Royal Government of CambodiaNational Committee for Sub-National Democratic DevelopmentCommune/Sangkat Fund  Technical Manu...
VOLUME I:STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES
CONTENTSPREFACE .............................................................................................................
3.4.1    Size ...............................................................................................................
5.10      Energy: Group 109 .................................................................................................
PREFACEThis book is the first volume of Commune Sangkat Fund Technical Manual produced by theNational Committee for Sub-Na...
List of AbbreviationsADT       Average Daily TrafficApplet    A spreadsheet to calculate Design flow and structure sizeAAS...
PART 1: INTRODUCTION                       I-1
Part 1: Introduction1 Introduction1.1 PreambleThe principal and first order document for implementation of projects under ...
Part 1: Introduction    x   For construction supervision the Technical Guidelines incorporate an updated and        expand...
Part 1: Introduction1.3 Scope of Technical Manual            It is essential for TSO’s to also make field visits to:      ...
Part 1: Introduction Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines       x This section provides basic guidance on the              ...
Part 2: Technical Forms           PART 2: TECHNICAL FORMSStudy and Design Guidelines          I-6
Part 2: Technical Forms2 Technical Forms2.1 IntroductionThis section describes how to comply with the requirements of the ...
Part 2: Technical FormsIt will be noted in the ‘status of form’ column that that there are “Forms to be prepared” for five...
Part 2: Technical Forms2.6.1 Form T11 Transport: RoadsFormsFirstly, use Applet T11 to get advices on suitable road surface...
Part 2: Technical Forms   3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual)   4. One Form T12 for each structure iden...
Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T11Transport: Roads        Traffic count                  ADT        ...
Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T11 Transport: RoadsForm T11 Transport: Road(Earth Road) Provi...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Yes               No   7. List number, description and dimensions of existing struct...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Heavy trucks for carrying goods               Something else (fill in the below ques...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Limestone               Sandstone   25. Type of stone for stream bed:       * If the...
Part 2: Technical Forms   32. Cut slope                           Vertical                                   Horizontal   ...
Part 2: Technical Forms2.6.2 Form T12 Transport: StructuresFormsFirstly, use Applet T12 to get advice on suitable type and...
Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T12Transport: Structure                                              ...
Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T12 Transport: Structure      Form T12 Transport : Road struct...
Part 2: Technical Forms                 Number of           diameter (m)       Pipe material       Headwalls              ...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Width of       ramp         Difference in      road        carriageway       Size of...
Part 2: Technical Forms                     Gravel                     Earth with big stone in it                     Othe...
Part 2: Technical Forms2.7 Irrigation System, Group Output Code 1020000There are three types of Technical Form for Irrigat...
Part 2: Technical Forms    x   Rainfall records – the nearest available rainfall record should be entered, each province  ...
Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T21                  General Irrigation: Project              informa...
Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T21 Irrigation: ProjectForm T21 : Irrigation projet Province :...
Part 2: Technical Forms        Operate the         Open and close     Collect water       Organize           Solve dispute...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Yes               No 15. How long are the fields flooded (days)?     30 16. What is ...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Works a little               Not working 22. What are the main components of the sys...
Part 2: Technical Forms 25. What do you judge as the main problem with the existing irrigation system?     There is no way...
Part 2: Technical Forms               By gravity 31. What is the difference in between the lowest water level at the sourc...
Part 2: Technical Forms     * Fill the questionnaire form T22             Repair or New                  length (m)       ...
Part 2: Technical Forms2.7.2 Form T22 Irrigation: EarthworkFormsFirstly, create output of dam, dyke, canal or drain then o...
Part 2: Technical Forms       Applet instructs to ‘Decrease depth’; if the depth is correct (within a band of tolerance)  ...
Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T22                 Create Irrigation: Earthwork              Output?...
Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T22 Irrigation: EarthworkForm T22 Irrigation earthworks(Earth ...
Part 2: Technical Forms               Yes               No   7. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork?      ...
Part 2: Technical Forms   11. What causes most damage to the earthwork?       * if “Other”, answer the question 12        ...
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2009 ncdd-csf-technical-manual-vol-i-study-design-guidelines

  1. 1. Royal Government of CambodiaNational Committee for Sub-National Democratic DevelopmentCommune/Sangkat Fund Technical Manual Volume IStudy and Design Guidelines 2009
  2. 2. VOLUME I:STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES
  3. 3. CONTENTSPREFACE ...................................................................................................................... ivList of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... vPART 1: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 11 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 21.1 Preamble .......................................................................................................................... 21.2 Commune/Sangkat Fund Technical Manual ................................................................. 21.3 Scope of Technical Manual ............................................................................................ 41.4 Contents of Technical Manual ....................................................................................... 4PART 2: TECHNICAL FORMS ....................................................................................... 62 Technical Forms ................................................................................................. 72.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 72.2 Technical Forms are Mandatory .................................................................................... 82.3 Differences between Technical Forms ......................................................................... 82.4 Getting Design Guidance ............................................................................................... 82.5 Example Technical Forms.............................................................................................. 82.6 Transportation Infrastructure, Group Output Code 1010000 ...................................... 82.6.1 Form T11 Transport: Roads ........................................................................................... 92.6.2 Form T12 Transport: Structures .................................................................................. 172.7 Irrigation System, Group Output Code 1020000 ........................................................ 232.7.1 Form T21 Irrigation: Project ......................................................................................... 232.7.2 Form T22 Irrigation: Earthwork ................................................................................... 332.7.3 Form T23 Irrigation: Structure ..................................................................................... 432.8 Water Supply, Group Output Code 1030000 .............................................................. 512.8.1 Form T31 Water Supply ................................................................................................ 512.9 Education Facility, Group Output Code 1040000 ....................................................... 622.9.1 Form T41 Education Facility ........................................................................................ 622.10 Health, Group Output Code 1050000 .......................................................................... 702.10.1 Form T51 Health ........................................................................................................ 702.11 Sanitation, Group Output Code 1100000 .................................................................... 772.11.1 Form T101 Sanitation ............................................................................................... 77PART 3: TEMPLATE DESIGNS FOR LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURE ........................... 863 Template Designs for Local Infrastructure ..................................................... 873.1 Background ................................................................................................................... 873.2 NCDD Templates ........................................................................................................... 873.3 Available Templates ..................................................................................................... 873.4 How to Read and Use the Drawings ............................................................................ 87 I-i
  4. 4. 3.4.1 Size ................................................................................................................................. 873.4.2 Drawing scales .............................................................................................................. 883.4.3 Dimensions ................................................................................................................... 883.4.4 Revisions ....................................................................................................................... 883.4.5 Variable dimensions ..................................................................................................... 883.4.6 How to read the steel details and the steel schedule ................................................ 883.5 AutoCAD Standards ..................................................................................................... 893.5.1 AutoCAD Version .......................................................................................................... 903.5.2 General settings ............................................................................................................ 903.5.3 AutoCAD file name ....................................................................................................... 903.5.4 Drawing number ........................................................................................................... 903.5.5 Paper size ...................................................................................................................... 913.5.6 Pen assignment for plotting ........................................................................................ 913.5.7 Layer definition ............................................................................................................. 913.5.8 Text style and fonts ...................................................................................................... 923.5.9 Line types / widths ........................................................................................................ 933.5.10 Hatch .......................................................................................................................... 933.5.11 Dimensions................................................................................................................ 933.5.12 Blocks ........................................................................................................................ 943.5.13 External references (x-ref) ....................................................................................... 943.5.14 Viewports ................................................................................................................... 943.5.15 Plotting....................................................................................................................... 94PART 4: MATERIALS, QUANTITIES AND COSTS .................................................... 954 Materials, Quantities & Costs .......................................................................... 964.1 Project Cost Estimation ............................................................................................... 964.2 Tables of Quantities and Labor Costs ........................................................................ 964.3 Net Quantities ............................................................................................................... 964.4 Cost Estimation Using the Project Generator ............................................................ 97PART 5: STUDY AND DESIGN GUIDELINES ........................................................... 1095 Study and Design Guidelines ........................................................................ 1105.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1105.1.1 Limitations ................................................................................................................... 1105.1.2 Using the design guidance ........................................................................................ 1105.2 Transport Infrastructure: Group 101 ......................................................................... 1115.2.1 Sub-Group 10101 and 10102: Roads: Form T11 ...................................................... 1115.2.2 Sub-Group 10103 to 10108: Road Structures: Form T12 ........................................ 1175.3 Irrigation System: Group 102 .................................................................................... 1315.3.1 Irrigation Project: Form T21 ....................................................................................... 1315.3.2 Irrigation Earthwork: Form T22 ................................................................................. 1345.3.3 Irrigation structure: Form T23 ................................................................................... 1395.4 Water Supply: Group 103 ........................................................................................... 1405.5 Education Facilities: Group 104 ................................................................................ 1485.6 Health Facilities: Group 105 ...................................................................................... 1495.7 Market Construction: Group 106 ............................................................................... 1505.8 Crop Storage and Processing: Group 107 ............................................................... 1505.9 Social Infrastructure: Group 108 ............................................................................... 150 I-ii
  5. 5. 5.10 Energy: Group 109 ...................................................................................................... 1505.11 Sanitation: Group 110................................................................................................. 1505.11.1 Latrines .................................................................................................................... 1515.11.2 Waste water and solid waste ................................................................................. 1515.11.3 Drainage ................................................................................................................... 1515.12 Flood Protection Structures: Group 111 .................................................................. 153ANNEX 1: TECHNICAL FORMS ................................................................................ 154Technical Form T11 – Transport: Roads .............................................................................. 155Technical Form T12 – Transport: Structures ....................................................................... 159Technical Form T21 – Irrigation: Project .............................................................................. 163Technical Form T22 – Irrigation: Earthwork......................................................................... 167Technical Form T23 – Irrigation: Structure .......................................................................... 172Technical Form T31 – Water Supply ..................................................................................... 175Technical Form T41 – Education Facility ............................................................................. 179Technical Form T51 – Health ................................................................................................. 181Technical Form T101 – Sanitation......................................................................................... 183 I-iii
  6. 6. PREFACEThis book is the first volume of Commune Sangkat Fund Technical Manual produced by theNational Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development (NCDD) with the help of theMinistry of Rural Development (MRD), the Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology(MoWRAM), and others. Commune Sangkat Fund Technical Manual consists of 7 parts whichare divided into 3 volumes as the followings:x Volume I : Study and Design Guidelinesx Volume II : Specifications for Construction Materials and Worksx Volume III : Contract SupervisionThis first volume states mainly the study and design guidelines for the implementation of small-scale infrastructure projects financed by Commune Sangkat Fund. It comprises 5 parts among 7parts of Commune Sangkat technical manual as the followings:x Part 1 : Introductionx Part 2 : Technical Formsx Part 3 : Template Designs for Local Infrastructurex Part 4 : Materials, Quantities and Costsx Part 5 : Study and Design GuidelinesFor part 6 which instructs on specifications for construction materials and works is in Volume II;while the final part- part 7 is in volume III which explains about contract supervion by the use ofConstruction Check Lists. I-iv
  7. 7. List of AbbreviationsADT Average Daily TrafficApplet A spreadsheet to calculate Design flow and structure sizeAASHTO American Association for State Highway and Transportation OfficialBOQ Bill of FQuantityCBR California Bearing RatioCSO Civil Society OrganizationC/S Commune/SangkatCIP Community Investment ProgramDFT District Facilitation TeamDCP Dynamic Cone Penetration TestDoLA Department of Local AdministrationDBST Double Bituminous Surface TreatmentEA Environmental AssessmentEIA Environmental Impact AssessmentEMP Environmental Management PlanExCom Executive CommitteeFWUC Farmer Water User CommitteeGPS Global Positioning SystemGTFM Generalised Tropical Flood ModelHFWL High Flood Water LevelIO International OrganizationLAU Local Administration UnitNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationMEF Ministry of Economy and FinanceM&E Monitoring and EvaluationMoI Ministry of InteriorMRD Ministry of Rural DevelopmentNCDD National Committee for Sub-National Democratic DevelopmentO&M Operation & MaintenancePBC Planning and Budgeting CommitteePCU Passenger Car UnitPFT Provincial Facilitation TeamPIM Project Implementation ManualPMC Project Management CommitteePRDC Provincial Rural Development CommitteePSDD Project Support for Decentralization and DeconcentrationPDoWRAM Provincial Department of Water Resource and MeteorologySBST Single Bituminous Surface TreatmentST 1 Sub-Tertiary 1ST 2 Sub-Tertiary 2ST 3 Sub-Tertiary 3T TertiaryTSO Technical Support OfficerTSU Technical Support UnitTRRL Transport Road Research Laboratory (DCP Model) I-v
  8. 8. PART 1: INTRODUCTION I-1
  9. 9. Part 1: Introduction1 Introduction1.1 PreambleThe principal and first order document for implementation of projects under theCommune/Sangkat Fund (C/S Fund) is the C/S Fund Project Implementation Manual (PIM).The C/S Fund Technical Manual (this document) is a second order document dealing only withtechnical aspects of C/S Fund infrastructure projects and particularly the interface with the C/SFund Project Generator software developed for infrastructure projects. C/S Fund serviceprojects are not dealt with by the Technical Manual.If there is a conflict between the C/S Technical Manual/Project Generator and the PIM then thePIM takes precedence.1.2 Commune/Sangkat Fund Technical ManualThe C/S Fund Technical Manual is for the design and construction of small-scale infrastructureprojects financed by the Fund. The Technical Manual is used with an interactive softwarepackage called the C/S Fund Project Generator.It has been produced by the National Committee for Sub-National Democratic Development(NCDD) with the help of the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), the Ministry of WaterResources and Meteorology (MoWRAM), and others.It originated as the Seila Technical Manual and the accompanying interactive software packagecalled the Seila Template Program developed between 2001 – 2006. The Seila material andprocedures were used and evolved over several years with some success and were taken overby NCDD. The many strong features of the approach were recognized but there were someproblems also. In particular the Template designs and program were somewhat inflexible and itwas difficult to update or add new designs. Also the many forms and procedures required bythe Project Implementation Manual (PIM) although they provided a strong system in themselveswere demanding on time and resources in the provinces; and had to be completed within a veryshort time window in the annual project cycle. Consequently many of the forms were oftenincomplete and seldom properly checked prior to approval. In addition the constructionsupervision was inadequate with the result that it was common for infrastructure works to be ofpoor quality and not completed to the full dimensions.The new manual differs in several ways: x The core ‘template program’ function has been retained but rewritten on a flexible software platform; it incorporates standard design drawings (prepared in AutoCAD but saved and accessed in PDF format) linked to spreadsheets which calculate quantities and costs according to variable dimensions. x The concept of checklist-type feasibility study PIM forms from the Seila Template process have been upgrade to interactive ‘Technical Forms’ built into the Project Generator software in combination with the Template program component. Hence the forms call in the outputs of the template program automatically by use of links and dropdown menus allowing rapid and quality assured assembly of a project portfolio. x The new technical forms in “ project generator ” provide design guidance where technical design is required. The user must answer simple questions by either filling data or choosing answer from multiple choice answers.In some technical forms, advice on type and dimensions of infrastructure will be provided in order to choose project output. To obtain the advice, you need to do some calculation by using several small Excel programs called “Applet”. The programs are interactive, the user can change some design requirements, or in some cases vary the design criteria used, until an acceptable design is produced. The user can choose the final design choice which can be less than recommended if there is good reason.Study and Design Guidelines I-2
  10. 10. Part 1: Introduction x For construction supervision the Technical Guidelines incorporate an updated and expanded version of construction checklist forms developed by MRD. x The Project Generator can be expanded to cover other requirements of the PIM.This Technical Manual is distributed to all Provincial Departments of Rural Development(PDRD), and to contractors working on C/S Fund infrastructure projects. It is also available toother organisations working in rural infrastructure.The C/S Fund Technical Manual is primarily intended as a resource to be used in design ofinfrastructure projects of the Commune and Sangkat Councils. Most of the projects are smalland simple. There are many different projects with similar outputs. For example, in 2002 theCommune Councils constructed about 1200 road culverts and about 1100 wells.The drawings in the C/S Fund Technical Manual can be used for about 90% of all theinfrastructure project outputs implemented by the Commune Councils.Most of the drawings are not new, they are generally based on designs in current use by lineministries, in some cases simplified or condensed so that they can be used by small workscontractors. Other designs have been taken from development sector literature and adaptedalways with the emphasis on suitability for use in contemporary rural communities in Cambodia.Almost all the drawings in the original Seila Manual have been used on many successfulprojects already.Most Commune and Sangkat projects will be constructed by small contractors who do not havehigh level technical skills, or a lot of equipment. The drawings in the C/S Fund TechnicalManual can help the Communes and the contractors to achieve good results in the followingways: x The drawings are available in Khmer and English languages; x The drawings are easy to read, by people who do not have high technical education (If you think that the drawings are not easy to read, please complain and we will try to improve them!); x The project outputs shown in the drawings are easy to construct, without a lot of special equipment; x The designs do not need a very high quality of construction technique, to achieve a successful project. For example, concrete structures built using the designs will be strong enough, even if the quality of the concrete is not very good.When the Commune Council implements a project, they must follow technical guidelines fromthe Ministry that is responsible for the sector. For example, road projects should followguidelines from the Ministry of Rural Development, and irrigation projects should followguidelines of the Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology.Because the Ministries have helped to produce the Technical Manual (and the earlier SeilaTechnical Manual), the drawings in the Manual follow Ministry guidelines. If the Communechooses a drawing from the Manual for their project, they know that the drawing follows theguidelines. However, the Commune can choose to use a different drawing (one that is not inthe Manual) if they prefer.The drawings show technical designs for project outputs. Before choosing a drawing for theproject outputs, the project designer must decide what types of outputs are needed, how big theoutputs must be and where the outputs must be. However, provided that the basic field data iscollected the interactive Technical Forms in the Project Generator will provide most of theinformation required to assemble the design file.Study and Design Guidelines I-3
  11. 11. Part 1: Introduction1.3 Scope of Technical Manual It is essential for TSO’s to also make field visits to: ™ Assess initial purpose of the project ™ Re-check overall objective and revise if project differs from its initial purpose ™ Facilitate in procuring external engineering services if needed1.4 Contents of Technical ManualThe C/S Fund Technical Manual has the following parts. Part 1: Introduction x This section which includes general instructions on the use of the Technical Manual Part 2: Technical Forms x This describes the filling of Technical Forms for infrastructure projects. (all other aspects of project preparation and clearance are described by the PIM). Filled examples are included for the Technical Forms currently loaded to the Project Generator. A full set of unfilled forms is at Annex 1. Part 3: Template Designs for Local x This describes how to understand and use Infrastructure the template designs already loaded into the Project Generator, and how to prepare new template designs. Part 4: Materials, Quantities & Costs x This presents the tables of materials and quantities that the PIM requires to be used for estimation of project costs. It also includes explanation and an example of the quantity tables associated with each template design loaded to the generator.Study and Design Guidelines I-4
  12. 12. Part 1: Introduction Part 5: Study and Design Guidelines x This section provides basic guidance on the technical aspects of study and design such as slope stability, hydrological and hydraulic considerations, choice of materials, etc. Filling the Technical Forms guides most of the design decisions and small ‘applet’ programs are called for simple design calculations. The design guidance is for about 90% of projects, the remaining 10%, because they are unique or have special circumstance will require ‘specialist design input’. Part 6: Specifications for Construction x This provides explanations and instruction Materials and Works on use of the specifications use a tabular format. This is followed by revised and expanded tabulated specifications. Part 7: Contract Supervision x This section explains the use of Construction Check Lists. Examples of filled check lists for two types of project are included. The full set of 32 check lists is at Annex 3.Study and Design Guidelines I-5
  13. 13. Part 2: Technical Forms PART 2: TECHNICAL FORMSStudy and Design Guidelines I-6
  14. 14. Part 2: Technical Forms2 Technical Forms2.1 IntroductionThis section describes how to comply with the requirements of the Project ImplementationManual (PIM) that for an infrastructure project the Technical Assistant prepares TechnicalInformation Forms. These forms are part of the core process of Project Preparation andTechnical Clearance.It is required that the Technical Assistant will assist the Project Management Committee tostudy the technical aspects of the project at the project site in close cooperation with the UserGroups and local community organizations to collect important and necessary information forfilling in the Project Information Form and Technical Information forms.The general information and technical information will be used to prepare the project design.The technical information is different according to the type of project. The different technicalforms are listed below: Infrastructure type Technical forms Code Description Form No. Project type Status of form1010000 Transportation Form T11 Transport: Roads Active in project Infrastructure generator Form T12 Transport: Structures Active in project generator1020000 Irrigation System Form T21 Irrigation: Project Active in project generator Form T22 Irrigation: Earthworks Active in project generator Form T23 Irrigation: Structures Active in project generator1030000 Water Supply Form T31 Water supply Active in project generator1040000 Education Form T41 Education Active in project Facilities generator1050000 Health Form T51 Health Active in project generator1060000 Market Form T61 Markets Form to be prepared Infrastructure1070000 Agriculture Form T71 Crop storage and Form to be prepared Infrastructure processing1080000 Social Form T81 Social infrastructure Form to be prepared Infrastructure1090000 Energy Form T91 Energy Form to be prepared1100000 Sanitation Form T101 Sanitation and Active in project drainage generator1110000 Flood Protection Form T111 Flood protection Form to be prepared Infrastructure structuresStudy and Design Guidelines I-7
  15. 15. Part 2: Technical FormsIt will be noted in the ‘status of form’ column that that there are “Forms to be prepared” for fiveof the infrastructure group. This is because at the time of writing this manual there are notemplates loaded into the Project Generator for these groups and very few such projects haveever been executed. This is anticipated to change in the future and it is intended to developadditional Technical Forms at that time when the precise requirements for the forms will beknown.2.2 Technical Forms are MandatoryIt is mandatory to complete in full the appropriate Technical Forms active in the ProjectGenerator. If the forms are not completed the Project Generator will not allow the projectpreparation and technical clearance process to proceed.2.3 Differences between Technical FormsEach Technical Form is structured differently depending on the types and numbers ofinfrastructure outputs for which it can be used and also the design processes necessary anddescribed in the design guidance.2.4 Getting Design GuidanceDesign guidance is provided at Part 6 of this manual.As far as is possible the Technical Forms incorporate the design guidance to advise the on therecommended output(s) and sizes where relevant. In some places there are MS Excel appletslinked to the forms that will do the calculations required. The limitations of the applets areexplained at Part 6 of this Manual.Care has been taken to take a realistic approach so that the advice will be correct most of thetime; and certainly a big improvement on past practice for some classes of infrastructure whichare often built without any consideration of the design needs.Design advice can still be overridden by the choosing a different output or size, which may befor a justified reason.2.5 Example Technical FormsThe remainder of this section describes the Technical Forms prepared to date and active in theProject Generator. There is a flow chart for each form illustrating the process of filling the formand where design calculations are made in the background.Each flow chart is followed by an example of that form output by the generator. Theappearance and content of the output depends on how the form was filled in the ProjectGenerator, the recommendations of the design guidance, and the final choices made for theinfrastructure output. Blank unfilled examples of the Technical Forms are at Annex 1.2.6 Transportation Infrastructure, Group Output Code 1010000There are two types of Technical Form for Transport Infrastructure: x Form T11 for roads x Form T12 for road structures.Generally only one Form T11 will be required provided the road width and surface type is thesame for the full length of the road. If it changes, e.g. because of increased traffic after a roadjunction, then more than one T11 might be filled.There must be one Form T12 for each road structure, e.g. if there is one 5 m concrete bridgeand three 1.0 m diameter pipe culverts then four T12 must be filled.Study and Design Guidelines I-8
  16. 16. Part 2: Technical Forms2.6.1 Form T11 Transport: RoadsFormsFirstly, use Applet T11 to get advices on suitable road surface options based by: x Entering into “Applet T11” Average Daily Traffic for existing road to determine MRD Class A or B and a total of 24 hour from classified traffic count at busiest part of road. x Entering DCP test results with GPS coordinates (Enter each DCP test result to Applet T11 and get the 20 percentile DCP strength).You will then get the advices on road type, surface and pavement thickness in the nextworksheet of Applet T11.After that you must create output according to the advises from the Applet, but you can chooseanother type of road surface and pavement thickness with appropriate reasons.Then go to technical form T11 to answer the questions on: x General project information – this fills automatically from information previously filled immediately when creating project. x Project location – enter the GPS coordinates of the start and finish of the road. x Type of roadworks required – option for five descriptions covering new, rehabilitated, and improvement by widening and/or upgraded surface. x Length of road – is entered manually x Road Classification – option for roads connecting district centre/communes/villages determines the MRD road classification and hence the minimum recommended road width. x Existing structures and new structures required – manual entry describing existing structures and anticipated number(s) and type(s) of new structure (the actual number, type and size of structure is decided using Form and Applet T12). x Type of existing road construction, its condition, and main cause of damage – a variety of questions and options describing the existing road, what wheeled traffic can pass in the wet and dry season, and the main cause of damage. x Materials available for road construction – a variety of questions about locally available road construction material, its quality, and haul distance to the site. x Foundation soils – description options for type of soil. x Proposed fill and cut slopes – Choose cut and fill slopes according to type of cut and fill material (this is used for quantity calculations).The form is completed by identifying responsibility for road maintenance.ExampleThe example shown is for 4.25 km improvement of a sub-tertiary road Type ST3.For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be: 1. Template 1010102 drawings together with a profile pro-forma drawing in AutoCAD file used with Excel spreadsheet. 2. Spreadsheet for calculation of quantities to allow calculation of cost estimate (see Part 4 of this Technical Manual).Study and Design Guidelines I-9
  17. 17. Part 2: Technical Forms 3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual) 4. One Form T12 for each structure identified as needed. 5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.Study and Design Guidelines I-10
  18. 18. Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T11Transport: Roads Traffic count ADT DCP Soils and Surfacing measurements 20 percentile DCP option(s) applet (advice) Create Output General information? Location? One Form T12 Road generated for each, classification? culvert, bridge and low-level crossing Form T12 List new each structure structures? Existing road construction? Condition of road? Main cause of damage? Materials available? Slopes? x Drawings Pavement type x Interactive and thickness? quantities S’SStudy and Design Guidelines I-11
  19. 19. Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T11 Transport: RoadsForm T11 Transport: Road(Earth Road) Province : Kampong cham District : Sreisanthor S/C:Roseisrok Name of project : Repair of laterite road Code of S/C : 31411 Name of TSO : Seila Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009 1. Location: where is the earth road located within the Sangkat/Commune? * Describe this location It goes from Commune office to Som Roang Pagoda 2. Give the coordinates of GPS If there are many road segments which have the same condition width and pavement, give the coordinates of start points and end points of each segment. One row is for one segment. Start point Ending point X of GPS Y of GPS X of GPS Y of GPS 304010 1528230 308350 1528250 3. Type of road project: What kind of road work is required? New road construction Rehabilitate existing road, the same width and surface Improve and widen existing road, same surface Improve existing road, the same width upgraded surface Improve and widen existing road, upgrade surface. 4. Length of road: what is the length of the road (in kilometer)? 4250 5. Road classification: District to district road, Tertiary Road, (T Road), “6.0 m” District to Sangkat/Commune, Sub-tertiary Road Type 1, ( ST1 road) “6.0 m” Commune to commune road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 2, (ST2 road), “5.0m” Commune to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), “4.0m” Village to village road, Sub-tertiary Road Type 3, (ST3 road), “4.0m” 6. Structures: are there existing structures? * If “yes” answer the following questions; if “no” skip to the next question.Study and Design Guidelines I-12
  20. 20. Part 2: Technical Forms Yes No 7. List number, description and dimensions of existing structures. 1. 1 small wooden bridge 2m span, 2. Three single pipe culverts 0.6m, 3. Carriageway above structure is 3m. 8. What new structures are required (number of each)? * fill a form T12 for each structure, number the structure in the table. Bridge culvert drift vented causeway 6 9. Type of existing road: is there existing path, car-track or road ? Yes No 10. Is the road on an embankment? Yes No 11. What is the width of the road? 3 12. Condition of road: what is the condition of the road? * first row for rainy season, the second row for dry season. Write “Can” or “Cannot”. Can: Can go, Cannot: Cannot go. Bicycle Motorcycle Motor- Koyun or Car or truck heavy truck remorque small truck for carrying for carrying for carrying people goods goods Can Can Can Can Cannot Cannot Can Can Can Can Can Cannot 13. Main cause of road damage: What causes the main damage? If “Something else”, answer the below question Flooding Ponding on the road surface Gully erosion from runoff from the surface Carts pulled by animals Small cars or pickup trucksStudy and Design Guidelines I-13
  21. 21. Part 2: Technical Forms Heavy trucks for carrying goods Something else (fill in the below question) 14. Others main causes: 15. Material availability for road construction. Remark: For the material which are required for road construction for the road type you have chosen skip to others questions! 16. Fill material from roadside borrow as dug: Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill Meets specification requirements for Type 1 Can meet specification for Type 3 material by mixing with imported material Can meet specification for Type 1 material by mixing with imported material Is unsuitable material (mud, organic soils or Peat). 17. Fill material from remote borrow pit: Meets specification requirements for Type 3 Fill Meets specification requirements for Type 1 18. Distance of borrow pit(s) from road (Km): 0.6 19. Source of sand: Borrow pit Stream bed 20. Distance from road (Km): 2 21. Source of gravel: Borrow pit Stream bed 22. Distance from road (Km): 2 23. Laterite Put “good”, “medium” or “poor” in the box of quality. Source distance of transportation (Km) quality Punley mountain 15 Poor 24. Type of stone from quarry * It the source is not borrow pit, please choose the answer below Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc)Study and Design Guidelines I-14
  22. 22. Part 2: Technical Forms Limestone Sandstone 25. Type of stone for stream bed: * If the source is not stream bed, please choose the answer below Hard metamorphic rock (granite, basalt, etc) Limestone Sandstone 26. Water supply for earth work Source distance from road (Km) Domestic well 1 27. Road traffic: what are the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road? *Write in percentage. One place to another in Go from the commune to a Go from one place outside commune place outside the the commune to another commune or vice versa outside the commune 10% 90% 10% 28. the proportion of the cars and trucks using the road is: * Put it into percentage. Belong to people who live in the Belong to people who live outside the commune commune 48% 52% 29. Foundation soils: what kind of soil the structure stand on? * if “other”, mention in the following question: Soil that is very easily eroded Normal clay Sandy soils Gravels Earth with big stones in it Other. 30. For others soil kinds. 31. Side slope: Fill slope Vertical Horizontal 1 1Study and Design Guidelines I-15
  23. 23. Part 2: Technical Forms 32. Cut slope Vertical Horizontal 1 1 33. Choice of road: what is thickness of the pavement proposed? Surface (if applicable) Wearing course (if applicable) Base course (if applicable) Road base (if applicable) Sub base (if applicable) 34. Fill with the thickness of the road pavement choosing above: Road pavement thickness Laterite 300mm 35. Road maintenance: Does the commune have a Commune Road Sub-Committee? Yes No 36. Who is responsible for road maintenance? * if “Other” mention your answer in the question below. Ministry of Rural Development Sangkat/Commune Others 37. Write the person who is responsible for road maintenance if you choose “other” 38. Remark: You must upload “Applet” in which you entered your data to get the answers and the advices about road pavement. If you chose the road pavement that is not suitable less or more than recommendation from “Applet T11”, give your reason on Advice Tab.Study and Design Guidelines I-16
  24. 24. Part 2: Technical Forms2.6.2 Form T12 Transport: StructuresFormsFirstly, use Applet T12 to get advice on suitable type and size of drainage structure by: x Choosing the structure type envisaged, and changing it if it will be different from the recommended structure after filling hydrology and hydraulic data. x Filling hydrology and hydraulic data – details of the catchment draining to the structure if this can be determined (area, elevation of stream bed for slope, catchment soils, vegetation, land use and whether in a normal or high rainfall area).After that you must create output according to the advice from the Applet, but you can chooseanother type and size of drainage structure with appropriate reasons. (NOTE: It is stronglyrecommended not to select a smaller type and size of structure than advised).Then go to technical form T12 to answer the questions on: x General project information – this fills automatically from information previously filled immediately when creating project. x Project location – by entering the GPS coordinates of the structure the Project Generator creates a location plan. x Road classification and standard – the road classification, standard and width is entered manually, but if Form T12 has been generated by a Form T11 then the information is entered the same as the road form. x Scope of Works – requires information on the type, size and condition of the existing structure if there is one. x Materials available for structure construction – a variety of questions about available structure construction material, its quality, and haul distance to the site. x Foundation soils including results for DCP tests – description options for type of soil and DCP test results with GPS coordinates (Possibly enter each DCP test result to Applet T11 and get the 20 percentile DCP strength). x Required hydraulic capacity of structure – the design flow and velocity from Applet T12 or engineer.ExampleThe example shown is for one of the replacement pipe culverts on the previous example FormT11 for a road.For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be: 1. Template drawing for output code 1010303 (see Part 3 of this Technical Manual) 2. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate (see Part 4 of this Technical Manual). 3. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual). 4. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.Study and Design Guidelines I-17
  25. 25. Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T12Transport: Structure Applet T12 calculates flow and selects Hydrological structure measurements? Recommended structure (advice) Create output of structure? General information? Form T11 (if Location? road project) Road classification? No Form T11 when project is single structure Existing structure information? Materials available? DCP Soils and measurements 20 percentile DCP Hydraulic capacity x Drawings of structure x QuantitiesStudy and Design Guidelines I-18
  26. 26. Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T12 Transport: Structure Form T12 Transport : Road structure (Single pipe culvert 0.8m) Province : Kampong cham District : Sreisanthor S/C:Roseisrok Name of project : Repair of pipe culvert Code of S/C : 31411 Name of TSO : Seila Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009 1. Location: where is the structure located within the Sangkat/Commune? *Describe the location On Chhuk Stream 3km before Som Roang 2. Give the coordinates of the GPS. X of GPS Y of GPS 304010 1528230 3. Road Classification : * Road classification: T, ST1, ST2, or ST3. *Road standard: A or B Classification Road standard Width of pavement (m) ST3 B 4 4. Scope of work: is the structure part of a road project to be carried out at the same time or is the work for the structure only? A part of road project Structure only. 5. Is there an existing structure and if so what is its condition and description? If “Yes”, answer only the questions about the existing structure, then go to question 13. If “ No” go directly to question 13. Yes No 6. Describe of existing pipe culvert: * Material can be: Concrete, Clay, Plastic or steel. Headwalls can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, Reinforced concrete, or none.Study and Design Guidelines I-19
  27. 27. Part 2: Technical Forms Number of diameter (m) Pipe material Headwalls Carriageway pipe width over culvert 3 0.6 Concrete Masonry 3 7. Describe the existing box culvert. * Headwall can be: Wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none. Road slab can be: on wall or integrated with wall. Number of Width (m) Height Walls Road slab Carriage box width over culvert 8. Describe the existing concrete bridge. * Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete, none. The piers can be: concrete on footing, concrete on piles. Deck material can be: wood or reinforced concrete. Number of Width of Height of Abutment Piers Deck Deck spans each each span material material carriageway span width(m) 9. Describe the existing steel bridge. * Steel bridge can be: Bailey, Vietnamese or others. Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete or none. The piers can be: wood on footing, wood on piles, steel on footing, steel on piles, concrete on footing or concrete on piles. The deck can be: wood or steel plates. Type Number Width Height Abutment Piers Deck Deck of spans of each of each material material carriageway span span width(m) 10. Describe the existing wooden bridge. * Abutment material can be: wood, masonry, mass concrete, reinforced concrete, none. The piers can be: wood on footing, wood on piles. Deck material can be: wood or steel plate. Number of Width of Height of Abutment Piers Deck Deck spans each each span material material carriageway span width(m) 11. Describe the existing drift. *Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others. Width of ramp slope Difference in level road material carriageway crossing (m) between road on width (m) embankment and crossing (m) 12. Describe the existing vented causeway. Road material can be: earth or laterite, stone, concrete or others.Study and Design Guidelines I-20
  28. 28. Part 2: Technical Forms Width of ramp Difference in road carriageway Size of Size of crossing slope level between material width (m) opening opening (m) road on Width/Dia Height embankment and crossing (m) 13. What is the condition and cause damage of the structure? Good, no restriction on traffic (age of structure) Poor, most 4 wheel traffic can cross with care (bad design, material or construction) Bad, impassable to 4 wheel traffic (not suitable for current traffic) Collapsed and useless (damage by water or flood) 14. Available construction material: Part 1 * For construction material, fill with “Need” below type of material, then fill the source and distance. If “No need”, fill nothing. Source of fill type 3: borrow pit. Source of sands: borrow pit or stream bed. Source of gravel: borrow pit or stream bed. Type source distance sand source distance gravel source distance 3 fill (km) of (km) of (km) sands gravel borrow borrow borrow Need 0.1 Need 0 Need 2 pit pit pit 15. Part 2 * Source of stone: quarry or stream bed. Type of stone: hard metamorphic rocks (granite, basalt, etc). Stone Source of type of distance water source distance stone stone (km) supply for (km) concrete Need quarry Limestone 5 Need pump 0.5 from village 16. Foundation soils: What kind of soil is the structure founded on ? * if “others”, answers the following questions. Soil that is very easily eroded Normal clay Sandy soilStudy and Design Guidelines I-21
  29. 29. Part 2: Technical Forms Gravel Earth with big stone in it Others 17. Others, mention them. 18. Foundation strength of DCP (mm/blow) and location of each test. * Location: stream bed road centre line, stream bed upstream, stream bed downstream, left bank abutment, right bank abutment or others. DCP (mm/blow) location 23 Stream bed road centre line 15 Right bank abutment 35 Stream bed downstream 19. what is the 20 percentile DCP? 30.2 20. Hydrology and required hydraulic capacity of structure: did you use “Applet” to calculate the design flow, velocity, type and size of structure? * You can use “Applet T12” to determine the simple flow system, but for the complicated one, you have to find help from an engineer. Yes No 21. Maximum design flow (m3/s) from Applet or engineer is: * If you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C32. 1.91 22. Velocity (m/s) which downstream structure can withstand is * if you use Applet, write down the answer from form T12, worksheet GTFM:C34 2.83 23. Remark: Upload “Applet” in which you fill the data to get the design flow, suitable structures and the velocity above. If you don’t use Applet to get the recommended structure, give your suitable reasons and upload the related documents that you use to determine design flow and velocity.Study and Design Guidelines I-22
  30. 30. Part 2: Technical Forms2.7 Irrigation System, Group Output Code 1020000There are three types of Technical Form for Irrigation Systems: x Form T21 for Irrigation: Project x Form T22 for Irrigation: Earthwork x Form T23 for Irrigation: Structure.Irrigation is generally the most complex and also usually the least successful infrastructureoutput supported by the C/S Fund.Form T21 is used to establish the requirements and constraints for irrigation. Even if theproposed output(s) are only an element of a larger irrigation system, it is strongly advised tocomplete a Form T21 to define the requirements for the C/S Fund investment. This form isrequired only one time for one irrigation system.Form T22 is used for irrigation earthworks; these can be dams or dykes, canals or drains.There must be a separate T22 for each earthwork, e.g. if a project comprises a dam and twocanals there must be three T22.Form T23 is for irrigation structures, e.g. spillway, head regulator, cross regulator, culvert, etc.There must be a separate T23 for each structure, e.g for the dam and canals above there maybe one spillway, one head regulator, two cross regulators and two culverts requiring six T23.2.7.1 Form T21 Irrigation: ProjectFormForm T21 requires answers for questions on: x General project information – this fills automatically from information previously filled immediately when creating project. x Project location – by entering the GPS coordinates of the structure (for irrigation projects choose an identifiable location, e.g. the dam across a stream). x Description of the project – manual entry summarising details of the project, if the output is part of a larger project, describe the larger project and the purpose the output will serve in relation to that project. x Farmer Water User Community (FWUC) – questions establishing whether there is an existing FWUC or whether farmers are prepare to form one. x Operation and maintenance responsibilities – manual entry for proposed operation and maintenance of the project (Note: failure to implement operation and maintenance procedures is a primary cause of failure of C/S Fund irrigation investments). x Irrigation system requirement – these questions establish what the community expects from the project, in both the dry and wet season. x Flooding – questions about flooding establish if, when and for how long the irrigated fields flood each year because this determines the periods and quantities of irrigation water required (remember that paddy rice is traditional grown on land that floods part of each year). x Existing irrigation systems – these questions establish the existing irrigation systems, their condition, whether they work and the perceived cause of problems. x Water resources – these questions establish where the irrigation water will come from, what periods of the year it is available, and how it will be delivered to the fields.Study and Design Guidelines I-23
  31. 31. Part 2: Technical Forms x Rainfall records – the nearest available rainfall record should be entered, each province should keep on file and update annually the rainfall records so that they are available for such purpose.At this stage use applet T21 to calculate the irrigation water requirement on a monthly basis; itis only necessary to enter the catchment area and chose the month of planting, and then copythe answer from Appet to the generator.If it is a reservoir project the applet determines: x reservoir volume required; x whether the reservoir is large enough; x water surplus/deficit downstream before project; x water surplus/ deficit downstream after project; x whether the reservoir has a negative impact on irrigation downstream; x the percentage reduction in water passed downstream; and x whether the impact downstream is acceptable.If it is a river intake project the applet determines: x whether there is enough water at the river intake; x water surplus/deficit downstream before project; x water surplus/deficit downstream after project; x whether the river intake has a negative impact on irrigation downstream; x the percentage reduction in water passed downstream; and x whether the impact downstream acceptable.It is probable that at the first attempt there will be too little water for the reservoir or river intakeproposal to work. The planting date, irrigated area and other design inputs can be adjusted tofind the best solution. Do not be surprised if a solution is not possible, especially in locations outside the Mekong floodplain. In many such places the landscape and rainfall patterns are such that reliable supplementary irrigation by traditional methods is impossible to achieve.A final choice is made confirming the ‘work proposed for the irrigation project’.ExampleThe example shown is for repair a Khmer Rouge earth dam, and canals for supplementaryirrigation of wet season rice. The work includes a new reservoir spillway and new headregulator using medium size water gate.For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be: 1. 4No Form T22 (for one dam and three canals) 2. 7No Form T23 (for seven structures)The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.Study and Design Guidelines I-24
  32. 32. Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T21 General Irrigation: Project information? Location? FWUC? O&M? Irrigation requirement? Flooding Applet calculates irrigation water requirement, Existing reservoir volume, whether irrigation? reservoir or river intake will work, and whether impact downstream is Rainfall acceptable records Planting Irrigation water date? requirement Confirms whether reservoir or is viable One Form T22 or T23 generated for each, earthwork and structure Forms T22 Confirm each outputs earthwork Forms T23 each structureStudy and Design Guidelines I-25
  33. 33. Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T21 Irrigation: ProjectForm T21 : Irrigation projet Province : Kampong cham District : Sreisanthor S/C:Roseisrok Name of project : Irrigation project at Bei village Code of S/C : 31411 Name of TSO : Seila Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009 1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune? Chongkoh village 2. Give the coordinate of GPS. X of GPS Y of GPS 304010 1528230 3. Project description: provide the description about the project including the proposed components and size of command area. Repair a Khmer Rouge earth dam, and canals for supplementary irrigation of wet season rice, include reservoir spillway and new head regulator using medium size water gate. 4. Farmer water user community: is there a farmer user community to support the project? * if you chose “No”, skip to question 7. Yes No 5. How many farmers (families) are members of the Community? 0 6. Have the farmers discussed together and agreed how they will pay the operation and maintenance costs of the project? Yes No 7. Operation and maintenance responsibilities: Who will be responsible to do the operation and maintenance? * if the scheme don’t need a pump, fill with “No need”.Study and Design Guidelines I-26
  34. 34. Part 2: Technical Forms Operate the Open and close Collect water Organize Solve disputes pump (if the water gates? user fees? maintenance between scheme needs work? farmers about a pump)? the water? No needed Gate keeper commune commune commune paid by council council council commune 8. Irrigation system requirement: what is the irrigated area in hectares? * Remark: if the project will be a part of a big irrigation project, only describe the part that will be affected by the project. Wet season dry season 100 0 9. What is the main type of crop that will be grown on the land? wet season dry season Rice Nothing 10. How much of the land that has enough water every year already? Wet season number of families dry season number of families 0 0 0 0 11. How much of the land that has enough water some years? Wet season number of families dry season number of families 50 40 0 0 12. How much of the land never has enough water at present? Wet season number of families dry season number of families 50 40 0 0 13. Total size of land and total number of families. * Totalize the size of wet season irrigated area, the number of families, the size of dry season irrigated area, the number of families. Wet season number of families dry season number of families 100 80 0 0 14. Flooding: Do the fields flood for some days each year? If “Yes”, answer the following questions, if “No”, skip to question 18.Study and Design Guidelines I-27
  35. 35. Part 2: Technical Forms Yes No 15. How long are the fields flooded (days)? 30 16. What is the flood depth during these days (m)? 0.15 17. What is the flood path, does the water flow concentrate is some places, describe and flow path(s) on map? The flood water comes over the fields from the north-west and stays a long time if the flood in the big to the south-east is big. 18. Existing irrigation system: is there and existing irrigation system? If “Yes”, answer the following question. If “No” skip to question 28. Yes No 19. When was the irrigation system built? If ‘1980 to 2000’ or ‘After 2000’, answer the following questions. If not, skip one question below. French era Sihanouk era Khmer Rouge era 1980 to 2000 After 2000. 20. Under what program or which donor paid for the project? 21. Does the system work? Working Working 50%Study and Design Guidelines I-28
  36. 36. Part 2: Technical Forms Works a little Not working 22. What are the main components of the system and what is their condition? River intake Reservoir Dam Spillways Large water gates Canals Small water gates and culverts 23. What is the condition of the irrigation project? Answer: Working, works a little, Not working or collapse for the main components of the system choosing above. Main components of the system condition Dam Not working Spillway Collapsed Big water gate Not working Canal A lot of damage Small water gate and culverts A lot of damage 24. How many months is water available? < 1 month 1 to 2 months 3 to 4 months 5 months 6 months > 6 monthsStudy and Design Guidelines I-29
  37. 37. Part 2: Technical Forms 25. What do you judge as the main problem with the existing irrigation system? There is no way of controlling the water, the water does not flow long enough to guarantee irrigation for rice, but for one month or longer the fields flood and there is too much water. 26. How can a new irrigation project overcome these problems? It will make the reservoir work, it will store water for later in the season and help control flooding. The canal will deliver water to the fields. 27. Do you have any other comments relevant to the proposed irrigation project? The community does not want to pay to form a FWUC, they say they can manage amongst themselves as they always have. This may be true but they will have problems later paying for large maintenance. They need some support on organisation, O&M and agricultural extension 28. Water resource: where will the water come from? River Reservoir Flood lake Canal 29. What is the water depth existing river, reservoir, lake or canal each month of the year and is the water stationary or flowing (include largest river flowing into or out of an existing reservoir)? Month depth (m) flowing, not flowing Jan 0 not flowing Feb 0 not flowing Mar 0 not flowing Apr 0 not flowing May 0 not flowing Jun 0.1 not flowing Jul 0.2 not flowing Aug 0.5 flowing Sept 0.1 flowing Oct 1.2 flowing Nov 0.9 flowing Dec 0.3 flowing 30. How will the water be delivered from the source to the distribution canals and fields? By pumpingStudy and Design Guidelines I-30
  38. 38. Part 2: Technical Forms By gravity 31. What is the difference in between the lowest water level at the source and the level of the fields (m)? * It is recommended to measure the difference in level with a survey instrument. 1.2 32. Irrigation water requirement: remark Use “Applet T21” to get “monthly water requirement for irrigation” and “gravity flow capacity per second”. 33. Works proposed for irrigation project: What are the main works items include size that will be repaired or newly constructed for the Irrigation Project? * For these following questions, answer only about situation and size of the structures chosen in this question. Reservoir Dam Spillways River weir or gate Head regulator Secondary canal Tertiary canal Canal, water gate or regulator Off-take Culverts 34. Reservoir works Repair or New Area (ha) Volume (m3) Repair 61 2200000 35. Dam worksStudy and Design Guidelines I-31
  39. 39. Part 2: Technical Forms * Fill the questionnaire form T22 Repair or New length (m) maximum height (m) Repair 800 3.5 36. Spillways works * Fill the questionnaire form T23 Repair or New length (m) drop (m) New ........ 4 37. River weir or gates height water raised Repair or New length (m) (m) 38. Head regulator works * Fill the questionnaire form T23 Repair or New Number gate size (m) New 1 0.6 39. Secondary canal works * Fill the questionnaire form T22 Repair or New Number Length (m) Repair 1 1500 40. Tertiary canal works * Fill the questionnaire form T22 Repair or New Number Total Length (m) Repair 1 1000 41. Canal water gates or regulators work * Fill the questionnaire form T23 Repair or new number New 1 42. Off-take works * Fill the questionnaire form T23 Repair or new number New 2 43. Culvert works * Fill the questionnaire form T23 Repair or new number size (m) with gate or not New 2 pipe culvert 0.8 With gate 44. Remark:Upload “Applet T21” that you’ve used into the Project Generator.Study and Design Guidelines I-32
  40. 40. Part 2: Technical Forms2.7.2 Form T22 Irrigation: EarthworkFormsFirstly, create output of dam, dyke, canal or drain then open Technical Form T22 which requiresanswers for questions on: x General project information – this fills automatically from information previously filled immediately when creating project. x Project location – enter the GPS coordinates of the start and finish of the earthwork. x Description of earthwork – select from choice of: dam, dyke, canal or drain, also select whether it is: new, improve, repair or maintenance. x Traffic use of earthwork – these questions determine whether the earthwork will be used as a track or road and therefore the required crest width and surfacing (note: it is common for embankments to serve a dual purpose as a public road and irrigation earthwork, this complicates maintenance because traffic damage can compromise irrigation operations. x Condition of existing dams and dykes – if the earthwork is a dam or dyke the condition must be entered manual and then a choice made from a list of common causes of damage. x Condition of existing canal and drain - if the earthwork is a canal and drain the condition must be entered manual and then a choice made from a list of common causes of damage. x Soils – select either the soils that will be use as (a) fill or (b) excavated for canals or drains. The advises whether the material is suitable as fill, safe fill or cut slopes, and whether canals or drains should be lined are provided next to the choices. x Availability of fill material – if the earthwork is a dam or dyke answers on the type, questions must be answered concerning the quality, location and distance from site of fill materials. x Design of dam or dyke – if the earthwork is a dam or dyke questions the design water level must be entered, the freeboard to calculate earthwork crest level, whether the earthwork is a road, the crest width and road surfacing, the upstream and downstream slopes, the method of slope protection for each slope, the class, thickness and filter requirements if rock riprap is used on the upstream slope. x Capacity of canal – Manually multiply the flow rate of canal to the irrigated areas. A default flow of 2 l/s/ha to the area of fields supplied is used but can be overridden. If the canal is supplied by pumps the hours pumped each day must be entered to calculate the pumping rate. x Capacity of drain – Manually multiply the flow rate of canal to the irrigated areas. A default flow of 3.5 l/s/ha to the area of fields drained is used but can be overridden. There are some questions to establish the concept for drainage (this is often overlooked and becomes another cause for failure). If the drain receives flow from a larger catchment area, details of this catchment must be entered in the same way as Form T12 Road: Structure in Applet T22 External catchment flow. The required flow capacity of the drain is the sum of the flow from the fields and that from a larger catchment area. x Hydraulic design of canal or drain – Having established the required capacity of the canal or drain the hydraulic calculations are the same and the same applet is used for both types of channel. It is necessary to enter the upstream and downstream bed levels, the side slopes and bed width, the freeboard. The calculation is iterative. A water depth is entered: if it is too small Applet T22 instructs to ‘Increase depth’; if it is too large theStudy and Design Guidelines I-33
  41. 41. Part 2: Technical Forms Applet instructs to ‘Decrease depth’; if the depth is correct (within a band of tolerance) the Applet prints ‘Depth OK’. The Applet then outputs the: minimum height of banks above bed level; width between tops of bank; and velocity of design flow. x Responsibility for operation and maintenance – these questions check whether there is a FWUC to take responsibility for design and maintenance and if not who will carry out design and maintenance.ExampleThe example shown is for rehabilitation of a Khmer Rouge canal downstream from a reservoir.But in this example the canal must also operate as a drain. Therefore it is necessary tocalculate the required capacities as both a canal and a drain; then use the larger of the twoflows for the hydraulic design of the channel.For this example the attachments generated by the Project Generator will be: 1. Template drawing(s) when available for chosen output code(s) (See Part 3 of this Technical Manual). 2. Spreadsheet for calculation of earthwork quantities (See Part 4 of this Technical Manual). 3. Quantities table to allow calculation of cost estimate (See Part 4 of this Technical Manual). 4. Specification (see Part 6 of this Technical Manual). 5. Construction check lists (see Part 7 of this Technical Manual).The flow chart and example Project Generator output follow below.Study and Design Guidelines I-34
  42. 42. Part 2: Technical Forms Flowchart for Technical Form T22 Create Irrigation: Earthwork Output? General information? Location? Description of earthwork Traffic use Condition of dams, dykes canals or drains? Soils? Design dam or dyke Calculation Capacity of Calculation manually in canal? manually in Generator Generator Capacity of drain? Applet calculates size of channel T22 External catchment flow.xls Hydraulic design T22-Design canal canal or drain or drain.xls Applet calculates flow from external catchment Responsibility for maintenance? x Drawings x Earthwork S’S x QuantitiesStudy and Design Guidelines I-35
  43. 43. Part 2: Technical FormsExample Project Generator print Form T22 Irrigation: EarthworkForm T22 Irrigation earthworks(Earth canal) Province : Kampong cham District : Sreisanthor S/C:Roseisrok Name of project : Repair earth canal Code of S/C : 31411 Name of TSO : Seila Date of form preparation : 20-07-2009 1. Location: where is the project located within the Sangkat/Commune? Location description: From the reservoir in Chongkoh village to rice field. 2. Provide the coordinate of GPS. * First is the starting point, the flow row is the ending point X of GPS Y of GPS 304010 1528030 304090 1528230 3. What type of earthwork is required? Build a new earthwork Improve the existing earthwork earthwork (e.g. raise or deepen, widen, add road surfacing) Repair a badly damage earthwork Periodic maintenance 4. Traffic use of earthwork: Is the earthwork used as a public road or for farm access? If “Not used” skip to question 11. Public road Farm access Not used 5. Has the earthwork ever had Laterite or any other kind of improved surface in the past? Yes No 6. Is there any Laterite or any other kind of surface on the earthwork now?Study and Design Guidelines I-36
  44. 44. Part 2: Technical Forms Yes No 7. What is the largest vehicle that uses the earthwork? Passenger car People walking Motorcycle Motor-remorque Bicycle Animal cart Light vehicle/van Koyun Medium truck (6 tyres) Heavy truck (6 tyres) Bus (>4 tyres) Mini-bus (4 tyres). 8. Approximately how many of these vehicles use the earthwork per day? * In PCU units, you can use Applet T11 to help your calculation of the number of vehicle. 0 9. According the traffic of vehicle above, what type of pavement is suitable for this earthwork? * if the number of vehicle is < 21 ‘Earth surface is satisfactory’. * if the number of vehicle is < 25 ‘Light Laterite surface is satisfactory’ * If number of vehicles is <100 ‘Medium Laterite surface is satisfactory’ * If number of vehicles is >100 ‘Too much traffic for Laterite surface consider other option’. 10. Condition of the existing dams or dykes and Canals or drains: describe the condition of the existing earthwork. The banks are eroded, breach and broken down so that water from the reservoir goes everywhere and often floods the fields.Study and Design Guidelines I-37
  45. 45. Part 2: Technical Forms 11. What causes most damage to the earthwork? * if “Other”, answer the question 12 Dam: traffic, people or animal Erosion from rain Wave damage from reservoir of flooding Flooding overtopping and breaching Flooding overtopping and breaching Water flow along channels at toe or structures Others Canal: too small for flow Blocked by weed Silted-up Bank erosion 12. If “Others” mention them. 13. Soils: What kind of soil is at the project site, (a) for use as fill, (b) for excavating canals and drains? Clay group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.00, downstream 1:1.75, Canal and drain 1:1.25 Sandy group, stable slope: upstream 1:2.50, downstream 1:2.00, Canal and drain 1:1.50 Silty soil, stable slope: upstream “not suitable”, downstream “not suitable”, Canal and drain 1:1.50 Dispersive clay, upstream “not suitable”, downstream “not suitable”, canal and drain : Line canal Organic soils, upstream “not suitable, downstream “not suitable”, canal and drain : Line canal. 14. Material for road construction: remark Skip the materias which are not chosen for road construction. 15. Fill material from borrow beside earth works.Study and Design Guidelines I-38

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