Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Human Geography People and Places Geography and the environment help shape human cultures, but humans also use and alter the environment to fulfill their needs. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 The Elements of Culture SECTION 2 Population Geography TODAY’S ISSUES People and Places NEXT SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Political Geography Urban Geography SECTION 5 Economic Geography
  3. 3. NEXT • Human beings are members of social groups with shared and unique sets of behaviors and attitudes. • Language and religion are two very important aspects of culture. Section 1 The Elements of Culture
  4. 4. Defining Culture Culture • Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors shared over generations is culture • Society is a group that shares geographic region, identity, culture • An ethnic group shares language, customs, common heritage The Elements of Culture SECTION 1 NEXT
  5. 5. Culture Change and Exchange Innovation • Innovation is creating something new with existing resources • Example: weaving baskets from reeds to solve storage problem SECTION 1 NEXT Diffusion • Spread of ideas, inventions, patterns of behavior called diffusion • Cultural hearth—site of innovation; origin of cultural diffusion • Example: Nile River civilizations in Africa Continued . . .
  6. 6. continued Culture Change and Exchange Acculturation • Acculturation—society changes because it accepts innovation SECTION 1 NEXT
  7. 7. Language Importance of Language • Enables people within a culture to communicate • Reflects all aspects of culture SECTION 1 NEXT Language and Identity • Language helps establish cultural identity, unity • Language can also divide people, cause conflict Continued . . .
  8. 8. Language Families • Between 3,000 and 6,500 languages spoken worldwide • Similar languages belong to same language family • Dialect—a version of a language, like Southern drawl SECTION 1 NEXT Language Diffusion • Language can spread via trade routes, migration continued Language
  9. 9. Religion Belief Systems • Religion—belief in supernatural power that made, maintains universe • Monotheistic faiths believe in one god • Belief in many gods called polytheistic • Animistic, or traditional, faiths believe in divine forces of nature SECTION 1 NEXT Spread of Religion • Religion spreads through diffusion and conversion • Conversion—some religions try to recruit others to their faith
  10. 10. Major Religions Judaism • Monotheistic; evolved 3,200 years ago; holy book called the Torah SECTION 1 NEXT Christianity • Evolved from Judaism; based on teachings of Jesus Christ • Largest religion—2 billion followers worldwide Islam • Monotheistic; based on teachings of Prophet Muhammad • Followers, called Muslims, worship God, called Allah • Holy book called the Qur’an Continued . . .
  11. 11. continued Major Religions Hinduism • Polytheistic; evolved in India around 5,000 years ago • Hindu caste system has fixed social classes, specific rites/duties SECTION 1 NEXT Buddhism • Offshoot of Hinduism; evolved around 563 B.C. in India • Founder Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha, or Enlightened One • Rejects Hindu castes; seeks enlightened spiritual state, or nirvana Other Asian Practices • Include Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto
  12. 12. Creative Cultural Expressions Creative Cultural Expressions • All cultures express themselves creatively • Performing arts include music, dance, theater, film • Architecture, painting, sculpture, textiles are forms of visual arts • Oral and written literature include poems, folk tales, stories SECTION 1 NEXT
  13. 13. NEXT • People are not distributed equally on the earth’s surface. • The world’s population continues to grow, but at different rates in different regions. Section 2 Population Geography
  14. 14. Worldwide Population Growth Birth and Death Rates • Number of live births per thousand population is the birthrate • Fertility rate—average, lifetime number of children born to a woman • Number of deaths per thousand people is the mortality rate • Infant mortality rate—deaths under age 1 per 1,000 live births • Population growth rate, or rate of natural increase, figured by: - subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate - warm summers and cold winters Population Geography NEXT SECTION 2 Continued . . .
  15. 15. continued Worldwide Population Growth Population Pyramid • A population pyramid shows a population’s sex, age distribution • Enables the study of how events (wars, famines) affect population NEXT SECTION 2
  16. 16. SECTION 2 NEXT Population Distribution Habitable Lands • 2/3 of world’s population lives between 20°N and 60°N latitude • Human habitation in this zone: - dense where temperature and precipitation allow agriculture - also dense along coastal areas and in river valleys - more sparse in polar, mountain, desert regions Urban–Rural Mix • More than half of world’s population rural; rapidly becoming urban Continued . . .
  17. 17. SECTION 2 NEXT continued Population Distribution Migration • Reasons for migrating sometimes called push-pull factors • Push factors (drought, war) cause migration from an area • Pull factors (favorable economy, climate) spur migration to an area
  18. 18. SECTION 2 NEXT Estimating Population Estimating Population • Population density is the average number of people living in an area Carrying Capacity • Carrying capacity is the number of organisms an area can support - affected by fertile land, level of technology, economic prosperity
  19. 19. NEXT • The world is divided into many political regions. Section 3 Political Geography • Local, national, and regional governments control aspects of life within the boundaries of the unit.
  20. 20. Nations of the World Politics and Geography • An independent political unit, a state, or country: - occupies specific territory - controls its internal, external affairs • Nation—unified group with common culture living in a territory • A nation and state occupying same territory is a nation-state Political Geography NEXT SECTION 3 Continued . . .
  21. 21. continued Nations of the World Types of Government • In a democracy, citizens hold political power • Political power held by a king or queen is a monarchy • In a dictatorship, a group or individual holds all political power • Communism is a governmental and economic system - political, economic power held by government in people’s name NEXT SECTION 3
  22. 22. Geographic Characteristics of Nations Size • Physical size does not accurately reflect political, economic power NEXT SECTION 3 Shape • Shape affects governance, transportation, relations with neighbors Location • A landlocked country has no direct outlet to the sea - may limit prosperity, as shipping and trade bring wealth • Hostile neighbors necessitate increased security
  23. 23. National Boundaries Natural Boundaries • Formed by rivers, lakes, mountain chains NEXT SECTION 3 Artificial Boundaries • Fixed line, generally following latitude, longitude: • Example: 49 degrees N latitude separates U.S. from Canada - often formally defined in treaties
  24. 24. Regional Political Systems Political Subdivisions • Countries divide into smaller political units like cities, towns • Smaller units combine regionally into counties, states, etc. • Countries may join together to form international units: - examples: United Nations, European Union NEXT SECTION 3
  25. 25. NEXT • Nearly half the world’s population lives in urban areas. Section 4 Urban Geography • Cities fulfill economic, residential, and cultural functions in different ways.
  26. 26. Growth of Urban Areas Cities • Urban geography is the study of how people use space in cities • Cities are populous centers of business, culture, innovation, change Urban Geography NEXT SECTION 4 Urban Areas • Urban area develops around a central city; may be surrounded by: - suburbs—border central city, other suburbs - exurbs—have open land between them and central city • Central city plus its suburbs and exurbs called a metropolitan area Continued . . .
  27. 27. continued Growth of Urban Areas Urbanization • Urbanization—rise in number of cities, resulting lifestyle changes NEXT SECTION 4
  28. 28. City Locations Location and Function • Cities are often located near: - good transportation—lakes, rivers, coastline - plentiful natural resources • As a result, cities tend to: - become transportation hubs - specialize in certain economic activities NEXT SECTION 4
  29. 29. Land Use Patterns NEXT SECTION 4 City Patterns • Basic land use patterns found in all cities: - residential (housing) - industrial (manufacturing) - commercial (retail) • Central business district (CBD)—core area of commercial activity
  30. 30. The Functions of Cities NEXT SECTION 4 A Variety of Functions • Shopping, entertainment, government services • Educational, recreational, and cultural activities • Transportation is essential to accomplish functions
  31. 31. NEXT • Economic activities depend on the resources of the land and how people use them. Section 5 Economic Geography • The level of economic development can be measured in different ways.
  32. 32. Economic Systems Economies • Economy—the production and exchange of goods and services • Economies are local, regional, national, international • Geographers study economic geography by looking at: - how people in a region support themselves - how economic activity is linked regionally Economic Geography NEXT SECTION 5 Continued . . .
  33. 33. continued Economic Systems Types of Economic Systems • Economic system: way people produce and exchange goods, services • Four types of economic systems: - traditional, or barter, economy - command, or planned, economy - market economy, also called capitalism - mixed economy, a combination of command and market NEXT SECTION 5
  34. 34. Economic Activities Types of Economic Activity • In subsistence agriculture, food is raised for personal consumption • Raising food to sell to others is called market-oriented agriculture • Cottage industries involve small, home-based industrial production • Large industrial production comes from commercial industries NEXT SECTION 5 Continued . . .
  35. 35. NEXT SECTION 5 Levels of Economic Activity • Four levels of economic activities: - primary involves gathering raw materials for immediate use - secondary adds value to material by changing its form - tertiary involves business or professional services - quaternary provides information, management, research services continued Economic Activities
  36. 36. The Economics of Natural Resources Utilizing Nature’s Bounty • Natural Resources—Earth’s materials that have economic value • Materials become resources when they can be turned into goods NEXT SECTION 5 Continued . . .
  37. 37. continued The Economics of Natural Resources Utilizing Nature’s Bounty • Geographers divide natural resources into three types: - renewable resources (trees, seafood) can be replaced naturally - nonrenewable resources (metals, oil, coal) cannot be replaced - inexhaustible resources (sun, wind) are unlimited resources • Natural resources are a major part of world trade NEXT SECTION 5
  38. 38. Infrastructure • Infrastructure—basic support systems to sustain economic growth - power, communications, transportation systems - water, sanitation, and education systems • Communications systems and technology both critical to development NEXT SECTION 5 Economic Support Systems
  39. 39. Measuring Economic Development Comparing Economies • Per capita income: average earnings per person in a political unit NEXT SECTION 5 GNP and GDP • Gross national product (GNP)—statistic to measure: - total value of goods, services produced by a country, globally • Gross domestic product (GDP)—statistic to measure: - total value of goods and services produced within a country Continued . . .
  40. 40. continued Measuring Economic Development NEXT SECTION 5 Development Levels • Developing nations have low GDP, per capita income • Developed nations have high GDP, per capita income
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