Australian War propaganda poster: Germans taking over the world. Title: “Once a German, Always a German.” 1918
Nationalism ww iand ii
Modern Europe Emerges… Industrial Revolution,World War I, and World War II Notes
Age of Imperialism During the late 1800s, European nations took over other countries and turned them into colonies (“Imperialism”) European nations colonized other countries to get more money and raw materials. European nations took over Africa, Southeast Asia, and many South Pacific Islands. Struggles among these nations eventually bring disaster to Europe.
Nationalism By the 1900s, many people in Europe took great pride in their countries. This strong sense of “nationalism” was one of the causes of World War I and II. – Destructive nationalism caused nations to harm one another in the struggle to get ahead. Also, it prevents nations from working together.
Alliances During the early 1900s, European nations feared one another—afraid others would invade/take over their land To protect themselves, they created “alliances” (partnerships) where they agreed to protect each other if someone else attacks them.
Two Major Alliances During World War I (1914)Germany Great BritainAustria-Hungary FranceItaly Russia
World War I The spark to start a war: – June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. – Fighting: • Lasted 4 years • The Industrial Revolution helped in new types of Warfare – Machine guns, tanks, airplanes and poison gas. • 21 million people died.
World War I… End of the War: – September 1918: Allies were able to push Germans out of occupied territory. – A new map of Europe was created – Germany was forced to pay for cities destroyed throughout Europe. – Millions were homeless, this war created a worldwide depression. – War changed how people looked at the world. – US President Wilson created a fourteen point plan that called for a League of Nations, which would help with peace throughout the world.
World War II… Beginnings of War: – After WWI there was a worldwide depression. Tensions arose between countries.
Two Major Alliances During World War II (1939) Axis Powers Allied PowersGermany Great BritainJapan United StatesItaly Russia
Axis Powers– Germany • Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. • 1936 began invading European countries. • 1939 marked the start of WWII. • Nazism: belief and practice of Nazi’s. Superior race.– Italy • Benito Mussolini • Offered “A little something for everyone” to gain support. • Dreamed of Mediterranean empire. • 1940 Mussolini declared war on Great Britain and France • Fascism: a political idea that glorifies a country. Single party with a strong ruler and aggressive nationalism.– Japan • 1940 decided to expand empire to east. • December 7, 1941 attacked US troops in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Dec. 8, 1941 US declared war on Japan
Turning Points…– Stalingrad: 1942. Germany was in the Soviet Union heading toward Stalingrad. Soviets fought back and Germans surrendered in 1943.– D-Day: June 1944 in Normandy, France. Attack on Germans by US and G.B troops. It was a success.
End of World War II…– May 7, 1944 Germany surrendered.– Japan refused to surrender • Harry Truman now US president. Decided to use Atomic bomb on Japan. • August 6, 1945 Hiroshima • August 9, 1945 Nagasaki • August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered.