:uEnþ enAeBlEdlEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;Xøatecj kMlaMgxageRkAEdlekIneLIg nwgRtUv)anTb;edaykMlaMgEdlekIneLIgRtUvKñaenAkñúgb‘ULúg. RbsinebIeKsnμt;fakMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘U LúgRtUv)andak;eGayesμIkMlaMgxageRkA ¬RbsinebIKμankMlaMgTajedIm¦ ehIykartP¢ab;rgnUvbnÞúkrhUt dl;EpñkEdltP¢ab;XøatecjBIKña enaHkMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘ULúgRtUv)anKNnaticCag 10% . sMrab;krNI enH b‘ULúgersIusþg;x<s;RtUvrgnUveRbkugRtaMgtamtMélEdlmanenAkñúg AISC Table J3.1 eTaHCakartP¢ab; enHCa slip-critical b¤minEmnk¾eday. CarYm eKRtUvKNnakMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘UøLúgedayKitbBa©ÚlTaMgkM laMgTajedIm. Prying Action sMrab;kartP¢ab;PaKeRcInEdleRKOgP¢ab;rgkMlaMgTaj kMhUcRTg;RTayrbs;EpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; GacbegáInkMlaMgTajEdlGnuvtþeTAelIeRKOgP¢ab;. RbePT hanger connection Edl)anerobrab;xag elICaRbePTkartP¢ab;EdlmanlkçN³eFVIkardUcEdl)anerobrab;. kMlaMgTajbEnßmRtUv)aneKehAfa prying force ehIyRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>28 EdlrUbenHbgðajBIkMlaMgenAelIGgÁesrIrbs; hanger. muneBlEdlbnÞúkxageRkAGnuvtþ kMlaMgsgát;Ekg (normal compressive force) N o RbmUl 267 tMNsamBaØ
  39. 39. T.chhay pþúMenAelIGgS½rbs;b‘ULúg. enAeBlEdlbnÞúkGnuvtþ RbsinebIsøab flexible RKb;RKan; enaHvanwgxUcRTg; RTaydUcEdlbgðaj ehIykMlaMgsgát;nwgrMkileTAxagcugrbs;søab. karBRgaykMlaMgeLIgvijenH nwg EkERbTMnak;TMngrvagbnÞúkTaMgGs; ehIykMlaMgTajrbs;b‘ULúgnwgekIneLIg. b:uEnþ RbsinebIEpñkEdl RtUvP¢ab;manlkçN³rwgRKb;RKan; vanwgminmankarpøas;bþÚrkMlaMgeT ehIyk¾minman prying action Edr. eKTTYl)antMélGtibrmarbs; prying force enAeBlEdlkac;RCugrbs;søabenAEtb:HCamYynwgEpñk EdlRtUvP¢ab;d¾éTeTot. enAkñúgkartP¢ab;RbePTenH bending EdlekIteLIgeday prying force EtgEtmanlkçN³lub kñúgkarKNnaEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;. AISC J3.6 tMrUveGayKitbBa©Úl prying force eTAkñúgkarKNnakMlaMg TajEdlGnuvtþelIeRKOgP¢ab;. viFIsaRsþsMrab;karKNna prying force EdlQrelI Guide to design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints (Kulak, Fisher, nig Strick, 1987) manenAkñúg Manual in Part 11, “Connec- tions for Tension and Compression” (Volume II). krNICak;lak;EdlRtUv)anRtYtBinitüCakart P¢ab; structural tee shape ehIyEdkEkgKUrEdlxñgTl;xñg ( a pair of back-to-back angle) nwg RtUv)anKitkñúgpøÚvdUcKñaEdr. viFIEdlbgðajenATIenHmanTMrg;xusKñabnþicEtpþl;nUvlT§pldUcKña. viFIEdleRbIKWQrelIKMrUEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTi 7>29. RKb;kMlaMgTaMgGs;KWsMrab;EteRKOgP¢ab; mYy. dUcenH T CakMlaMgTajemKuNxageRkAEdlGnuvtþeTAelIEtb‘ULúgmYy/ Q Ca prying force Edl 268 tMNsamBaØ
  40. 40. T.chhay RtUvKñanwgb‘ULúgmYy nig Bc CakMlaMgb‘ULúgsrub. Prying force )anrMkileTAcugrbs;søab ehIyvaman tMélGtibrma. smIkarxageRkamRtUv)anbMEbkBIsmIkarlMnwgrbs;GgÁesrIkñúgrUbTI 7>29. BIplbUkm:Um:g;Rtg; muxkat; B-B enAkñúgrUbTI 7>29 b Tb − M a − a = Qa ¬&>!0¦ BIrUbTI 7>29 c M b − b = Qa ¬&>!!¦ cugeRkay/ kMlaMglMnwgRtUvkarKW Bc = T + Q ¬&>!@¦ smIkarlMnwgTaMgbIenHGacbBa©ÚlKñaedIm,ITTYl)ansmIkareTalsMrab;kMlaMgb‘ULúgsrub EdlrYmbBa©Úl TaMgT§iBl prying force. dMbUgeyIgkMNt;Gefr α CapleFobrvagm:Um:g;kñúgmYyÉktþaRbEvgtam beNþayGkS½b‘ULúgelIm:Um:g;kñúgmYyÉktþaRbEvgenARtg;épÞKl;. sMrab;GkS½b‘ULúg/ RbEvgCa net length, dUcenH 269 tMNsamBaØ
  41. 41. T.chhay M b − b / ( p − d ') M b − b ⎛ ⎞ M b −b α= = ⎜ 1 ⎜ 1 − d ' / p ⎟ = δM ⎟ ¬&>!#¦ M a−a / p M a−a ⎝ ⎠ a−a Edl p= RbEvgrgsMBaFrbs;søabsMrab;b‘ULúgmYy ¬emIlrUbTI 7>29 a¦ d ' = Ggát;p©itrbs;Rbehagb‘ULúg d' net area at bolt line δ = 1− = p gross area at web face ( M a − a = design strength at a − a = φb M p = φb pt 2 F y / 4 f ) eyIgGacbBa©ÚlsmIkarlMnwgbI &>!0-&>!@ edIm,ITTYl)ankMlaMgb‘ULúgsrub/ Bc : ⎡ δα b ⎤ Bc = T ⎢1 + ⎥ ¬&>!$¦ ⎣ (1 + δα ) a ⎦ CamYynwg bnÞúkEdlTTYl)anBIsmIkar &>!$ eyIgnwgTTYl)ankMhUcRTg;RTayFMEdleFVIeGaykugRtaMg TajpÁÜbenAkñúgb‘ULúgminRtYtsIuKñaCamYyGkS½rbs;b‘ULúg. dUcenH kMlaMgkñúgb‘ULúgEdleGayedaysmI- kar &>!$ minRtUvKñaCamYynwglT§plBiesaFn_. edIm,ITTYl)anlT§plEdlcg;)an luHRtaEtkMlaMg Bc rMkileTAkan;Kl;rbs; tee edaybrimaN d / 2 Edl d CaGgát;p©itb‘ULúg. dUcenHtMél b nig a RtUv)an EkERbCa b' = b − d 2 nig a' = a + d 2 ¬edIm,IeGayRtUvnwglT§plBiesaFn_kan;Etl¥ tMélrbs; a minRtUvFMCag 1.25b eT¦ CamYynwgkarpøas;bþÚrenHeyIgGacsresrsmIkar &>!$ Ca ⎡ δα b' ⎤ Bc = T ⎢1 + ⎥ ¬&>!%¦ ⎣ (1 + δα ) a ' ⎦ eyIgGackMNt; α BIsmIkar &>!% edayeGaykMlaMgenAkñúgb‘ULúg Bc esμIeTAnwg design tensil strength EdleyIgsMKal;Ca B . lT§plEdlTTYl)anKW α= [(B / T ) − 1](a' / b') ¬&>!^¦ δ { − [(B / T ) − 1](a' / b')} 1 eKGacmansßanPaBkMNt;BIr³ tensil failure rbs;b‘ULúg nig bending failure rbs; tee. eK snμt;fa failure rbs; tee ekItmanenAeBlEdlsnøak;)aøsÞic (plastic hinges) ekItmanRtg;muxkat; a-a, Rtg;Kl;rbs; tee, nigenARtg;muxkat; b-b. edayehtuenHvanwgbegáItCa beam mechanism. m:Um:g;énTI taMgTaMgenHnwgesμInwg M p EdlCalT§PaBm:Um:g;)aøsÞicénRbEvgrbs;RbEvgrgsMBaFrbs;søabsMrab;b‘U LúgmYy. RbsinebItMéldac;xatrbs; α EdlTTYl)anBIsmIkar &>!^ tUcCag 1.0 enaHm:Um:g;enARtg; 270 tMNsamBaØ
  42. 42. T.chhay GkS½b‘ULúgtUcCagm:Um:g;enARtg;Kl; tee Edlvabgðajfa beam mechanism minRtUv)anbegáIteT ehIy sßanPaBkMNt;RtUv)ankMNt;Ca tensile failure rbs;b‘ULúg. kMlaMgb‘ULúg Bc kñúgkrNIenH nwgesμInwg design strength B . RbsinebItMéldac;xatrbs; α ≥ 1.0 enaH plastc hinges nwgekItmanenARtg; a-a nig b-b ehIysßanPaBkMNt;KW flexural failure rbs;søabrbs; tee. edaysarEtm:Um:g;Rtg;kEnøgTaMg BIrenHRtUv)ankMNt;Rtwmm:Um:g;)aøsÞic M p enaH α KYrEtUv)ankMNt;esμInwg 1.0 . smIkarlMnwgbI &>!0-&>!@ k¾GacRtUv)anrYmbBa©ÚlKñakøayCasmIkarEtmYysMrab;kMNt;kMras; søab t f . BIsmIkar &>!0 nig &>!! eyIgGacsresr Tb'− M a − a = M b − b Edl b' RtUv)anCMnYseGay b . BIsmIkar &>!# Tb'− M a − a = δαM a − a ¬&>!&¦ eGay M a − a esμInwg design strength eKTTYl)an pt 2 Fy f M a − a = φb M p = φ b 4 Edl t f CakMras;søabEdlRtUvkar. CMnYs M a − a eTAkñúgsmIkar &>!& eyIgTTYl)an 4Tb' tf = φb pF y (1 + δα ) Edl φb = 0.90 tf = 4.444Tb' pF y (1 + δα ) ¬&>!*¦ karKNnakartP¢ab;EdlrgnUv prying action CatMeNIrkarKNna trial-and-error. enAeBl eRCIserIsTMhM nigcMnYnrbs;b‘ULúg eyIgRtUvEtKiteRtomTuksMrab; prying force. kareRCIserIskMras; tee mankarLM)akCagedaysarvaTak;TgeTAnwgkareRCIserIsb‘ULúg nigTMhM tee. eKGaceRbI Preliminary Hanger Connection Selection Table EdlmanenAkñúg Part 11 of the Manual sMrab;CYysMrYldl; kareRCIserIsrUbragsakl,g. enAeBlEdleKeRCIserIsmuxkat;sakl,g/ dwgcMnYnb‘ULúg nigkartMerob b‘ULúgrYcehIy eKGaceRbIsmIkar &>!% nig &>!* edIm,IepÞógpÞat;. RbsinebIkMras;søabCak;EsþgxusBItMélEdlRtUvkar tMélCak;Esþgrbs; α nig Bc k¾GacxusBIGVI EdleK)anKNnaknøgmkEdr. RbsinebIeKRtUvkMlaMgb‘ULúgCak;Esþg EdlrYmbBa©ÚlTaMg prying force Q enaHeKRtUvkMNt; α eLIgvijdUcxageRkam. 271 tMNsamBaØ
  43. 43. T.chhay M b − b = Tb'− M a − a BIsmIkar &>!#/ M b −b α= δM a − a Tb'− M a − a Tb' / M a − a − 1 = = δM a − a δ edayeGay M a − a esμIwTAnwg design moment eK)an ⎛ pt 2 F y ⎞ ⎜ f ⎟ M a − a = φb M p = 0.90⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Tb' −1 0.90 pt 2 Fy / 4 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎜ 4.444Tb' ⎟ enaH α= f δ = ⎜ δ ⎜ pt 2 Fy − 1⎟ ¬&>!(¦ ⎟ ⎝ f ⎠ eKGacrkkMlaMgb‘ULúgsrubBIsmIkar &>!% ]TahrN_ 7>9³ WT10.5 × 66 RbEvg 8in. RtUv)anP¢ab;eTAnwg)atsøabrbs;Fñwm dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>30. Hanger enHrgnUvbnÞúkemKuN 90kips . kMNt;cMnYnb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. EdlRtUvkar nigepÞógpÞat;nUvPaBRKb;RKan;rbs; tee. EdkEdleRbICaRbePTEdk A36 . 272 tMNsamBaØ
  44. 44. T.chhay dMeNaHRsay³ RkLaépÞb‘ULúgKW π (7 / 8)2 Ab = = 0.6013in.2 4 ehIy design strength rbs;b‘ULúgmYyKW B = φRn = φFt Ab = 0.75(90 )(0.6013) = 40.59kips cMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUvkarKW 90 / 40.59 = 2.22 . cMnYnb‘ULúgGb,brmaEdlRtUvkarKW 4 edIm,IrkSaPaBsIuem- RTI. BITMhMEdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>30 b= (5.5 − 0.650) = 2.425in. 2 a= (12.44 − 5.5) = 3.470in. 2 1.25b = 1.25(2.425) = 3.031in. < 3.470in. yk a = 3.031in. d 7/8 b' = b − = 2.425 − = 1.988in. 2 2 d 7/8 a' = a + = 3.031 + = 3.468in. 2 2 bnÞúkxageRkAemKuNkñúgmYyb‘ULúg edayKitTaMg prying force KW T = 90 / 4 = 22.5kips . KNna δ ³ 1 7 1 d'= d + = + = 1in. 8 8 8 8 p= = 4in. 2 d' 1 δ = 1 − = 1 − = 0.75 p 4 KNna α ³ B 40.59 −1 = − 1 = 0.8040 T 22.5 a' 3.468 = = 1.744 b' 1.988 BIsmIkar &>!^/ α= [(B / T ) − 1](a' / b') = 0.8040(1.744) = −4.65 δ { − [(B / T ) − 1](a' / b')} 0.75[1 − 0.8040(1.744)] 1 edaysar α > 1.0 / yk α = 1.0 . BIsmIkar &>!* 273 tMNsamBaØ
  45. 45. T.chhay 4.444Tb' 4.444(22.5)(1.988) tf = = pF y (1 + δα ) 4(36)(1 + 0.75) = 0.888in. < 1.035in. (OK) TaMgcMnYnb‘ULúgEdleRCIserIs nwgkMras;søabKWRKb;RKan; ehIyminRtUvkarkarKNnateTAmuxeToteT. b:uEnþ edIm,IbgðajBIviFIsaRsþKNna eyIgKNna prying force edayeRbIsmIkar &>!( nig &>!%. BI smIkar &>!(/ ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎜ 4.444Tb' ⎟ 1 ⎡ 4.444(22.5)(1.988) ⎤ α= ⎜ − 1⎟ = ⎢ − 1⎥ = 0.3848 δ ⎜ pt 2 Fy ⎟ 0.75 ⎢ 4(1.035)2 (36 ) ⎣ ⎥ ⎦ ⎝ f ⎠ BIsmIkar &>!%/ kMlaMgb‘ULúgsrub edayKitTaMg prying force KW ⎡ δα b' ⎤ Bc = T ⎢1 + ⎥ ⎣ (1 + δα ) a ' ⎦ ⎡ 0.75(0.3848) ⎛ 1.988 ⎞⎤ = 22.5⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟⎥ = 25.39kips ⎣ 1 + 0.75(0.3848) ⎝ 3.468 ⎠⎦ Prying force KW Q = Bc − T = 25.39 − 22.5 = 2.89kips cMeLIy³ WT10.5 × 66 RKb;RKan;. eRbIb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. RbsinebIkMras;søabminRKb;RKan; eKGacsakl,g tee shape EdlmanTMhMFMCag b¤k¾eRbIcMnYn b‘ULúgbEnßmedIm,Ikat;bnßy T EdlCakMlaMgxageRkAkñúgmYyb‘ULúg. Prying force enAkñúg]TahrN_ 7>9 bEnßmRbEhl 13% eTAelIkMlaMgxageRkA. karecalnUvkMlaMgTajbEnßmenHnwgpþl;nUvplvi)ak y:agF¶n;F¶r. 7>9> kMlaMgpÁÜbrvagkMlaMgTaj nigkMlaMgTajenAkñúgb‘ULúg Combined Shear and Tension in Fasteners enAkñúgsßanPaBCaeRcInkartP¢ab;EtgRbQmnwgkMlaMgkat; nigkMlaMgTaj. tMNEdlTTYlbnÞúk cMNakp©itRtUv)anerobrab;enAkñúgCMBUkTI 8. b:uEnþ sMrab;tMNsamBaØxøH eRKOgP¢ab;sßitkñúgsßanPaBkMlaMg pÁÜb. rUbTI 7>31 bgðajBIkMNat; structural tee EdlP¢ab;eTAnwgsøabrbs;ssrkñúgeKalbMNgedIm,I P¢ab;Ggát;BRgwg (bracing member). Ggát;BRgwgenHRtg;)andak;tMrg;y:agNaedIm,IeGayExSskmμrbs; kMlaMgkat;tamTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;kartP¢ab;. bgÁúMkMlaMgbBaÄrnwgeFVIeGayeRKOgP¢ab;rgkugRtaMgkat; ehIy 274 tMNsamBaØ
  46. 46. T.chhay bgÁúMkMlaMgedknwgbegáItkMlaMgTaj ¬EdlGacmankarpSMCamYynwg prying force¦. edaysarExSskmμ rbs;kMlaMgeFVIGMeBIkat;tamTIRbCMuTMgn;rbs;tMN eRKOgP¢ab;nImYy²RtUv)ansnμt;faTTYlkugRtaMgedaycM ENkesμI²Kña. kñúgkrNIbgÁúMkMlaMgepSgeTot eKGaceRbIviFIrUbmnþGnþrkmμ (interaction formula approach) . ersIusþg;kMlaMgkat; nigersIusþg;kMlaMgTajsMrab;b‘ULúgRbePT bearing KWQrelIlT§plénkarBiesaFn_ nwgRtUv)anykBI elliptical interaction curve EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>32. smIkarrbs;ExSenHKW 2 2 ⎡ Pu ⎤ ⎡ Vu ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ = 1.0 ⎣ (φRn )t ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ (φRn )v ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Edl Pu = kMlaMgTajemKuNenAelIb‘ULúg (φRn )t = design strength rbs;b‘ULúgrgkarTaj Vu = kMlaMgkat;TTwgemKuNenAelIb‘ULúg (φRn )v = design strength rbs;b‘ULúgrgkarkat; bnSMkMlaMgkat; nigkMlaMgTajEdlGacTTYlyk)anKWvaCYbKñaRtg;kEnøgEdlsßitenABIeRkamExS ekag. enHCatMrUvkarrbs; RCSC Specification Edl 2 2 ⎡ Pu ⎤ ⎡ Vu ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤ 1 .0 (RCSC Equation LRFD 4.2) ⎢ (φRn )t ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ (φRn )v ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 275 tMNsamBaØ
  47. 47. T.chhay sMrab; slip-critical connection Edlb‘ULúgrgnUvkMlaMgkat; nigkMlaMgTaj T§iBlrbs;kMlaMg TajKWbn§Úrbnßy clamping force EdleFVIeGaymankarkat;bnßykMlaMgkkit. AISC Specification kat;bnßy slip-critical shear strength sMrab;krNIenH. BI AISC Appendix J, slip-critical shear strength RtUv)anKuNedayemKuN ⎡ Tu ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎥ (AISC Equation A-J3-2) ⎣ 1.13Tm N b ⎦ Edl kMlaMgTajemKuNenAelItMN Tu = Tm = kMlaMgTajb‘ULúgedImEdl)anBI AISC Table J3.1 N b = cMnYnb‘ULúgenAkñúgtMN cMNaMfa RCSC Equation LRFD 4.2 Edl)anbgðajenATIenHRtUv)anGnuvtþeTAelIb‘ULúgeTal Et AISC Equation A-J3-2 Edl)anbgðajenATIenHGnuvtþeTAelItMNTaMgmUl. smIkarnImYy²Gac RtUv)anEkERbedIm,IGnuvtþsMrab;viFIepSgeTot. ]TahrN_ 7>10³ eKeRbI WT10.5 × 31 Ca bracket edIm,IbBa¢Ún service load 60kips eTAssr W 14 × 90 dUcEdl)anbgðajenAkñúgrUUbTI 7>31. bnÞúkpSMeLIgedaybnÞúkefr 15kips nigbnÞúkGefr 45kips . eKeRbIb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. cMnYn 4 RKab;. TaMgssr nig bracket eFVIBIEdk A36 . snμt;fatMrUvkarKMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKmTaMgGs;KWRKb;RKan; edayrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgPaBcaM)ac;sMrab;kar eRbIR)as; design strengn GtibrmasMrab; bearing ¬dUcCa φ [2.4dtFu ] ¦ nigkMNt;nUvPaBRKb;RKan;rbs; b‘ULúgsMrab;kartP¢ab;xageRkam³ ¬!¦ bearing –types connection EdlmaneFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;. ¬@¦ slip-critical connection EdlmaneFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat;. dMeNaHRsay³ bnÞúkemKuNKW 1.2 D + 1.6 L = 1.2(15) + 1.6(45) = 90kips ¬!¦ sMrab; bearing-type connection EdlmaneFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; kMlaMgkat;TTwgsrubKW 3 (90) = 54kips 5 kMlaMgkat;TTwgsMrab;b‘ULúgmYyKW 54 Vu = = 13.5kips 4 276 tMNsamBaØ
  48. 48. T.chhay π (7 / 8) 2 nig Ab = 4 = 0.6013in. 2 (φRn )v = φFv Ab = 0.75(48)(0.6013) = 21.65kips > 13.5kips Bearing strength ¬søabrbs; tee lub¦ KW ⎛7⎞ φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟(0.615)(58) ⎝8⎠ = 56.18kips > 13.5kips (OK) kMlaMgTajsrubKW 4 (90) = 75kips 5 kMlaMgTajsMrab;b‘ULúgmYyKW 72 Pu = = 18kips 4 BI AISC Table J3.2, (φRn )t = φFt Ab = 0.75(90)(0.6013) = 40.59kips > 18kips (OK) BI RCSC Equation LRFD 4.2, 2 2 ⎡ Pu ⎤ ⎡ Vu ⎤ ⎛ 18 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 13.5 ⎞ 2 ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ =⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = 0.585 < 1.0 (OK) ⎣ (φRn )t ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ (φRn )v ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎝ 40.59 ⎠ ⎝ 21.65 ⎠ cMeLIy³ kartP¢ab;manlkçN³RKb;RKan;Ca bearing-type connection. ¬edIm,IkMueGayBi)akyl;kñúgkar bnSMbnÞúkrbs;]TahrN_enH prying action minRtUv)anrYmbBa©ÚleTAkñúgkarviPaKeT¦. ¬@¦ sMrab; slip-critical connection, EdlmaneFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; BIEpñk ¬!¦ shear, bearing/ and tension strength KWmanlkçN³RKb;RKan;. BI RCSC Equation LRFD 5.3, slip-critical strenght KW φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s ) BI AISC Table J3.1, kMlaMgTajsMrab;b‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 7 / 8in. KW Tm = 39kips RbsinebIeyIgsnμt;épÞb:HCa Class A, slip coefficent KW μ = 0.33 nigsMrab;b‘ULúgbYnRKab; φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s ) = 1.0(1.13)(0.33)(39)(4 )(1) = 58.17kips edaysarvamankMlaMgTajenAelIb‘ULúg/ slip-critcal strength RtUv)ankat;bnßyedayemKuN 277 tMNsamBaØ
  49. 49. T.chhay ⎛ Tu ⎞ ⎡ 72 ⎤ ⎜1 − ⎜ 1.13T N ⎟ = ⎢1 − ⎟ ⎥ = 0.5916 ⎝ m b ⎠ ⎣ 1.13(39 )(4 ) ⎦ dUcenHresIusþg;Edl)ankat;bnßyehIyKW φRstr = 0.5916(58.17 ) = 34.4kips < 54kips (N.G.) cMeLIy³ kartP¢ab;minmanlkçN³RKb;RKan;Ca slip-critical connection eT. kartP¢ab;edayb‘ULúgEdlrgnUvkMlaMgkat;TTwg nigkMlaMgTajGacRtUv)anKNnaedaypÞal;. eKGaceRbI RCSC Equation 4.2 edIm,IedaHRsayTMhMb‘ULúgdUcxageRkam³ 2 2 2 2 ⎡ Pu ⎤ ⎡ Vu ⎤ ⎛ Pu ⎞ ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ =⎜ ⎜ φF ∑ A ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ φF ∑ A ⎟ ⎟ ⎣ (φRn )t ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ (φRn )v ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ t b ⎠ ⎝ v b ⎠ 2 2 ⎛P ⎞ 1 ⎛V ⎞ 1 =⎜ u ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ +⎜ u ⎟ 2 ⎜ φF ⎟ ⎝ φFt ⎠ (∑ Ab ) ⎝ v ⎠ (∑ Ab )2 Edl Pu =kMlaMgTajsrubenAelItMN Ft = ultimate tensile stress rbs;b‘ULúg Vu = kMlaMgkat;TTwgsrubenAelItMN Fv = ultimate shear stress rbs;b‘ULúg ∑ Ab = RkLaépÞmuxkat;b‘ULúgsrub CMnYseTAkñúg RCSC Equation LRFD 4.2, eyIg)an 2 2 ⎛ Pu ⎞ 1 ⎛V ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ φF ⎟ ⎟ +⎜ u ⎟ ≤ 1 .0 ⎝ t ⎠ (∑ Ab )2 ⎜ φFv ⎝ ⎟ ⎠ (∑ Ab )2 2 2 ⎛P ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ b¤ ∑ Ab ≥ ⎜ u ⎜ φF ⎟ +⎜ u ⎟ ⎜ φF ⎟ ⎟ ¬&>@0¦ ⎝ t ⎠ ⎝ v ⎠ Edl ∑ Ab CaRkLaépÞmuxkat;b‘ULúgsrub ]TahrN_ 7>11³ tMNEdlrgbnÞúkcMp©itrgnUv service load shear force 50kips nig service tensile force 100kips . bnÞúk CabnÞúkefr nig 75% CabnÞúkGefr. eRKOgP¢ab;rgnUv single shear 25% ehIy baring strength nwgRtUv)anKNnaCamYynwgEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;EdlmankMras; 5 / 16in. . snμt;fa KMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKmTaMgGs;manlkçN³RKb;RKan; nigsnμt;faeKGnuBaØateGayeRbI bearing 278 tMNsamBaØ
  50. 50. T.chhay strength Gtibrma φ (2.4dtFu ) . kMNt;cMnYnb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 3 / 4in. EdlcaM)ac;sMrab;krNIxag eRkam³ ¬!¦ bearing-type connection CamYynwgeFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; ¬@¦ slip-critical connection CamYynwgeFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; épÞb:HTaMgGs;man clean mill scale. karKNnaenHmin)anBicarNa prying action sMxan;eT. dMeNaHRsay³ kMlaMgkat;TTwgemKuN = 1.2[0.25(50)] + 1.6[0.75(50)] = 75kips kMlaMgTajemKuN = 1.2[0.25(100)] + 1.6[0.75(100)] = 150kips ¬!¦ sMrab; bearing-type connection CamYynwgeFμjsßitenAkñúgbøg;kat; smIkar &>@0 eGay 2 2 2 ⎛P ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⎡ 150 ⎤ ⎡ 75 ⎤ ∑ Ab ≥ ⎜ u ⎜ φF ⎟ +⎜ u ⎟ ⎜ φF ⎟ ⎟ = ⎢ 0.75(90) ⎥ + ⎢ 0.75(48) ⎥ = 3.046in. 2 ⎝ t ⎠ ⎝ v ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ RkLaépÞrbs;muxkat;eTalKW π (3 / 4 )2 Ab = = 0.4418in.2 4 dUcenHcMnYnb‘ULúgEdlRtUvkarKW ∑ Ab 3.046 = = 6.89 Ab 0.4418 sakl,gb‘ULúg 7 RKab; ehIyRtYtBinitü bearing: φRn = φ (2.4dtFu ) × 7 ⎛ 7 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ = 0.75(2.4)⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(58)(7 ) = 171kips > 75kips ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 16 ⎠ ¬eKminRtUvkarRtYtBinitüKMlat nigcMgayeTARCugEKmsMrab;karKNnacugeRkayeT¦ cMeLIy³ eRbIb‘ULúg 7 RKab;. ¬RbsinebIeKerobb‘ULúgCaBIrCYr enaHeRbIb‘ULúg 8 RKab;edIm,IPaBsIuemRTI¦ ¬@¦ sMrab; slip-critical connection, slip-critical strength EdleGayeday RCSC Equation LRFD RtUv)anKuNedayemKuNkat;bnßyrbs; AISC Equation A-J3-2: ⎛ ⎞ φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s )⎜1 − Tu ⎜ 1.13T N ⎟ ⎟ ¬&>@!¦ ⎝ m b ⎠ BI AISC Table J3.1, sMrab;b‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 3 / 4in. / Tm = 28kips . CMnYs Tm eTAkñúgsmIkar &>@!/ eyIg)an 279 tMNsamBaØ
  51. 51. T.chhay ⎛ Tu ⎞ φRstr = φ (1.13μTm N b N s )⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1.13Tm N b ⎡ ⎤ = 1.0(1.13)(0.33)(28)( N b )(1)⎢1 − 150 ⎥ ⎣ 1.13(28)N b ⎦ ⎛ 4.741 ⎞ = 10.44⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ = 10.44(N b − 4.741) ⎝ Nb ⎟ ⎠ dak;lT§plEdlTTYl)anenH nigkMlaMgkat;TTwgEdlGnuvtþeGayesμIKña enaHeyIgGacrkcMnYnb‘ULúgEdl RtUvkaredIm,IkarBar slip³ 10.44( N b − 4.741) = 75kips N b = 11.9 edaysarb‘ULúg 7 RKab;RKb;RKan;sMrab; shear, bearing nig tension dUcenHeKminRtUvkarRtYt BinitüsßanPaBkMNt;TaMgenHeT. cMelIy³ eRbIb‘ULúg A325 Ggát;p©it 3 / 4in. 7>10> tMNpSar Welded connections karpSarCadMeNIrkareFVIeGayEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;Cab;Kña. ]TahrN_ Ggát;rgkarTajEdlman lap joint dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>33 a GacRtUv)aneFVIeLIgedaykarpSartamcugTaMgsgçagrbs;EpñkEdl RtUvP¢ab;. kMBs;d¾tUcbMputrbs;sMPar³RtUv)anrlay eRkayBITukeGayRtCak; eRKOgbgÁúMEdk nig weld metal eFVIkardUcEpñkEdlCab;KñaenAkEnøgtMN. EdkbEnßmRtUv)andak;BI special electrode EdlCaEpñk rbs;crnþGKÁisnIeTAelIEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; b¤ base metal. enAkñúgdMeNIrkar shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>34 FñÚ GKÁisnI (current arc) kat;tamcenøaHrvag electrode nig base metal edayrMlayEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab; nigdak;Epñkrbs;eGLicRtUteTAkñúg base metal Edlrlay. Specail coating enAelI electrode begáIt protective gaseous shield edaykarBar molten weld metal BIGuksIutkmμmunnwgvarwg. eKrMkil 280 tMNsamBaØ
  52. 52. T.chhay electrode kat;tamtMN ehIy weld bead RtUv)andak; TMhMrbs;vaGaRsy½nwgGRtaéndMeNIrrbs; electrode. enAeBlEdlTwkbnSaRtCak; impuriries elceLIgenAelIépÞ EdlbegáItCa coating EdleK ehAfa slag ehIy slag enHRtUv)anykecjmunnwglabfñaMelIGgát; b¤EpñkepSg²EdlRtUv)anbegáIteLIg eday electrode. CaTUeTA Shielded metal arc welding EdlRtUv)aneFIVeLIgedayéd ehIyCadMeNIrkareKeRbICa sklenAelIkardæan. sMrab;karpSarenAeragCag eKniymeRbIdMeNIrkarsV½yRbvtþ b¤Bak;kNþalsV½y Rbvtþ. karRtYtBinitüKuNPaBsMrab;kartP¢ab;edaykarpSarKWmanlkçN³Bi)ak edaykarTwkbnSarEdl minl¥sßitenABIeRkamépÞ b¤k¾PaBminl¥d¾tictYcEdlmanenAépÞbnSar GaceKcputBIExSEPñkrbs;eyIg)an. sMrab;karpSarenARtg;kEnøgEdleRKaHfñak;eKRtUvkarCagpSarEdlmanCMnajRtwmRtUv ehIyeKRtUveRbI bec©keTsBiessdUcCa radiography b¤ ultresonic testion. 281 tMNsamBaØ
  53. 53. T.chhay eKniymeRbIkarpSarBIrRbePTKW fillet weld nig groove weld. Lap joint EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUb TI 7>33 a nig b RtUv)anbegáIteLIgeday fillet weld . Groove weld RtUv)aneRbIsMrab; butt, tee nig corner dUcbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>35 a nig b. rUbTI 7>36 bgðajBI plug and slot wled EdleBlxøHva RtUvkaredIm,IbEnßmBIelIkarpSartam RCug. rn§ragmUl b¤RTEvgRtUv)ankat;ecjBIEpñkmYyedIm,IGacbMeBj TwkbnSar)an. kñúgcMeNamkarpSarTaMgBIrRbePTenH eyIgnwgelIkykkar pSar fillet weld mkbkRsaylMGit enATIenH. karKNnasMrab; complete penetration groove weld minmanlkçN³minsMxan;EdlkarpSar manersIusþg;dUcKñanwg base metal nigEpñkEdlRtUvP¢ab;. ersIusþg;rbs; partial penetration groove weld GaRs½yeTAnwgbrimaNén penetration. dMeNIrkarénkarKNna groove weld RsedogKñanwgkar KNna fillet weld. 7>11> Fillet Welds karKNna nigkarviPaKsMrab; fillet weld KWQrelIkarsnμt;famuxkat;rbs;TwkbnSarCaRtIekaN EkgEdlmanmMu 45o dUcbgðajkñúgrUbTI 7>37. TTwgrbs; fillet weld RtUv)ansMKal;eday w . TMhMTWk nSarbTdæanKWekIneLIgmþg 1 / 16in. = 2mm . eTaHbICaRbEvgrbs;karpSarGacrgnUvbnÞúk tamTiskMlaMg kat;/ kMlaMgsgát; nigkMlaMgTajk¾eday k¾fillet weld manersIusþg;exSaysMrab;kMlaMgkat; ehIyvaEtg EtRtUv)aneKsnμt;fadac;edaysarkMlaMgenH. kardac;RtUv)ansnμt;ekItmantambøg;Edlkat;tam throat rbs;TwkbnSar. sMrab; fillet weld EdlbegáIteLIgCamYy shielded metal arc process, throat CaRb EvgEkgBIRCugEKm b¤ root rbs;TwkbnSareTAGIub:Uetnus nigmantMélesμI 0.707 dgénTMhMTwkbnSar. ¬Effective throad thickness sMrab;TwkbnSarEdl)anBI arc welding process manTMhMFMCag. dUcenH kñúgesovePAenH eyIgsnμt;eRbI shielded metal arc welding process¦. dUcenHsMrab;RbEvg L Edlrg bnÞúk P / kugRtaMgkMlaMgkat;eRKaHfñak;KW 282 tMNsamBaØ
  54. 54. T.chhay P fv = 0.707 × w × L Edl w CaTTwgTwkbnSar RbsinebIeKeRbI weld ultimate shearing stress/ FW enAkñúgsmIkarenH eKGacsresr nominal load capacity rbs;TwkbnSardUcxageRkam³ Rn = 0.707 × w × L × FW ehIy nominal design strength KW φRn = 0.707 × w × L × φFW ¬&>@@¦ ersIusþg;rbs; fillet weld GaRs½yeTAnwgkareRbIR)as; weld metal EdlCaGnuKmn_eTAnwg RbePT electrode. ersIusþg;rbs; electrode RtUv)ankMNt;Ca ultimate tensile strength rbs;vaCamYy nwgersIusþg; 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, nig 120ksi b¤ 415, 480, 550, 620, 690, nig 830MPa sMrab; shielded metal arc welding process. nimitþsBaØasMrab;kMNt; electrod KWGkSr E Edlbnþedayelx BIr b¤bIxÞg;EdlbgðajBIersIusþg;rbs;vaCa ksi . edaysarEtersIusþg;CalkçN³dMbUgEdl design engineer ykcitþTukdak; CaTUeTAGkSrBIrxÞg;cugeRkayRtUv)anbgðajeday XX ehIykMNt;sMKal; køayCa E 70 XX b¤ E 70 EdlbgðajBI electrode CamYy ultimate tensile strength 70ksi . eKKYr eRCIserIs electrode eGayRtUvKñaCamYynwg base metal. sMrab; grade rbs;EdkEdleRbIR)as;TUeTA eKBicarNaEt electrode BIrRbePTb:ueNÑaHKW³ eRbI electrode E 70 XX CamYynwgEdkEdlman yield strength tUcCag 60ksi 283 tMNsamBaØ
  55. 55. T.chhay eRbI electrode E80 XX CamYynwgEdkEdlman yied strength 60ksi b¤ 65ksi nimitþsBaØasMrab; electrode nigkarpþl;eGayrbs; AISC Specification EdledaHRsayCamYy nwgTwkbnSarRtUv)andkRsg;ecjBI Structural Welding Code rbs; American Welding Society (AWS, 1996). eKGacrk)annUvlkçxNÐEdlminmanEcgenAkñúg AISC Specification enAkñúg AWS Code. Design strength rbs;TwkbnSarRtUv)anbgðajenAkñúg AISC Table J2.5. Ultimate shearing stress FW enAkñúg fillet weld esμInwg 0.6 dgén tensile strength rbs; weld metal EdlRtUv)ansM Kal;eday FEXX . dUcenH design stress KW φFW Edl φ = 0.75 nig FW = 0.60FEXX . sMrab; electrode FmμtaTaMgBIr design strengths (stresses) RtUv)anbgðajdUcxageRkam³ E 70 XX : φFW = 0.75[0.60(70)] = 31.5ksi E 80 XX : φFW = 0.75[0.6(80 )] = 36ksi tMrUvkarbEnßmKWfakMlaMgkat;TTwgemKuNenAelI base metal minKYrbegáIt stress FMCag φFBM Edl φFBM Ca nominal shear strength rbs;sMPar³EdlRtUvP¢ab;. dUcenHbnÞúkemKuNsMrab;tMNRtUv)an kMNt;Rtwm φRn = φFBM × area of base metal subject to shear AISC J5, “Connecting elements” eGay shear yielding strength Ca φRn Edl φ = 0.90 Rn = 0.6 Ag F y (AISC Equation J5-3) nig Ag CaRkLaépÞEdlrgkMlaMgkat;TTwg. dUcenH shear strength rbs; base metal CasresrCa φFBM = 0.90(0.6) F y = 0.54 F y dUcenH enAeBlEdlbnÞúksßitenAkñúgTisdUcGkS½rbs;TwkbnSar eKRtUveFVIkarGegát base metal edayeRbI TMnak;TMngénsmIkar &>@#. eKGacBnül;BItMrUvkarenHedayRtYtBinitükartP¢ab; bracket edaykarpSar EdlbgðajenAkñúgrUbTI 7>38. edaysnμt;fa bnÞúksßitenAEk,rcugEdlpSaredayeyIgGacecalcMNak p©it. RbsinebITWkbnSarTaMgBIrmanTMhMdUcKña design strength rbs;TwkbnSarmçag²kñúgRbEvgÉktþaGac RtUv)anrkBIsmIkar &>@@ Ca 0.707 × w × φFW b:uEnþBIsmIkar &>@#/ ersIusþg;rbs; bracket plate Tb;nwgkMlaMgkat;kñúgmYyÉktþaRbEvgKW 284 tMNsamBaØ

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