Physical Geography of East Asia:
A Rugged Terrain
The mountainous landscape, open ocean, and
harsh climate of East Asia is...
SECTION 1 Landforms and Resources
SECTION 2 Climate and Vegetation
NEXT
SECTION 3 Human-Environment Interaction
Physical G...
NEXT
Section 1
Landforms and
Resources
• East Asia has a huge mainland area that
includes rugged terrain.
• East Asia has ...
Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus
A Survey of the Region
• East Asia stretches from western China to the east
coast of Jap...
SECTION
1
NEXT
Mountain Ranges of the Region
• High mountains limited China’s contact with rest of
Asia
- world’s highest ...
SECTION
1
NEXT
Plateaus and Plains
• Mountainous area includes some sparsely
populated basins, deserts
- includes Plateau ...
Peninsulas and Islands
The Coast of China
• Eastern coast of China has several peninsulas
- Shandong, Leizhou, and Macao P...
SECTION
1
NEXT
The Islands of East Asia
• East of China is continental shelf—the submerged
border of continent
• Isolation...
River Systems
The Huang He
• Huang He (Yellow River)—northern China river
- starts in Kunlun Mountains in west, winds east...
SECTION
1
NEXT
The Xi Jiang
• Xi Jiang (West River) flows southeast through south
China
- joins Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) to...
Resources of East Asia
Uneven Distribution
• China, Mongolia, North Korea have natural, mineral
resources
• Japan, South K...
SECTION
1
NEXT
Mineral and Energy Resources
• China has large petroleum, coal, natural gas
reserves
- energy resources mak...
SECTION
1
Water Resources
• China’s long river systems are important to its
economy
- provide crop irrigation, hydroelectr...
NEXT
Section 2
Climate and Vegetation
• East Asia has a dry highland climate in the
west.
• The region has a humid climate...
High Latitude Climate Zones
Subarctic
• Small subarctic zones on Mongolia’s and China’s
Russian borders
• Summers are cool...
Mid-Latitude Zones
Humid Continental
• Climate zone includes northeastern China, northern
Japan
- also North Korea, northe...
Dry Zones
Semiarid
• Includes parts of Mongolian Plateau
• Vegetation is mostly short grasses, food for grazing
animals
SE...
Tropical Zones
Tropical Wet
• Typhoon—tropical storm that occurs in western
Pacific
• Tropical climate zone in East Asia i...
NEXT
Section 3
Human-Environment
Interaction
• The Chinese are building the Three Gorges
Dam to control flooding.
• The Ja...
The Three Gorges Dam
An Engineering Feat
• In 1993, China began construction of the Three
Gorges Dam
- being built on Chin...
SECTION
3
NEXT
Positive Effects
• Government believes dam will control Chang Jiang
flooding
- river irrigates half of Chin...
SECTION
3
NEXT
Negative Effects
• Most observers feel dam will also have negative
effects
- negative environmental impact ...
SECTION
3
Negative Effects
• In building dam, government has not protected the
environment
• New reservoir will flood land...
Use of Space in Urban Japan
Crowded Living and Working Spaces
• 60% of 127 million people live on 3% of land along
coastal...
SECTION
3
NEXT
Adapting to Limited Space
• Houses are small, sparsely furnished
• Many in cities live in apartments
- fami...
NEXT
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Chapter 27

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Chapter 27

  1. 1. Physical Geography of East Asia: A Rugged Terrain The mountainous landscape, open ocean, and harsh climate of East Asia isolate the region and present challenges for the people living there. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Landforms and Resources SECTION 2 Climate and Vegetation NEXT SECTION 3 Human-Environment Interaction Physical Geography of East Asia: A Rugged Terrain
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 Landforms and Resources • East Asia has a huge mainland area that includes rugged terrain. • East Asia has a number of important islands off its eastern coast.
  4. 4. Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus A Survey of the Region • East Asia stretches from western China to the east coast of Japan - also includes Mongolia, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea • Landscape has high mountains, deserts, cold climate, Pacific waters • Rugged terrain created by tectonic plates colliding - natural barriers limit human movement, increase isolation Landforms and Resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  5. 5. SECTION 1 NEXT Mountain Ranges of the Region • High mountains limited China’s contact with rest of Asia - world’s highest mountains located on western edge of region • Kunlun Mountains are located in west China - source of Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) rivers • Qinling Shandi Mountains divide northern China from the south continued Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus Continued . . .
  6. 6. SECTION 1 NEXT Plateaus and Plains • Mountainous area includes some sparsely populated basins, deserts - includes Plateau of Tibet (Xizang Plateau) - western China’s Tarim Pendi Basin and Taklimakan Desert • Gobi Desert stretches from northwest China into Mongolia - covers 500,000 square miles • Mongolian Plateau is in northeastern China • Northern China includes Manchurian Plain, North China Plain continued Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus
  7. 7. Peninsulas and Islands The Coast of China • Eastern coast of China has several peninsulas - Shandong, Leizhou, and Macao Peninsulas - Portugal owned Macao; returned it to Chinese control in 1999 • China’s long coastline has several major port cities like Shanghai • Korean Peninsula is on eastern border of China - contains independent nations of North Korea and South Korea SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  8. 8. SECTION 1 NEXT The Islands of East Asia • East of China is continental shelf—the submerged border of continent • Isolation of shelf islands allows them to develop in peace, security • Chinese islands include Hainan and part of Hong Kong - Hong Kong was Britain’s; returned to China’s control in 1997 • Japan is a small island nation with large economic power • Taiwan once belonged to mainland China, which still claims it today continued Peninsulas and Islands
  9. 9. River Systems The Huang He • Huang He (Yellow River)—northern China river - starts in Kunlun Mountains in west, winds east for 3,000 miles - empties into Yellow Sea, named for yellow silt the river carries SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . The Chang Jiang • Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)—longest river in Asia - flows 3,900 miles from Xizang (Tibet) to East China Sea - major trade route; floods often causing great damage
  10. 10. SECTION 1 NEXT The Xi Jiang • Xi Jiang (West River) flows southeast through south China - joins Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) to flow into South China Sea - Xi Jiang, three other rivers form estuary between Hong Kong, Macao continued River Systems Other Rivers of the Region • Yalu Jiang river flows 500 miles along North Korea, China border - Chinese troops cross it in 1950 - attack UN forces, enter Korean War
  11. 11. Resources of East Asia Uneven Distribution • China, Mongolia, North Korea have natural, mineral resources • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan have limited natural resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . Land and Forests • Limited farmland in sparsely populated, mountainous, western areas • Most Chinese are in fertile eastern river basins where rice is grown • Abundant forests in China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea - Japan reserves forests by buying timber from other regions
  12. 12. SECTION 1 NEXT Mineral and Energy Resources • China has large petroleum, coal, natural gas reserves - energy resources make China self-sufficient • China’s mineral resources include iron ore, tungsten, manganese - also molybdenum, magnesite, lead, zinc, copper • North and South Korea have coal, tungsten, gold, silver reserves • Japan has lead, silver, coal, but must trade for most resources continued Resources of East Asia Continued . . .
  13. 13. SECTION 1 Water Resources • China’s long river systems are important to its economy - provide crop irrigation, hydroelectric power, transportation - Three Gorges Dam on Chang Jiang will control floods, create power - Huang He and Xi Jiang provide hydroelectric power, transportation • Sea is important food source for East Asia - Japan has one of world’s largest fishing industries continued Resources of East Asia NEXT
  14. 14. NEXT Section 2 Climate and Vegetation • East Asia has a dry highland climate in the west. • The region has a humid climate in the east.
  15. 15. High Latitude Climate Zones Subarctic • Small subarctic zones on Mongolia’s and China’s Russian borders • Summers are cool or cold; winters are brutally cold; climate is dry • Vegetation is northern evergreen forest, mosses, lichens Climate and Vegetation SECTION 2 NEXT Highland • Western China’s highland zone temps vary with latitude, elevation • Vegetation also varies; forests, alpine tundra are typical • Tundras have no trees, frozen soil a few feet below surface - only mosses, lichens, shrubs grow on tundras
  16. 16. Mid-Latitude Zones Humid Continental • Climate zone includes northeastern China, northern Japan - also North Korea, northern South Korea • Forests are coniferous; temperate grasslands provide grazing - agriculture has replaced many forests SECTION 2 NEXT Humid Subtropical • Southeastern China, southern South Korea, south Japan, north Taiwan • Deciduous forests in north, coniferous in southern, sandy soil
  17. 17. Dry Zones Semiarid • Includes parts of Mongolian Plateau • Vegetation is mostly short grasses, food for grazing animals SECTION 2 NEXT Desert • Most of region’s deserts are in west central mainland • Taklimakan Desert—in west China, between Tian Shan, Kunlun mountains • Gobi Desert—in north China, southeast Mongolia - prime area for dinosaur fossils
  18. 18. Tropical Zones Tropical Wet • Typhoon—tropical storm that occurs in western Pacific • Tropical climate zone in East Asia is small - strip of land along China’s southeastern coast - island of Hainan, southern tip of Taiwan • High temperatures, heavy rainfall, high humidity all year • Tropical rain forest has tall, dense forests of broadleaf trees SECTION 2 NEXT
  19. 19. NEXT Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction • The Chinese are building the Three Gorges Dam to control flooding. • The Japanese have developed creative ways to use their limited amounts of land.
  20. 20. The Three Gorges Dam An Engineering Feat • In 1993, China began construction of the Three Gorges Dam - being built on China’s Chang Jiang river - should reduce flooding, generate power • China’s largest construction project will be world’s biggest dam - will be 600 feet high, spanning a mile-wide valley - will create 400-mile-long reservoir, covering 1,000 towns Human-Environment Interaction SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  21. 21. SECTION 3 NEXT Positive Effects • Government believes dam will control Chang Jiang flooding - river irrigates half of China’s crops, drains one-fifth of land • Giant turbines should generate 10% of China’s electrical power • Will make it easier for ships to reach China’s interior through locks - river carries more than half the goods moved on China’s waterways - dam, locks will increase shipping capacity, decrease costs continued The Three Gorges Dam Continued . . .
  22. 22. SECTION 3 NEXT Negative Effects • Most observers feel dam will also have negative effects - negative environmental impact may outweigh any benefits • One to two million people will have to move - hundreds of historical sites, scenic spots will be submerged • Dam could cost $75 billion rather than original $11 billion estimate - costs scare away many potential investors continued The Three Gorges Dam Continued . . .
  23. 23. SECTION 3 Negative Effects • In building dam, government has not protected the environment • New reservoir will flood land, reduce animal habitats - submerged factories could leak chemicals into water - region’s climate, temperature will be affected - some species (alligator, river dolphin, others) may vanish • International groups slow to invest due to environmental concerns continued The Three Gorges Dam NEXT
  24. 24. Use of Space in Urban Japan Crowded Living and Working Spaces • 60% of 127 million people live on 3% of land along coastal plains - 80% live in largest cities: Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo - 25 million in Tokyo, one of world’s largest cities • Cities poisoned with mercury, PCBs—factory pollutants—in 1950s, ’60s - PCBs build up in animal tissue; cause disease, birth defects - PCBs banned in 1977 SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  25. 25. SECTION 3 NEXT Adapting to Limited Space • Houses are small, sparsely furnished • Many in cities live in apartments - family of four in a one-bedroom apartment is common • Some move to suburbs, but must commute several hours to work • Coastal cities reclaim land with landfill - landfill is solid waste buried in layers of dirt - Tokyo puts factories, refineries on landfill continued Use of Space in Urban Japan
  26. 26. NEXT This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
  27. 27. Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format you want to print: slides, notes, handouts, or outline 4. Click the Print button to print the PowerPoint presentation CONTINUE

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