Unit 3 of_africa_polysci__econ_-_reg.

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Unit 3 of_africa_polysci__econ_-_reg.

  1. 1. Health, Government, & Economics
  2. 2. <ul><li>Famine , AIDS , and malaria are among Africa’s biggest health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa is a large continent with many countries and 800 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also the poorest continent in the world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Africa had many natural resources before European colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, however, there is widespread poverty throughout Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Many health problems are caused or made worse by poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty creates poor living conditions, such as lack of clean water or food. </li></ul><ul><li>People living in poor conditions often get sick. </li></ul><ul><li>They may live in crowded areas that are dirty. </li></ul><ul><li>They may not have doctors or medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>People living in poverty may not have the education to know how to stop the spread of disease. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Famine occurs when a region does not have enough food for a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>People who are starving can die from malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Famines are both human-made and natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought, or lack of rain, makes food scarce because crops die. </li></ul><ul><li>Human forces, like wars, can also cause food shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>People in a region can be without food because its cost is too high. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these factors have led to famines in Africa. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Famines in Africa today are the result of poor food distribution and poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>There is enough food on Earth for everyone to eat well. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many people live where they cannot grow food. </li></ul><ul><li>People also live where food cannot be easily transported. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Many famines have taken place in the Horn of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Horn of Africa is a large peninsula in the northeast region of the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Famines in this region include the Ethiopian Famine of the mid-1980s, which is estimated to have killed over one million people. </li></ul><ul><li>This famine was made worse by high food prices and overpopulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Niger, southern Sudan, Somalia, and Zimbabwe are areas with emergency famine status. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s greatest humanitarian crisis is in Darfur, in western Sudan. </li></ul><ul><li>A humanitarian crisis is one in which many human lives are at risk in a region. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Malaria is a tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, more than one million people die from malaria. </li></ul><ul><li>Children in Sub-Saharan Africa are most at risk of death from the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, malaria is the leading cause of death in children under five in Uganda. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no vaccine against malaria. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are ways to reduce the spread of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides and mosquito nets can drastically lower the number of infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-malaria drugs can also help, but they are very expensive </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Unfortunately, many of the regions where the risk of malaria is highest are also poor. </li></ul><ul><li>People in these areas cannot afford to buy mosquito nets or insecticides to kill mosquitoes. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the World Health Organization, malaria is a disease that is caused by poverty, and it’s a disease that also can lead to poverty. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most severe health crisis in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered a pandemic, a widespread epidemic. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS attacks and destroys the body’s power to fight illness. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS is spread through bodily fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa has the highest rates of HIV infection is the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Seventeen million people have died from AIDS on the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Over two-thirds of all HIV infections in the world are in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>One-third of all AIDS deaths in the world in 2005 occurred in Africa. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>AIDS/HIV is a major threat to the people of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of AIDS lowers the life expectancy of entire populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy is a measure of how long people expect to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12 million African children have been orphaned by AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>There are drugs that slow down the progress of HIV infection to AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there is no cure for AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Education and prevention are the most important tools for fighting AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa needs more money to pay f or education and prevention programs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Heath issues in Africa are made worse by unstable politics. </li></ul><ul><li>In turn, unstable politics contribute to poverty. High death rates due to health crises weaken economies. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, the issues of heath, economics, and politics are intertwined. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>A nation’s type of government refers to how that state’s executive, legislative, and judicial organs are organized. </li></ul><ul><li>All nations need some sort of government to avoid anarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic governments are those that permit the nation’s citizens to manage their government either directly or through elected representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>This is opposed to authoritarian governments that limit or prohibit the direct participation of its citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most popular types of democratic governments are the presidential and parliamentary systems. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>a theory advocating elimination of private property. </li></ul><ul><li>  a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a one party system in which all political power rest with the party (i.e. China). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theocracy A form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. Often religious institutional representatives (i.e.: a church), replaces or is mixed into the civilian government. Can be an Oligarchy, Representative Democracy, and even a Monarchy.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Unitary government system – the central government holds nearly all of the power. </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments such as state or county systems may have some power at certain times, but they are basically under the control of the central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Central government has the power to change the way state or county governments operate or abolish them altogether. </li></ul><ul><li>Some unitary governments have elected officials who, once elected, may make and enforce laws without taking the opinions of those at lower levels of government into consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>In a monarchy (area ruled by a king or emperor), the ruler and his advisors make most of the decisions – this is an example of a unitary government </li></ul><ul><li>Most African countries have Unitary governments </li></ul><ul><li>Other African countries have kings but most of them are kings of particular tribes or ethnic groups and do not play a major role in the day to day government of the countries </li></ul>Blue Countries are Unitary
  16. 16. <ul><li>Federal government system – a political system in which power is shared among different levels of government. </li></ul><ul><li>The states have some powers that the federal government does not have such as the right to collect property taxes and determine sales taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>The national government (or central government) also has some powers that the state does not, such as the right to declare war and make treaties with foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle East, Israel is an example of a Federal government </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A confederation government system is one in which the local governments hold all of the power and the central government depends on the local governments for its existence </li></ul><ul><li>The central government has only as much power as the local governments are willing to give </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations is a good example of a confederation </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations can only offer advice and assistance when the member nations agree to cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>This organization is a regional group organized to help the member countries cooperate on economic matters, encourage cultural exchanges, and to help keep peace and stability in the regi on </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>An autocratic government is one in which the ruler has absolute power to do whatever he wishes and make and enforce whatever laws he chooses </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who live under autocratic governments do not have any rights to choose leaders or vote on which laws are made and put into practice </li></ul><ul><li>Some autocratic governments may allow the people rights in certain areas like managing local affairs, but the central governments keeps control of all the most important aspects of the country’s life </li></ul><ul><li>People usually have little or no power to use against the government if they disagree with decisions that government or ruler has made </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>An oligarchy means “government by the few.” </li></ul><ul><li>In this form of government, a political party or other small group takes over a government and makes all of the major decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the country have little choice but to go along with the decisions they make </li></ul><ul><li>This sort of government can be very similar to an autocratic government. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>In a democratic government system , the people play a much greater role in decided who the rulers are and what decisions are made </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy comes from the Greek word “demos,” which means “people.” </li></ul><ul><li>In this form of government, a great deal of power is left in the hands of the people </li></ul><ul><li>People who live in a democracy generally recognize that there must be some rules to organize society, but the goal is to leave as much individual freedom as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are often made by a majority of votes, but there are also laws in place to protect individual rights. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>In a parliamentary form of democratic government, the people vote for those who represent the political party they feel best represents their views of how the government should operate. </li></ul><ul><li>The legislature they elect, parliament , makes and carries out (enforces) the laws for the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader of a parliamentary form of government is usually chosen by the party that winds the majority of representatives in the legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>This leader is often called a prime minister or premier and is recognized as the head of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The prime minister leads the executive branch of the government and must answer directly to the legislature for the actions and policies recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>In many parliamentary governments, a head of state (president or king/queen) serves as ceremonial leader </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The actual work of the parliament is led by the prime minister, who represents the leading political party in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she rules with the help of a cabinet , or group of advisors. </li></ul><ul><li>A prime minister may be voted out of office if the party he or she leads lose power </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>A presidential form of democratic government has a president, or chief executive, that is chosen separately from the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>The legislature passes the laws, and it is the duty of the president to see that the laws are enforced </li></ul><ul><li>The president holed power separately from the legislature, but he does not have the power to dismiss the legislature or force them to make particular laws </li></ul><ul><li>The president is the official head of the government </li></ul><ul><li>The legislature does not have the power to dismiss the president, except in extreme cases when the president has broken a law </li></ul><ul><li>The president is BOTH the lead of state and the head of the government </li></ul>
  24. 24. Absolute Monarchy One-person rule. King or Queen has total control. Often thought as a divine right to rule that is passed from generation to generation. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. People may be united in their loyalty to a monarch since there is no competition for trust and affection. 2. In an emergency, a monarch can move quickly to take action. No time is lost in debate or discussion . 1 . People are often given no individual liberties or civil rights. 2. A monarch’s policies suit his/her own needs. Needs of the people may be neglected. 3. Decision making has a narrow base - can be flawed, wrong, dangerous. No one was willing to tell the emperor what they think of his new clothes…
  25. 25. Direct Democracy Government in which all citizens have equal power in decision making. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Every citizen has equal power in matters of government. Every citizen is involved in the decision making. 2. Since all citizens are involved in decision making, there is a broad base of support and loyalty. 3 . Individual liberties are protected. 1. Only works when a small number of people are involved. Ability to gather all citizens in one place is necessary. 2. Decision making involving all citizens is time-consuming. All citizens give in-put, debate, etc...
  26. 26. REPUBLIC/ Representative Democracy Government in which people elect representatives who hold the decision making power. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1 . Citizens are involved in decision making through their representatives, lobbying, and voting. 2. Representatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs of their constituents . 3 . More likely that all elements of the population are represented . 4. Generally, reps are educated and more-capable citizens who can devote time needed to solve complex problems. 1 . Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please everyone may cripple system. 2. Representatives may not always agree with those they represent. 3. Lack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.
  27. 27. Constitutional Monarchy A government with a written plan, or constitution, that includes a monarch as a ceremonial leader and a parliament or other legislature to make the laws. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Citizens are involved in decision making through their representatives, lobbying, and voting. 2. Representatives are aware their job depends on meeting the needs of their constituents. 3. More likely that all elements of the population are represented. 4. Monarch has almost celebrity status with the people. Are not held responsible for unpopular decisions, yet can help form public opinion 1 . Decision making is time consuming. Desire of representatives to please everyone may cripple system. 2. Representatives may not always agree with those they represent. 3. Lack of involved citizenry may allow special interest groups to influence or dominate representatives.
  28. 28. African Government Chart Country Kenya South Africa Sudan Type of Government Republic, with one-house legislature called the National Assembly Republic, with a two-house National Assembly A government of national unity was formed with a National Legislature. However, in reality, it is a one party dictatorship Head of State President is elected by the people President is elected by the National Assembly President and Head of State lead the National Congress Party Who Can Vote All citizens 18 years of age or older All citizens 18 years of age or older All citizens 17 years of age or older Freedoms for Citizens Freedoms are written into the constitution but government is dominated by the president. There have been improvements in citizen rights in recent years Personal freedoms are numerous. Apartheid has ended. Literacy rates are high Citizens of Sudan have few real constitutional freedoms unless they are associated with the National Congress Party. Most government positions are appointed Year of Independence Kenya became independent from Great Britain in 1963 South Africa became independent from Great Britain in 1910. The racially segregated government was ended in 1994, when majority rule was established Sudan became independent from Great Britain in 1956
  29. 29. <ul><li>Africa is the most politically unstable continent in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited natural resources, ethnic differences, and weak governments cause much conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Four key factors fuel conflicts and civil wars in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>One is the fact that many African nations are poor. </li></ul><ul><li>The more poverty exists in a country, the more citizens are dissatisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread unhappiness leads to political instability. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, Africa’s population continues to grow at a rapid rate. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Population growth stretches Africa’s scarce economic resources even thinner, creating more discontent. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, Africa’s dependence on precious natural resources makes control of these resources a key to power and survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Such conditions often erupt into violence and bloodshed. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Africa is home to many different ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Often referred to as “tribes,” Africans of different background and cultures found themselves grouped together as a result of colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, these groups often mistrust one another and end up fighting as they try to co-exist within independent African nations. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Civil wars destroy land, homes, crops, and lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, they involve ethnic fighting between tribes with long-standing rivalries. </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees wind up homeless, starving and contributing to the overpopulation of neighboring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, not only do civil wars contribute to political instability, they also keep Africa locked in poverty. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>For example, one of the more serious armed conflicts in the region is the Democratic Republic of the Congo. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 200 ethnic groups with distinct languages there. </li></ul><ul><li>These groups are often engaged in wars with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>A war involving nine African nations raged from 1998 to 2002 in the DRC. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked by the fall of the state of Zaire and Mobuto Sese Seko, fighters waged war for control of the country’s rich supplies of minerals, diamonds, and timber. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>The war directly affected the lives of 50 million Congolese. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost four million people died in the DRC, mostly due to starvation and disease as a result of the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions have become displaced within the country. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, a truce was declared, but many armed groups have not yet disarmed. </li></ul><ul><li>This fact means that future conflict is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In the eastern part of DRC, armed groups funded by the neighboring country of Uganda were violent until 2004. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>An economic system is what a country uses to sort out the sharing and control of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Different systems provide different answers for questions like: what is produced, who should produce it, and who gets what is produced. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>A traditional economy is an economic system based on traditions, routines, and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, a traditional product is made and sole or traded at open markets. </li></ul><ul><li>The benefit is that the people in the system are closely involved in its operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Different roles in a traditional economy are passed down through family members. This system is still used today by some tribes in Africa. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>A command economy is a system based on central control of trade and production. </li></ul><ul><li>A government decided what goods and services are given to its people. </li></ul><ul><li>It may even limit what jobs people can hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure command economies are now found only in politically isolated countries such as Cuba and North Korea. </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>A market economy is a system that is managed by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also known as a free market system, or capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Market economies are based on supply and demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses control how much they produce, and people control how much they consume. </li></ul><ul><li>A balance between what businesses want to produce and what people want to consume is the hallmark of a market economy (supply and demand). </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>An entrepreneur is a person who takes the risk of organizing and running a new business. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs are a common feature of market economies. </li></ul><ul><li>Their work is important to an economy’s growth. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often leaders that create a good or service no one else has. </li></ul><ul><li>This works creates a new market and helps the economy. </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>A mixed economy is based on a mixture of state and private ownership and control. </li></ul><ul><li>Few nations have pure economic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries have a mix of command and market economies. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a range in trade and industry freedoms in these countries. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa and Nigeria are examples of countries with mixed economies. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Human capital is the value of people’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>A skilled worker is valuable to businesses and the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing education, training, and healthcare to a worker is an investment in human capital. </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Investing in human capital is important to financial growth. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, machines on a farm must be maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>They need things like fuel and regular repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing training, education, and medicine to workers is just as important. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps the business make money if its workers are skilled and healthy. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Any goods that are used to produce other goods are capital goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Buying things that help a business to make money is investing in capital goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital goods include machinery or even factories. </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>When a country is poor, unstable, or troubled by disease, investment in capital slows. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa is a growing economy, but its growth has been slowed by the AIDS pandemic. </li></ul><ul><li>About 13% of South Africans are HIV positive. </li></ul><ul><li>As South Africans spend money to maintain their health, less money is available for business investment. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Kenya had a boost in investment after it gained independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, however, government corruption has slowed economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>People from other countries are less likely to invest in a region when they cannot guarantee that corruption will not result in lousing money they have invested. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Not ever country can produce all of the goods and services it needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, countries specialize in producing those goods and services they can provide most efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>They look for others who may need those goods and services so they can sell their products. </li></ul><ul><li>Money earned allows the purchase of goods and services the first country is unable to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>In international trade no country can be completely self-sufficient (produce all the goods and services it needs). </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization in those products a country makes best and that are in demand on the world market creates a way to earn money to buy items that cannot be made locally </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Most of the countries in Africa today are trying to find the products they can produce. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa has rich deposits of gold, diamonds, and platinum. </li></ul><ul><li>These are goods needed by other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria has rich oil deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>The US gets almost 15 percent of its imported oil from Nigeria. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many possibilities for profitable specialization among African countries. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Uganda has an excellent history of producing high quality cotton. </li></ul><ul><li>Neighboring Kenya is working to build a good system of textile manufacturing plants. </li></ul><ul><li>If the two countries could do more planning, Uganda's specialization in producing cotton could supply Kenya’s specialization in the manufacture of cotton cloth. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>The natural resources of a country can affect economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>A country’s economy benefits from trade with other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>With a resource as valuable as oil, Nigeria has focused on developing resources instead of other, such as farms. </li></ul><ul><li>This decision has left many Nigerian farmers poor. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Climate is another natural feature that can affect an economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought is a common problem in African countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy of Chad, for instance, is based on farming. </li></ul><ul><li>A whole year’s harvest there may be ruined by dry weather. </li></ul><ul><li>This fact leaves Chad’s financial system weak because a simple change in weather can affect its whole economy. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Although there is tremendous poverty throughout Africa, some nations in that continent possess riches in deposits of gold, diamonds, uranium and oil. </li></ul><ul><li>These products are valued extremely high in the world market. </li></ul><ul><li>However, these natural resources are not distributed evenly among African countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, not all of the countries have a healthy economy. </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, the riches have been stolen or used to purchase weapons to fund civil war. </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Uranium is an element that is an essential part of nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>For that reason, there has been a brisk undercover trade in uranium between the countries producing this element and other nations who wish to build nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium also has many peaceful uses as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium is used as a fuel component in nuclear power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be used in a process to determine the age of artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa currently supplies about 20 percent of the world’s uranium. </li></ul><ul><li>The world watches uranium purchases closely to keep track of where it is going and how it is used. </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>Some researchers estimate that about 30 percent of the newly discovered oil deposits in the world today are going to come from Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the known reserves are in African countries along the Mediterranean coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil reserves should guarantee a country economical prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this has not been the case in Sub-Saharan Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Profits from oil sales often go into the pockets of corrupt politicians and businessmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria is one of the fastest growing countries in Africa, and revenue from oil sales could do a lot to make the lives of ordinary Nigerians more comfortable – but it has not </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>The discovery of gold and diamonds in Africa has been a mixed blessing. </li></ul><ul><li>In some areas, the wealth from diamond mining has been used for the good of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa’s diamond business is dominated by the DeBeers Company. </li></ul><ul><li>This industrial giant realizes that political stability is good for business, so the South African diamond trade is well regulated and the country enjoys benefits from their riches. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, there is still a great deal of poverty in South Africa, but that country has not had the problems of others with diamond wealth. </li></ul>
  53. 55. <ul><li>In some African countries, diamond wealth has led to chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>Stolen or smuggled diamonds have been sold on the world market to provide money for weapons for soldiers in a number of different wars and civil conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>This trade in what are called “conflict diamonds or blood diamonds” (diamonds that are mined and then put on the market to fund armed conflict) has been a major provider of the money needed for arms and ammunition to keep the fighting between rebel’s and the government going for years. </li></ul><ul><li>This has mainly happened in the civil wars of Sierra Leone and Liberia. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa is believed to have approximately 40 percent of the world’s gold. </li></ul><ul><li>The South African government has been able to use much of the gold profit to improve the country and help its people. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of those who work in the gold mines have difficult working conditions with unsafe conditions and low pay. </li></ul>
  54. 56. <ul><li>Africa is a continent with many different physical features, such as the Sahara Desert and rain forest. </li></ul><ul><li>These natural traits may prevent trade with other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>A trade barrier is anything that makes trade more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sahara and the rainforest are cases of natural trade barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving goods across these areas is difficult. </li></ul>
  55. 57. <ul><li>Egypt and West Africa are wealthy regions of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt has been a hub for trade for tens of thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>West African countries have access to the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>South of the Sahara, the thick forest and desert make trade difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature isolates central and southern Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Not until the introduction of the camel to the region in the 10 th century did crossing safely through the desert become possible. </li></ul>
  56. 58. <ul><li>From the 8 th century to the 16 th century, routes across the desert to the Mediterranean countries were a major source of trade for Africans. </li></ul><ul><li>This trans-Saharan trade was characterized by the exchange of gold for slat. </li></ul><ul><li>When Europeans began trading with Africa, trans-Saharan trade dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans began to use water routes for trade, which was easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Some trans-Saharan trade still goes on today. </li></ul><ul><li>Water routes are now the main source of trade in the region. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Area of Comparison South Africa Nigeria Type of economy A technologically advanced market economy with some government control; one of the strongest economies in the region Poorly organized economy after a long period of military dictatorship and corruption; now trying to reorganize with more private enterprise allowed; want to be able to take advantage of strong world oil market Goods produced Mining (platinum, diamonds, and gold), automobile assembly, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer Oil and petrochemicals are the primary market goods; Nigeria once exported food and other agricultural products but now must import them Leading Exports Gold, diamonds, platinum, machinery Oil and petrochemical products GDP per capita $9,800 $2,000 Labor Force Agriculture – 9%, Industry – 26% Services – 65% Agricultural – 17% , Industry – 52% Services – 30% Unemployment Rate 24% 4.9%
  58. 60. <ul><li>The country of Kenya currently has a national literacy rate of about 85%. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kenyan government has made improving education a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>They have started a number of government programs for building schools and eliminating fees for children who want to go to school. </li></ul><ul><li>About 85% of Kenya’s school-age children attend elementary school. </li></ul><ul><li>They number drops to 24% for high school and only 2% for college. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Education is trying to keep more children in school by offering vocational and technical education. </li></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>Unfortunately, the Kenyan literacy rate of 85% does not show the gap that exists between boys and girls in Kenya. </li></ul><ul><li>The literacy rate for boys is about 91%, while for girls it is only 79%. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy and school attendance are much higher for boys and girls in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The attendance rate drops for all children living in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>However, for girls the numbers are much worse than for boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers still have to work to get many rural families to see the importance of education for girls. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional view is that boys need education to get better jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls only need to prepare for marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Early marriages are very common in rural parts of the country, and a marriage brings a dowry to the bride’s family. </li></ul><ul><li>A dowry is money or gifts the groom and his family gives to the bride and her parents as a wedding present. </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>Sudan has not made quite the progress in education that one sees in Kenya. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan has been involved in a civil war for most of its independence that just ended a few years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>As that war ended the genocide in Darfur began. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan has a national literacy rate of about 61%, and a wide gap in the literacy of boys and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan’s boys have a literacy rate of about 72%, while girls have only 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>The military conflict in the countryside has left many schools in ruins while children living in the cities having the best chance to get an education. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational reform was introduced in the 1990s, but emphasis was placed mainly in expanding the religious education of the students. </li></ul>
  61. 63. <ul><li>Sudanese girls face many of the same problems as girls throughout Africa who live in rural or traditional communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many parents are concerned that allowing girls to go to public schools will result in their learning bad behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>They also feel of there is money to spend on education; it should go to their sons who will have to be able to earn a living. </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters are often seen as needing only to prepare for marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>A married daughter means wealth for both families, dowry money for the bride’s family and a new house hold worker for the family of the groom. </li></ul><ul><li>Many girls who are allowed to go to school are sent to religious schools where they mainly study the Quran. </li></ul>
  62. 64. <ul><li>Trade barriers are anything that slows down or prevents one country from exchanging goods with another </li></ul><ul><li>Some trade barriers are put in place to protect local industries from lower priced goods made in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Other times trade barriers are created due to political problems between countries </li></ul><ul><li>Trade is stopped until the political issues are settled </li></ul><ul><li>A tariff is a tax placed on goods when they are brought into ( imported ) from one country to another country </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a tariff is usually to make the imported item more expensive than a similar item made locally </li></ul><ul><li>This sort of a tariff is called a protective tariff because it protect local manufacturers from competition coming from cheaper goods made in other countries </li></ul>
  63. 65. <ul><li>A quota is a different way of limiting the amount of foreign goods that can come into a country </li></ul><ul><li>A quota sets s specific amount or number of a particular product that can be imported or acquired in a given period of time </li></ul><ul><li>A third type of trade barrier is called an embargo </li></ul><ul><li>An embargo is when one country announces that it will no longer trade with another country in order to isolate the country and cause problems with that country’s economy </li></ul><ul><li>Embargoes usually come about when two countries are having political disputes </li></ul><ul><li>One example of an embargo involves South Africa and apartheid. </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries in the UN thought apartheid was wrong </li></ul><ul><li>They decided to stop selling weapons to South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The embargo lasted many years. More products and money were kept from South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1990s, South Africa officially dropped its apartheid system and the nations of the world began trading with South Africa again. </li></ul>
  64. 66. <ul><li>Every country has a different kind of currency, or monetary system. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of African money are the Egyptian pound , the South African rand , the Nigerian naira , and Chad’s franc . </li></ul>
  65. 67. <ul><li>An exchange rate is the price that one country’s currency has compared to another country’s currency. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, one US dollar is worth over one hundred Nigerian naira. </li></ul><ul><li>Without an exchange rate, global trade would be impossible to conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange rates change daily. </li></ul><ul><li>The changes are based on factors like government stability and the strength of a country’s market. </li></ul>

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