Republic of Kenya-
Kenya gained its independence from British in 1963
under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta.
They currently had a democratic republic with an
elected president and a one house (unicameral) law
Republic of South Africa-
Up until 1994 South Africa had an Oligarchy form of
government, in which the white leaders of the
Today, South Africa has a democratic government
made up of two different houses the National
Assembly (elected by the citizens), and the National
Council of Provinces (elected by the provincial
Government of Kenya
• Executive branch is the strongest and president serves
a 5 year term
• President is the head of state and head of government.
• Legislative : parliament, is a unicameral (one) body
called the National Assembly, or Bunge. (224 members
and 12 are appointed by president)
Rights of Citizens:
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Right to participate in political process
Government of South Africa
• Constitution ratified in 1996; splits power between the
executive and legislative and judicial branches
• Constitution also contains a Bill of Rights for South
• Executive : President
• President elected to a five year term
• President is the head of government and head of state.
• Leader of the party with the most seats in National
• Legislative: bicam e ral(two bo die s) parliam e nt.
house called the National Assembly(400 members);
house National Council of Provinces (90 officials
Unlike the Republics of Kenya and South
Africa, many countries have fallen under the
leadership of dictators since their
independence. For example…
Although Sudan is called the Republic of
Sudan, it is run by a military dictatorship.
President is Chief of state and Head of
Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress
Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement
(SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)
the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the
majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections in
Has a Constitutional Democracy
Country Kenya South Africa Sudan
Type of Government Republic, with one-house
legislature called the National
Republic, with a two-house National
A government of national
unity was formed with a
However, in reality, it is a
one party dictatorship
Head of State President is elected by the
President is elected by the National
President and Head of State
lead the National Congress
Who Can Vote All citizens 18 years of age or
All citizens 18 years of age or older All citizens 17 years of age or
Freedoms for Citizens Freedoms are written into the
constitution but government is
dominated by the president.
There have been improvements
in citizen rights in recent years
Personal freedoms are numerous.
Apartheid has ended. Literacy rates
Citizens of Sudan have few
real constitutional freedoms
unless they are associated
with the National Congress
Party. Most government
positions are appointed
Year of Independence Kenya became independent
from Great Britain in 1963
South Africa became independent
from Great Britain in 1910. The
racially segregated government was
ended in 1994, when majority rule
Sudan became independent
from Great Britain in 1956
African Government Chart
Problems with governments…
Although many countries in Africa are guided
by a democratic form of government, there is
still corruption and instability.
Kenya, for example, has a democracy- but the
citizens have very little say. Much of the decision
making process is dominated by the president
and his party.
Like Kenya, South Africa’s government is still
plagued with problems. Even with the end of the
Apartheid much of South Africa’s wealth does not
reach the black population causing poverty
among half the population.
Problems with government..
Other problems include civil wars that
have broken out in countries like Sudan
and Nigeria- causing government
Sometimes government policies hold
certain citizens back from succeeding.
Example: Sudan- Women have limited
rights and are not given proper
While Nigeria should be one of the wealthiest
countries in Africa due to its resources, it is not.
Nigeria is torn apart by civil war, corrupt
government, and an increase in population.
Nigeria has a large supply of oil- that has brought
the country money, but also corruption.
Most of the money the country makes off of oil goes to
the government- leaving the rest of the population in
South Africa is the most developed country in Africa
They have a mixed economy that leans heavily on the
market side--currency is called the Rand.
South Africa, like the U.S. relies heavily on Service
Service Industries- Banking, tourism, entertainment, retail,
Problems- South Africa’s economy is still fighting the
legacy of the Apartheid- 30% of the population is
unemployed- the majority of those people are black.
Also crime has made it harder to attract foreign investment
even with their abundant natural resources.
South Africa also has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS in
Africa- causing the country to spend more money on health
Egypt’s has a mixed economy, but the
state or public owned businesses
account for nearly 70% of Egypt's goods
or services- making it more of a
Their economy on tourism, natural
resources (oil), and agricultural goods
What is holding African
What is holding African countries
back from becoming a developed
Low Literacy Rates
Political instability since
What are ways that
countries in Africa can
Investment in Human
Investment in Capital
9 South African
together in 1980 to
help financial growth
Community of West
Created in 1975 to
raise the standard of
living and stability in