Cuba’s Organic
    Agriculture
Presented By: Emma Bassein and
        Nathan Douglass

            April 4, 2005
Source:http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/2003021-0121/Cuba.A2003021.1600.500m.jpg
Source:http://rapidfire.sci.gsf...
Presentation Overview
Cuban Revolution and U.S. Embargo
Economic Collapse 1989-91
Transition to Alternative Agriculture
Hi...
Brief History
Typical Latin American Monocrop
Production
Economic Dependence
Cuban Revolution shifted dependence
85% of tr...
Pre-Soviet Collapse Characteristics
Favorable trade led to rapid modernization
and mechanization
Heavy import dependence o...
Economic Contradictions

Relative Modernizations

Function as supplier of raw agricultural
commodities and minerals
Agricultural Characteristics: 1980s
State control of most cultivated land

High-input (agrochemicals, irrigation,
mechaniz...
Soviet Collapse and Crisis
53% reduction in oil imports
Imports of wheat/grain dropped >50%
Drop >80% in availability of
f...
Social Implications

Caloric intake per capita dropped from 3,000 to 1,900
Wide spread disease due to vitamin deficiencies...
Expected Outcome:




Collapse of the Regime!!
Actual Outcome:
Transition to subsistence farming
–   Organic Agriculture
–   Peasant Collectives
–   Urban Gardens
–   De...
The Recovery
Agricultural change began as early as
1992
Domestic food production tripled between
1995 and 1998
In 2004 300...
Techniques
Crop Rotation,
nitrogen fixation

Reduce Monoculture

Helpful Bacteria and
Fungi                   Image of cro...
Social Changes Related to Food
Reorganization of workers and migration
to the country side (re-peasantization)

Education ...
The Right Livelihood Award
      “The Alternative Nobel Prize”
Awarded to El Grupo de Agricultura
  Organica de Cuba
"...F...
The Future and Applications
Not competitive with commercial
agriculture by today’s standards

Applicable to rural agricult...
Sources

Gonzalez, David; Cuba’s Bittersweet Move to Trim its Sugar Crop. The New York Times, October 9,
   2002

Horowitz...
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Cuba Slides Studentpresentation V2

  1. 1. Cuba’s Organic Agriculture Presented By: Emma Bassein and Nathan Douglass April 4, 2005
  2. 2. Source:http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/2003021-0121/Cuba.A2003021.1600.500m.jpg Source:http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/2003021-
  3. 3. Presentation Overview Cuban Revolution and U.S. Embargo Economic Collapse 1989-91 Transition to Alternative Agriculture Highlights of Cuba’s Organic Agriculture Future of Cuban Potential for World Use
  4. 4. Brief History Typical Latin American Monocrop Production Economic Dependence Cuban Revolution shifted dependence 85% of trade with socialist bloc (70% of total with Soviet Union)
  5. 5. Pre-Soviet Collapse Characteristics Favorable trade led to rapid modernization and mechanization Heavy import dependence on agricultural supplies (fertilizer, pesticide, hybrid seeds, machines, petroleum) and foodstuffs Export of raw commodities and minerals
  6. 6. Economic Contradictions Relative Modernizations Function as supplier of raw agricultural commodities and minerals
  7. 7. Agricultural Characteristics: 1980s State control of most cultivated land High-input (agrochemicals, irrigation, mechanization) More tractors per hectare than California Peasant workers produced 40% of domestic food with only 20% of land
  8. 8. Soviet Collapse and Crisis 53% reduction in oil imports Imports of wheat/grain dropped >50% Drop >80% in availability of fertilizers/pesticides Almost 50% decrease in sugar exports from 3.8 million tons to 2 million tons – Soviet price in 1991 = $0.36/pound – Price in 1992 = $0.09/pound
  9. 9. Social Implications Caloric intake per capita dropped from 3,000 to 1,900 Wide spread disease due to vitamin deficiencies Sugar production decreased by half, 73% decrease in sugar revenues from the Soviet Union between 1991 and 1992 Global Social Product (GSP) declined by 6.3% from 1986-1989 (as compared to a 41.6% increase from 1980-1985)
  10. 10. Expected Outcome: Collapse of the Regime!!
  11. 11. Actual Outcome: Transition to subsistence farming – Organic Agriculture – Peasant Collectives – Urban Gardens – De-mechanization Image of farmer plowing field removed for copyright reasons. Source: http://www.pfi.iastate.edu/Cuba/Cuba%20Ag% 20Independence.htm
  12. 12. The Recovery Agricultural change began as early as 1992 Domestic food production tripled between 1995 and 1998 In 2004 300,000 tons of food was produced in Havana alone –enough to supply vegetables to the entire city, as well as some meat and grains
  13. 13. Techniques Crop Rotation, nitrogen fixation Reduce Monoculture Helpful Bacteria and Fungi Image of crops removed for copyright reasons. Source: www.cityfarmer.org/ Natural predators for insects
  14. 14. Social Changes Related to Food Reorganization of workers and migration to the country side (re-peasantization) Education geared towards sustainable farming and Oxen Care
  15. 15. The Right Livelihood Award “The Alternative Nobel Prize” Awarded to El Grupo de Agricultura Organica de Cuba "...For showing that organic agriculture is a key to both environmental sustainability and food security" Image of “The Right Livelihood Award” removed for copyright reasons.
  16. 16. The Future and Applications Not competitive with commercial agriculture by today’s standards Applicable to rural agricultural communities in developing regions
  17. 17. Sources Gonzalez, David; Cuba’s Bittersweet Move to Trim its Sugar Crop. The New York Times, October 9, 2002 Horowitz, Irving L. Cuban Communism 1959-1995, 8th edition. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ (1995). McKibben, Bill; The Cuba Diet: What will you be eating when the revolution comes? Harper’s Magazine, April 2005. Pages 61-69. Mesa-Lago, Carmelo; Cuba After the Cold War. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA (1993). Rosset, Peter; Alternative Agriculture and Crisis in Cuba. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Summer 1997. The Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy; Cuba in Transition, Volumes 2 and 3. Washington D.C. (1992 and 1993). The Economist Intelligence Unit; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico Country Report: 1989-92. London. The Right Livelihood Award, http://www.rightlivelihood.org/index.htm

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