Cuban rev & zapatistas 2011


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Cuban rev & zapatistas 2011

  1. 1. Latin American Nationalism Unit 8 Notes Name: ______________________
  2. 2. Problems in Central America <ul><li>Repressive governments, social conflict, and civil wars made progress difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the wealth and power in Central America and the Caribbean in the 1900s was held by a few people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebels were fighting for changes they thought would better the poor people of Latin America’s lives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Cuban Revolution <ul><li>Cuba gained its independence from Spain in 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1900s Cuba’s wealth controlled by American companies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main companies in Cuba were sugar and mining companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dictator of Cuba until 1959 was Fulgencio Battista. </li></ul><ul><li>Fidel Castro led the revolution of 1959. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fidel Castro
  5. 5. Castro’s Government <ul><li>Castro promised democracy but instead set up a communist state. </li></ul><ul><li>Cubans who wanted to escape Castro’s rule fled to Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>US Aid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One event that led the US to stop aiding Castro was that he joined forces with the Soviet Union. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, he began taking over US owned-businesses and property in Cuba. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cuba: Bay of Pigs <ul><li>The purpose was to overthrow Castro </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was to arm Cuban exiles. Once the exiles arrived in Cuba, unhappy Cubans would join them and overthrow Castro. </li></ul><ul><li>The invasion was a disaster because Castro’s forces broke up the plan and captured the invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>No rebellion against Castro occurred. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cuba’s Declining Relationship with the US <ul><li>US Embargo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An embargo is a ban on trade with another country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US placed an embargo on Cuban goods in 1962. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a result of the embargo, poor harvests, and bad government planning, made Cuba’s economy very poor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>In October of 1962, US planes spotted secret Soviet missile bases in Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>10/22, President Kennedy announced that the Soviets had placed long-range missiles in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba and to remove US missiles from Turkey; in return Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hot line is a direct line of communication between two parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A hot line was set up between President Kennedy and the Soviet Premier so that they could contact each other more quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Limited Test Ban Treaty was agreed upon between US, USSR, and Great Britain to stop above ground testing of nuclear weapons. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Kennedy signing </li></ul><ul><li>Bill to quarantine </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba…10/23/62 </li></ul>
  11. 12. Guerilla Movements <ul><li>FARC – Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Shining Path – Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Zapatistas -- Mexico </li></ul>
  12. 13. Zapatistas (Mexico)
  13. 14. History: <ul><li>Tumultuous history plagued by racism toward indigenous population (Native Americans) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of national heroes during the Mexican Revolution of 1910 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venustiano Carranza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francisco Madero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Emiliano Zapata <ul><li>Man for whom the Zapatista movement is named </li></ul><ul><li>Poor mestizo sharecropper from Anencuilco </li></ul><ul><li>Sided with Madero’s demands for justice </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed the Plan de Ayala </li></ul>
  15. 16. Roots of the Movement <ul><li>Communists from the 1968 student revolutions moved to Chiapas </li></ul><ul><li>They were against the forced migration of the Maya into the Lancandon jungle </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1980s: first rumors of organization </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican economic crisis of the 1980s and 1990s upset the Zapatistas </li></ul><ul><li>Zapatistas were strongly against the North American Free Trade Agreement 1994 </li></ul>
  16. 17. 1994 Uprising <ul><li>January 1, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Takeover of seven cities in Chiapas </li></ul><ul><li>Denounced neoliberalism, namely against NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>Called for increased autonomy, rights, and legitimate democracy (without US interference) </li></ul><ul><li>Led by a woman, Major Ana Maria </li></ul>
  17. 18. Armed Takeover in Chiapas January 1, 1994
  18. 19. The Women <ul><li>Conditions of inequality inside and outside of indigenous communities led to involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneducated, malnourished, identity based on motherhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now many have increased sense of autonomy and positions of importance </li></ul><ul><li>Still many obstacles for true equality </li></ul>
  19. 20. Latest Developments <ul><li>Seven years after the revolt, on March 11, 2001, the Zapatistas marched to Mexico City and addressed Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the passage of an Indigenous Rights Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Closed the door on dialogue due to Congress radically changing Bill and denying certain rights </li></ul>
  20. 22. Latest Developments <ul><li>January 2003: Rose up again armed with machetes denouncing neoliberalism, ecotourism, foreign investment and plans for war with Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Have aggressively detained several foreigners in an effort to deter foreign investment </li></ul>