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Nouveauté

Nouvelles normes en DVB

Extensions
vers la DVB -S2

•	De nouvelles améliorations permettent des débits
plus élevés
•	Davantage de spectres de transpondeurs
rectangulaires fournissent plus d'espace pour les
transpondeurs supplémentaires
•	La réduction des lobes latéraux donne plus d'espace
à plus de transpondeurs
•	Les transpondeurs à large bande en rajoutent à
l'efficacité
•	Nouvelle modulation avec 6 bits

158 TELE-audiovision International — The World‘s Largest Digital TV Trade Magazine — 1
1-12/2013 — www.TELE-audiovision.com

www.TELE-audiovision.com — 1
1-12/2013 — TELE-audiovision International — 全球发行量最大的数字电视杂志

159
FEATURE

New DVB Standards

What‘s coming next
after DVB-S2?
Jacek Pawlowski

The DVB-S2 standard was first published in 2005. While the performance
it offers may still impress us nowadays,
the advances in technology and growing demand for higher and higher data
rates make the satellite industry search
for even more efficient ways to transfer
huge amount of data most notably the
high demands generated by Ultra High
Definition TV (UHDTV) and high speed
IP services over satellite.
Recently in TELE-audiovision 0708/2013 we have published a feature
articles about the new UHDTV standard
and the video compression standard
HEVC, also known as H.265 – a successor of MPEG-4 (H.264). These new
solutions require new hardware and
software. It makes a good moment to
improve also the modulation, coding
and error correction standard as defined by the DVB-S2 standard.
As the proposed improvements have
not yet been blessed by the DVB organization we will call them the proposed extensions to DVB-S2. However,
real hardware devices have been built
and various test have been performed
to prove these new concepts. These
new DVB-S2 extensions are labelled as
DVB-S2EB1, DVB-Sx or even DVB-S3
although such a standard does not yet
officially exist in this moment.
The proposed extensions can give a
20% increase in data rate compared
to DVB-S2 in DTH (Direct-To-Home)
broadcasts. For professional services,
like VSAT communication, the gain can
be as high as 64%.
So, what exactly are these extensions? Here is our list:
- reduction of the roll-off factors and
the side lobes of digitally modulated
carriers
- use of wide bandwidth transponders
- additional modulation: 64 APSK
- more modulation and coding (MODCOM) schemes and forward error correction (FEC) choices and non-linear
MODCOMs
Not all of the extensions are easy to

■ Figure 1. With smaller roll-offs, transponders can be squeezed closer to one another.

■ Figure 2. Reducing side lobes by more efficient filtering contributes to better bandwidth utilization.

comprehend but in this features article
we try to help you to get a general idea
on most of them.
The roll-off factor describes the
shape of the transponder spectrum as
seen on a spectrum analyzer. Its value
tells you how close to an ideal rectangular the spectrum is. The smaller it
is the more steep are the slopes of a
transponder spectrum. DVB-S requires
a roll-off of 35%, DVB-S2 of 20% and
25% while the the proposed S2 extensions aim at 15%, 10% and 5%. It is
easy to understand that with smaller
roll-offs one can position transponders
closer to one another in the frequency
domain and gain a free space for additional ones in the same Ku-Band or
C-Band.
However, not only (relatively) big rolloffs prevent closer location of the DVBS2 transponders. So called side lobes
are normally present on both sides of
the useful signal. These are unwanted
artifacts after modulation. With today’s
technology it is possible to practically
get rid of them thanks to improved
filtering. Once they are removed, the
center frequencies of the neighboring
transponders can be set closer to one
another.
If you take a look at Figure 2, you can
come to the conclusion that even after removing side lobes and improving

same bandwidth but the signal is more
sensitive to interference and noise. 64
APSK will be used in professional setups with large antennas rather than in
DTH transmissions.
Probably the same goes true for the
last extension mentioned in the beginning of this article: more MODCOM and
FEC values. These parameters generally describe how big overhead is introduced in the data stream to the useful payload. The overhead in bit rate is
needed for error correction. Once we
have more possibilities here, we can
almost smoothly change the proportion between useful and corrective bits
in order to find a minimum overhead
still ensuring faultless processing. Such

roll-offs, there is still some spectrum
wasted between the transponders. And
that’s why wideband transponders are
the next trick in improving efficiency.
Their throughput is increased to 72 Ms/
sec. When compared with the most
popular 27.5 Ms/sec transponders, the
wideband ones are three times wider in
spectral view.
Every new DVB standard introduces a
new modulation schemes. DVB-S2 ended up with 32 APSK. The proposed extensions call for 64 APSK. In this modulation, every symbol is made up of 6
bits. Of course, the higher the order of
modulation, the smaller the differences
in amplitude and phase between similar
symbols. We can send more data in the

160 TELE-audiovision International — The World‘s Largest Digital TV Trade Magazine — 1
1-12/2013 — www.TELE-audiovision.com

thing is possible when we have a pointto-point two-way communication. In
case of a reception problem, the system automatically adjusts MODCOM/
FEC.
Also the wideband transponders
described above require the reception system to be of a higher performance because the carrier-to-noise
ratio degrades proportionally with the
bandwidth increase. The best way to
maintain a good C/R is to use a bigger
dish. Therefore, it is not certain if wideband transponders will be used for DTH
broadcasts. After all, not too many end
users will be eager to replace their 6090 cm dishes with larger ones.
That’s why the experts assume that in

DTH transmissions only about 20% increase in the efficiency is realistic while
in professional links even 64% would be
possible. Anyway, we can not say today
which particular extension proposals
will be included in the eventual settlement of the DVB-S3 standard. Maybe
only some of the above, maybe all of
them. We will not be surprised though
if brand new concepts are worked out
in meantime and included in the new
standard.
One thing is for sure: the improvements will enable higher useful data
rates in the existing satellite communication channels and this will be an
important factor enabling UHDTV and
other wideband services.

Wideband transponder

■ Figure 3. Wideband transponders use frequency spectrum more efficiently.
www.TELE-audiovision.com — 1
1-12/2013 — TELE-audiovision International — 全球发行量最大的数字电视杂志

161

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Feature dvbs3

  • 1. Nouveauté Nouvelles normes en DVB Extensions vers la DVB -S2 • De nouvelles améliorations permettent des débits plus élevés • Davantage de spectres de transpondeurs rectangulaires fournissent plus d'espace pour les transpondeurs supplémentaires • La réduction des lobes latéraux donne plus d'espace à plus de transpondeurs • Les transpondeurs à large bande en rajoutent à l'efficacité • Nouvelle modulation avec 6 bits 158 TELE-audiovision International — The World‘s Largest Digital TV Trade Magazine — 1 1-12/2013 — www.TELE-audiovision.com www.TELE-audiovision.com — 1 1-12/2013 — TELE-audiovision International — 全球发行量最大的数字电视杂志 159
  • 2. FEATURE New DVB Standards What‘s coming next after DVB-S2? Jacek Pawlowski The DVB-S2 standard was first published in 2005. While the performance it offers may still impress us nowadays, the advances in technology and growing demand for higher and higher data rates make the satellite industry search for even more efficient ways to transfer huge amount of data most notably the high demands generated by Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV) and high speed IP services over satellite. Recently in TELE-audiovision 0708/2013 we have published a feature articles about the new UHDTV standard and the video compression standard HEVC, also known as H.265 – a successor of MPEG-4 (H.264). These new solutions require new hardware and software. It makes a good moment to improve also the modulation, coding and error correction standard as defined by the DVB-S2 standard. As the proposed improvements have not yet been blessed by the DVB organization we will call them the proposed extensions to DVB-S2. However, real hardware devices have been built and various test have been performed to prove these new concepts. These new DVB-S2 extensions are labelled as DVB-S2EB1, DVB-Sx or even DVB-S3 although such a standard does not yet officially exist in this moment. The proposed extensions can give a 20% increase in data rate compared to DVB-S2 in DTH (Direct-To-Home) broadcasts. For professional services, like VSAT communication, the gain can be as high as 64%. So, what exactly are these extensions? Here is our list: - reduction of the roll-off factors and the side lobes of digitally modulated carriers - use of wide bandwidth transponders - additional modulation: 64 APSK - more modulation and coding (MODCOM) schemes and forward error correction (FEC) choices and non-linear MODCOMs Not all of the extensions are easy to ■ Figure 1. With smaller roll-offs, transponders can be squeezed closer to one another. ■ Figure 2. Reducing side lobes by more efficient filtering contributes to better bandwidth utilization. comprehend but in this features article we try to help you to get a general idea on most of them. The roll-off factor describes the shape of the transponder spectrum as seen on a spectrum analyzer. Its value tells you how close to an ideal rectangular the spectrum is. The smaller it is the more steep are the slopes of a transponder spectrum. DVB-S requires a roll-off of 35%, DVB-S2 of 20% and 25% while the the proposed S2 extensions aim at 15%, 10% and 5%. It is easy to understand that with smaller roll-offs one can position transponders closer to one another in the frequency domain and gain a free space for additional ones in the same Ku-Band or C-Band. However, not only (relatively) big rolloffs prevent closer location of the DVBS2 transponders. So called side lobes are normally present on both sides of the useful signal. These are unwanted artifacts after modulation. With today’s technology it is possible to practically get rid of them thanks to improved filtering. Once they are removed, the center frequencies of the neighboring transponders can be set closer to one another. If you take a look at Figure 2, you can come to the conclusion that even after removing side lobes and improving same bandwidth but the signal is more sensitive to interference and noise. 64 APSK will be used in professional setups with large antennas rather than in DTH transmissions. Probably the same goes true for the last extension mentioned in the beginning of this article: more MODCOM and FEC values. These parameters generally describe how big overhead is introduced in the data stream to the useful payload. The overhead in bit rate is needed for error correction. Once we have more possibilities here, we can almost smoothly change the proportion between useful and corrective bits in order to find a minimum overhead still ensuring faultless processing. Such roll-offs, there is still some spectrum wasted between the transponders. And that’s why wideband transponders are the next trick in improving efficiency. Their throughput is increased to 72 Ms/ sec. When compared with the most popular 27.5 Ms/sec transponders, the wideband ones are three times wider in spectral view. Every new DVB standard introduces a new modulation schemes. DVB-S2 ended up with 32 APSK. The proposed extensions call for 64 APSK. In this modulation, every symbol is made up of 6 bits. Of course, the higher the order of modulation, the smaller the differences in amplitude and phase between similar symbols. We can send more data in the 160 TELE-audiovision International — The World‘s Largest Digital TV Trade Magazine — 1 1-12/2013 — www.TELE-audiovision.com thing is possible when we have a pointto-point two-way communication. In case of a reception problem, the system automatically adjusts MODCOM/ FEC. Also the wideband transponders described above require the reception system to be of a higher performance because the carrier-to-noise ratio degrades proportionally with the bandwidth increase. The best way to maintain a good C/R is to use a bigger dish. Therefore, it is not certain if wideband transponders will be used for DTH broadcasts. After all, not too many end users will be eager to replace their 6090 cm dishes with larger ones. That’s why the experts assume that in DTH transmissions only about 20% increase in the efficiency is realistic while in professional links even 64% would be possible. Anyway, we can not say today which particular extension proposals will be included in the eventual settlement of the DVB-S3 standard. Maybe only some of the above, maybe all of them. We will not be surprised though if brand new concepts are worked out in meantime and included in the new standard. One thing is for sure: the improvements will enable higher useful data rates in the existing satellite communication channels and this will be an important factor enabling UHDTV and other wideband services. Wideband transponder ■ Figure 3. Wideband transponders use frequency spectrum more efficiently. www.TELE-audiovision.com — 1 1-12/2013 — TELE-audiovision International — 全球发行量最大的数字电视杂志 161