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El arte del té


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El arte del té

  1. 1. Tea TermsAfternoon TeaAfternoon tea, which was invented by Anna the 7th Dutchess of Bedford in the early 19th Century,is a separate snack between lunch and dinner. At The Cultured Cup, Judith Dyer, renownedafternoon tea expert, conducts classes on the "dos and donts" of afternoon tea. For a listing of theclasses available at The Cultured Cup, refer to our Class Schedule.AssamOne of the major tea regions in India. Located in the eastern section of the country, Assam is thesingle largest tea producing region in the world. Assam teas are known for their malty, full bodiedand spicy flavor profiles.Black TeaOther than Pu-Erh tea, black tea is the most oxidized of any tea category. It has 1/2 the caffeinecompared to a cup of black coffee and, similar to all other categories of tea, has high levels of anti-oxidants. Black tea can be formed into a number of different shapes and sizes. It can be verybroken, or can consist of whole, large leaves. Also, the shaping of the leaves results in a specificflavor profile. Leaves can be whole leaf, broken, twisted, rolled or compacted into a tea cake orbrick. The variety is practically endless! Also, certain black teas contain numerous silver or goldentips, which is a sign of quality and will result in a much higher price.In India, black teas such as Darjeeling and Assam often indicate the time of the year the leaves werepicked. For example, a First Flush Darjeeling indicates the tea was picked in the Spring season andas a result will have specific flavor characteristics. Teas can also be picked in the Summer (SecondFlush) and Autumn season (Third Flush) and in the Winter (Fourth Flush).BlendA tea that is composed of different teas, for example, English Breakfast tea, which can containKeemun and Assam, or teas of the same kind but from different estates, for example, Queen Victoria- a blend of different estate darjeelings.The Cultured Cup carries the following traditional tea blends: □ À la Porte Chinoise: blend of black, oolong, green & white □ English Breakfast Tea: blend of Chinese & Indian black teas □ Evening Tea: blend of Chinese, Sri Lankan & Indian black teas □ French Breakfast Tea: blend of Indian and Chinese black teas □ Queen Victoria: blend of several Darjeeling 2nd Flush Estates □ Ceylon Sultane: Blend of several Sri Lankan teas □ Thé des Poetes Solitaires: blend of Darjeeling Oolong and Chinese blackCaffeine in TeaA cup of tea has approximately half the caffeine compared to a cup of coffee. The five categories oftea: pu-erh, black, oolong, green and white have approximately the same amount of caffeine, but thefollowing variables affect the amount of caffeine extracted from tea: □ Amount of tea used □ Shape and size of tea leaf □ Temperature of water □ Steeping TimeWEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 1 of 10
  2. 2. Camellia SinensisLatin botanical name for the tea plant. Closely related to the beautiful flowering camellia (camelliajaponica).Categories of TeaThe five categories of tea are:1. White2. Green3. Oolong4. Black5. Pu-ErhCeylonThe former name for the island nation of Sri Lanka. Tea from Sri Lanka is still this day calledCeylon tea.ChaThe Chinese word for tea.Chinese Tea Ceremony (refer to Gong Fu Tea Ceremony)Clipper ShipThe invention of this ship significantly reduced travel time between China and Europe and resultedin lowering the cost of tea. Although tea remained expensive, it was now affordable to the middleclass.CongouA general term used to describe all black teas from China.DarjeelingGrown in India in the foothills of the Himalyas, Darjeelings are among the rarest and mostprestigious of black teas. Sometimes called "the Champagne of Black Tea," Darjeelings are pickedbetween April and October.□ First Flush Darjeeling: These are springtime teas, harvested from late February to mid-April. The tea leaves appear to be partially green. The tea has a delicate flavor of a young Muscat. A lovely, afternoon tea. The Cultured Cup carries the following First Flush Darjeeling:  Jungpana Estate  North Tukvar Estate  Tumsong Estate□ Second Flush Darjeeling: Harvested in May and June, these are more full-bodied teas than the First Flush. The leaves have little if any green leaves. The flavor is bright, full, with a fruity note. A wonderful afternoon tea. The Cultured Cup carries the following Second Flush Darjeelings:  Castleton Estate  Goomtee Estate  Himalaya  Princeton Estate  Queen Victoria (Blend)WEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 2 of 10
  3. 3. □ Third Flush Darjeeling: Harvested in September and October, these leaves are larger, thicker and are darker brown compared with the Second Flush. The flavor is full, but less astringent compared to First and Second Flush Darjeelings.Empereur Chen NungThe Chinese Emperor, who according to Chinese tea lore, is credited with the discovery of tea in2737 BC. Although scholars can not confirm the accuracy of this important event, many tea teacherstell the charming story of the emperor experimenting with tea leaves in a boiling pot of water. TheCultured Cup carries a lapsang souchong tea that is named in honor of Emperor Chen Nung.English BreakfastA name used for a full-bodied estate tea or blend of black teas in which a China black tea flavor ispredominate. An English Breakfast tea could contain an Assam, Ceylon, Keemun and others. Thereis no specific recipe for an English Breakfast tea. English Breakfast teas in general have a full-bodiedflavor and work well with milk and sugar.The Cultured Cup has the following English Breakfast type teas:□ Assam Jamirah Estate□ Assam Sankar Estate□ Assam Tara Estate□ Ceylon Uva Highlands□ English Breakfast□ French Breakfast□ Sultane, Ceylon BlendEstateAn estate is a property that may include more than one tea garden under the same management orownership.FermentationA processing stage in the production of Pu-Erh tea. When this tea is subjected to a moistenvironment, fungi and bacteria heat the tea leaves and create a unique flavor profile. After years ofaging, the tea becomes darker, richer and yet very smooth. Oxidation is often confused withFermentation, but is a different process within tea production. When you cut into an apple oxidationautomatically occurs - the white flesh begins to turn brown. This occurs when the cell walls of theapple are broken and the enzymes within the cell turn brown because they are exposed to oxygen inthe air. Pu-Erh is the only tea that is processed with Fermentation and Oxidation.First FlushYoung tea leaf shoots harvested from an early, Spring picking.The Cultured Cup carries the following First Flush Black Teas:□ Darjeeling, Jungpana Estate□ Darjeeling North Tukvar Estate□ Darjeeling, Tumsong Estate□ Birthday Tea, Darjeeling with spices□ Imperial Earl Grey, Darjeeling with oil of BergamotFlushThe goal of tea cultivation is the harvest. For tea, this means picking the new leaves, or flush. Teapickers must pick the same size leaves so that the leaves will wither and dry uniformly. The qualityof the tea depends on the planters decision to pick a larger amount of ordinary tea leaves, or a smallWEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 3 of 10
  4. 4. amount of good to fine tea. For an ordinary tea, the picker would pick the two smallest leaves and thebud. For a fine tea, the picker would pick the bud and the next youngest leaf. If a picker picks thebud, the first two leaves and the leaf below them, this is known as a coarse picking and a low qualitytea results.In countries where there is no cold season, tea flushes all year round. In general, the best quality teasare high grown and the first and second flushes in these countries are usually fine picked.FormosaThe former name for the island nation of Taiwan. Even today, tea from Taiwan is often calledFormosa tea.FujianA mountainous province located in the South-Eastern corner of China and known as the birthplaceof oolong teas. Having a sub-tropical climate and bordering the South & East China seas, Fujian isfamous for the following oolong teas: Da Hong Pao (big red robe), Tie Luo Han (iron warrior monk),Bai Ji Guan (white cockscomb), shui jin Gui (golden water turtle), Ti-Guan Yin (iron goddess ofmercy), Monkey-Picked Tie Guan Yin, and Shui Xian (water sprite).Gong Fu Tea CeremonyThe Chinese Gong Fu tea preparation involves using a superior grade of oolong tea and followingspecific steps for processing the tea. The Cultured Cup regularly conducts classes in this method andwe have provided the steps for the Gong Fu method in our How to Brew Tea Section. To see theseprocedures, click Gong Fu. This method creates a distinct bouquet and flavor, which is not present inthe more traditional Western method of brewing Oolong Tea. In preparation for this class,The following teas would be perfect for this tea preparation method:□ Oolong, Tung Ting Jade□ Oolong, Golden MountainGrading of Black TeaAfter black tea is fired, processed and dried in the factory, the black tea becomes brittle and manydifferent sized pieces of tea remain. Large, medium and small unbroken leafs are mixed with brokenpieces of many different sizes. The tea is graded or sorted into different sizes of both whole leaf teaand broken leaf tea. These sizes will range from very large whole leaf to tiny broken pieces of leafcalled dust. If tea is not graded or sized, the various sized leaves and pieces of leaves would releasetheir flavors at different amounts of time, resulting in one pot of tea tasting different from the next.Graded tea leaves (the same size) ensure that the taste of the tea is the same from pot to pot.Why is it important to know about the grading of tea? Knowing the size of the leaf enables you tobetter judge the steeping time for a specific tea. For example, if you know that a tea is a BOPF(Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings) grade, you know that the tea contains very small pieces of the leaf.Remember, the larger the tea leaf, the longer you must steep the tea, the smaller the leaf, the moresurface area is exposed to water and the more quickly it steeps.When steeping tea bags, read the box or tin to find out what grade of tea is used. If no gradinginformation is provided, feel the tea bag. If the tea in the bag feels finely compressed, the tea bagcontains dust. In most instances, tea bags contain tea dust, which is the very smallest grade of tea.Tea dust is not necessarily bad tea, but dust should be steeped no longer than 30 seconds to 45seconds. Otherwise, too much tannin will be extracted and your tea will be bitter. If the tea bag youare using contains a broken or whole leaf tea grade, for example, the tea bags from Mariage Frères,WEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 4 of 10
  5. 5. steep the tea bag for the same amount of time you would steep the equivalent bulk tea.I. Whole Leaf Teas a. FOP (Flowery Orange Pekoe) This tea is made from the end bud and first leaf of each shoot. FOP contains fine tender young leaves rolled with the tip. Orange Pekoe with an abundance of tips and finer quality The Cultured Cup carries the following FOP teas: i. Assam, Tara b. SFTGFOP1 (Special, Finest, Tippy Golden, Flowery Orange,Pekoe) This is the very best F.O.P. A number 1 is also added to denote the best quality from an estate. The Cultured Cup carries the following SFTGFOP1: i. Castleton Estate, Second Flush Darjeeling c. FTGFOP (Finest, Tippy, Golden, Flowery, Orange, Pekoe) This is an exceptionally high quality FOP. The Cultured Cup carries the following FTGFOP: i. Assam, Napuk - this tea has the numeral 1 added at the end of the grade, which signifies that this is the best tea from this particular estate. ii. Queen Victoria Blend, Darjeeling -this tea has the numeral 1 added at the end of the grade, which signifies that this is the best tea from this particular estate. iii. Tumsong, Darjeeling First Flush - this tea has the numeral 1 added at the end of the grade, which signifies that this is the best tea from this particular estate. d. TGFOP (Tippy, Golden, Flowery, Orange,Pekoe) This is FOP with a large proportion of golden tips. e. GFOP (Golden, Flowery, Orange, Pekoe) This is FOP with golden tips, the very ends of the golden yellow buds. f. OP (Orange Pekoe) The largest size leaf grade with long, pointed leaves. OP are harvested when the end buds open into a leaf. It has fewer tips than FOP because it is picked later in the season. The Cultured Cup carries the following OP1: i. Pettiagala Estate, Ceylon g. P (Pekoe) Pronounced peck-ho, not peek-ho Derived from a Chinese dialect meaning "white down," a reference to the downy tips of the young tea buds. These leaves consist of shorter, less fine leaves than OP. h. FP (Flowery Pekoe) The leaves for Flowery Pekoe are rolled into balls. i. PS (Pekoe Souchong) Pekoe Souchong conists of shorter, coarser leaves than Pekoe. j. S (Souchong) Large tea leaves rolled lengthwise, producing coarse, ragged pieces. These leaves are commonly used for Chinese smoked teas, such as Lapsang Souchong. The Cultured Cup carries the following souchong: i. Empereur Chen NungII. Broken Teas:WEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 5 of 10
  6. 6. a. BOP (Broken Orange Pekoe) Black tea consisting of smaller leaves and broken segments with some tips. The Cultured Cup carries the following BOP: i. Assam, Sankar b. BP (Broken Pekoe) Full-bodied black tea consisting of broken segments with coarse leaves without tips. c. Fannings Fannings are made up of small grainy particles of tea leaves. They produce a liquor that is often as good as that of a whole leaf tea. d. BOPF (Broken, Orange Pekoe, Fannings) The Cultured Cup carries the following BOPF: i. Ceylon, Uva Highlands e. Dust The smallest particles of tea leaves. Dust is usually used in Tea Bags.Grading of Green TeaGreen tea is graded according to the age and style of the leaf when picked. For example, when justthe end bud and next leaf is picked, this would be a description of the grade of this green tea. If a budand the two next leaves are picked, this would be another grade of tea.Grading of Oolong TeaOolong is graded on an 18-point scale from standard quality to choice.Green TeaUnlike white tea, green tea is made from tea leaves, but similar to white tea, greentea contains Vitamin C, high levels of anti-oxidants and is not oxidized. If brewedcorrectly, green tea contains half the caffeine compared to a cup of black coffee.Most green tea comes from China or Japan. There are two styles of processinggreen tea:□ Chinese Processing: After a short withering process when the leaves release some of their moisture, the leaves are carefully heated in a wok to prevent oxidation from occurring. Leaves produced in this manner have a greenish- grey or greenish-brown color. Some wok fired green teas almost appear to be black!□ Japanese Processing: After the leaves are withered, Japanese green teas are steamed for a short time. The leaves retain their vivid green color and the resulting tea liquor is yellowish-green and very vegetal in flavor.GuangdongLocated Southwest from Fujian Province, Guangdong is equally famous for its oolong teas. Themost famous oolongs are from Feng Huang Shan (Phoenix Mountain). Locally known as FengHuang Dan Cong, this tea has a woodsy character with a distinct, fruity note.GyokuraOne of the most expensive green teas in the world, Gyokura, which means precious dew and is aJapanese work of art, is carefully grown, picked and processed. When the tea bushes reach a specificgrowth stage, temporary roofs are placed over the plants to concentrate the chlorophyll in the plants.After several days the leaves assume a brilliant jade green color and the most tender tea leaves areWEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 6 of 10
  7. 7. hand picked and processed.High TeaHigh tea is different from afternoon tea in that a meat course is added to the menu. The High Teafunctions as the evening meal, while the Afternoon tea is meant as a separate snack between lunchand dinner. At The Cultured Cup, Judith Dyer, renowned afternoon tea expert, conducts classes onthe "dos and donts" of afternoon tea. For a listing of the classes available at The Cultured Cup, referto our Class Schedule.Irish Breakfast TeaThe Irish have always liked their tea strong, dark and full bodied. Similar in body to an EnglishBreakfast tea, an Irish Breakfast blend consists of rich malty Assams. Sometimes Indonesian orAfrican tea is added.The Cultured Cup carries the following Irish Breakfast Teas:□ Assam, Jamirah□ Assam, Napuk□ Assam, Sankar□ Assam, TaraJapanese Tea CeremonyA tea ritual developed in the middle ages combining a complex mixture of technique, philosophy andart. Chanoyu, popularly known as the Japanese tea ceremony, may seem to be very formalized andstereotyped, but it has a long history and has become deeply rooted in the daily life of the Japanese.Having an understanding of the tea ceremony gives Westerners a "window" into a unique culture.When the tea ceremony is properly practiced, the host and guests are removed from the pressures andtensions of the outside world and each participant finds peace and tranquility with others. TheCultured Cup regularly gives classes by renowned Japanese tea instructor, Nabetha Soyu. To learnmore about The Cultured Cups schedule of classes, refer to the Class Schedule.KeemunGrown in Anhui Province, Keemun is considered one of the finest black teas grown in China. Thetaste is rich, full bodied, with smoky overtones. Excellent with spicy food.The Cultured Cup carries the following Keemun:□ Grand Keemun□ Keemun Mao Feng EstateLapsang SouchongLarge leaf black tea grown in Fujian Province. The tea leaves are smoked with burning pinebranches, which creates a smoky aroma and flavor - an acquired taste. This tea complements spicyand salted foods.The Cultured Cup carries the following Lapsang Souchong tea:□ Empereur Chen NungLu YuPublished the first book about tea the Ch’ Ching (The Classic of Tea) in 780 A.D.NilgiriAlthough less well-known compared to Darjeeling and Assam, Nilgiri is another tea producingregion in India. Located in the southern section of India, Nilgiri literally means blue mountains andis a land of mountains, jungles, and rushing rivers. Known for its medium body and mild flavor,Nilgiri black teas are often used in tea blends. An unusual tea from this region is Nilgiri Frost tea,WEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 7 of 10
  8. 8. which can be produced only at the highest elevations when a rare frost appears.OolongAn Oolong tea is also called a semi-oxidized tea because it undergoes only an abbreviated stage ofoxidation. Sometimes called "the champagne of teas," Oolongs name is derived from the Chineseword wu-lung, which means "black dragon." Its taste and color are halfway between green tea andblack tea. The processing of Oolong can be the most complex of any category of tea and a carefullyprocessed oolong tea can cost thousands of dollars for several pounds of tea!The Cultured Cup carries the following Oolong Teas:□ Golden Xuan Mountain□ Oolong Grand Fancy□ Tung Ting□ Tung Ting JadeOrange (as in Orange Pekoe)"Orange" refers to the House of Orange, which was the royal Dutch family that had holdingsthroughout Asia because of the East Indies Trading Company.OxidationA term often confused with fermentation. Oxidation should not be used interchangeably withfermentation. Oxidation occurs when an apple is cut and the white flesh turns brown. Relating to theprocessing of tea, oxidation is the process that occurs in oolong, black and pu-erh tea after the leaveshave been rolled and the green leaves begin turning brown. Oxidation does not occur in white andgreen tea production. In contrast, fermentation occurs only in the processing of pu-erh tea whenbacteria and fungi act upon tea stored in a damp environment.Pekoe ( as in Orange Pekoe)PouchongAlso called Baozhong or green oolong, this semi-oxidized tea is the least oxidized of any oolong tea.Pu-ErhThis is the most unusual of the five categories of tea. Pu-Erh is the only tea produced by oxidizationand fermentation. When this tea is subjected to a moist environment, fungi and bacteria heat the tealeaves and create a unique flavor profile of mushrooms or mild, aged cheese.There are two major methods of processing Pu-Erh: uncooked and cooked. Most experts agree theuncooked method produces the best tasting Pu-Erh. If stored correctly, uncooked Pu-Erh mellowsand darkens as it is dry aged. 40-100 yr. aged Pu-Erh bricks can cost thousands of dollars.Cooked Pu-Erh eliminates much of the processing time and produces a mellow tasting tea in a quickamount of time. However, cooked pu-erh does not age as well as the uncooked variety. Pu-Erh issold in two different forms: loose or in a brick. The Cultured Cup carries the following Pu-Erh teas:□ Pu-Erh Fleurs de Thé (flower of pu-erh tea)□ Pu-Erh ImperialRed TeaIn China black tea is often referred as red tea.Rooibus (Red Bush Tea)An herbal tisane produced from the leaf of Aspalathus linoaris, not Camellia Sinensis. Grown only inWEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 8 of 10
  9. 9. South Africa, the liquor from this herb looks and tastes much like tea and can be drunk hot or coldand with or without milk. Rooibos is 100% caffeine-free and is rich in vitamin C, mineral salts,proteins and has more anitioxidants than green tea.The Cultured Cup carries the following Rooibos tisanes:□ Thé Rouge, Bloemfontein□ Thé Rouge, Marco Polo Rouge□ Thé Rouge, Métis□ Thé Rouge, Nil Rouge□ Thé Rouge, Richmond□ Thé Rouge, Sahara□ Thé Rouge, SurabayaSecond FlushMore mature tea leaf shoots (in comparison to First Flush) harvested in late Spring through earlySummer. The Cultured Cup carries the following Second Flush teas:□ Castleton Estate, Darjeeling□ Goomtee Estate, Darjeeling□ Himalaya Blend, Darjeeling□ Queen Victoria Blend, Darjeeling□ Princeton Estate, DarjeelingSenchaA common Japanese green that literally means “steeped.” This tea is processed using the Japanesemethod of steaming the tea leaves for a short amount of time. This process results in a tea that isvery green in color and the flavor has a distinctly vegetal note. A perfect tea to pair with sushi or anydelicately prepared fish.Sullivan, ThomasInvented the teabag at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair.TanninAn astringent chemical component of tea. To reduce the amount of tannin in a cup of tea, steep thetea for a shorter amount of time.T-BarA social club, started by The Cultured Cup, and devoted to friendship and learning about the worldof tea. T-Bar meets the first Friday of every month from 6:30-8:30pm at The Cultured Cup.TeaA beverage made from either the plant Camellia Sinensis or Camellia Assamica.TheineAnother name for the caffeine contained in tea.Ti Kuan YinA famous oolong tea from the Anhui province of mainland China. This is the first oolong tea and thename means “Iron Goddess of Mercy.”TipThe leaf bud on a tea plant. A tip can be a silvery white color or an orange-colored hue. A tea withWEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 9 of 10
  10. 10. tips usually denotes quality. Teas with white or golden tips are referred to as "tippy teas." Tippyindicates high quality in terms of manufacturing.TisaneThe French word for an herbal infusion. This term is used for a plant that is not camellia sinensis, butis used to make a beverage. Also, called an herbal infusion.The Cultured Cup carries the following Tisanes:□ Thé Rouge, Bloemfontein□ Thé Rouge, Marco Polo Rouge□ Thé Rouge, Métis□ Thé Nil Rouge□ Thé Rouge, Richmond□ Thé Rouge, Sahara□ Thé Rouge, SurabayaWineyA description for a Chinese Keemun tea that has been kept for about a year before selling. Aging aKeemun creates a mellower, malty taste.The Cultured Cup carries the following Winey Keemun:□ Keemun, GrandWhite TeaA white is composed of either pure tea leaf buds (Yin Zhen) or a combination of leaf buds and leaves(Pai Mu Tan). Unlike the green, oolong and black categories of tea, the white tea leaf buds andleaves are not rolled and shaped, so the enzymes remain intact within the cell walls. Scientistsbelieve this lack of processing results in white tea having the highest levels of anti-oxidants of anycategory of tea! The leaf buds and leaves are dried and heated. The Cultured Cup carries thefollowing white teas:□ China White□ Pai Mu Tan (white peony)□ Yin Zhen (silver needles)WEB-TeaTerms.doc Page 10 of 10