Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Physical Geography A Living Planet The geography and structure of the earth are continually being changed by internal forces, like plate tectonics, and external forces, like the weather. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 The Earth Inside and Out SECTION 2 Bodies of Water and Landforms Physical Geography Looking at the Earth SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Internal Forces Shaping the Earth External Forces Shaping the Earth NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 The Earth Inside and Out • The earth is the only habitable planet in the sun’s solar system. • The drifting of the continents shaped the world we live in today. NEXT
  4. 4. Earth Continental Puzzle • The seven continents on earth fit together like a jigsaw puzzle • Continents—landmasses above water on Earth • Francis Bacon (1620) first to suggest 7 continents were once one The Earth Inside and Out SECTION 1 NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 The Earth’s Neighborhood • Earth is third planet in the solar system of the sun • Sun is medium-sized star at edge of the Milky Way galaxy • The solar system includes: - sun and nine known planets - comets—icy spheres orbiting the sun - asteroids—large chunks of rocky material orbiting the sun The Solar System NEXT
  6. 6. The Structure of the Earth Matters of Size • Circumference of the earth: about 24,900 miles • Diameter of the earth: about 7,900 miles SECTION 1 Inside the Earth • The core is the center of the earth; made up of iron, nickel • Outer core is liquid; inner core is solid • The mantle surrounds the core: - has several layers - contains most of Earth’s mass Continued . . . NEXT
  7. 7. SECTION 1 Inside the Earth • Magma—molten rock that forms in the mantle • Crust—thin layer of rock at Earth’s surface continued The Structure of the Earth On and Above the Earth • Atmosphere is the layer of gasses surrounding the earth: - contains oxygen - protects Earth from radiation, space debris - is the medium for weather and climate Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 On and Above the Earth • Lithosphere—solid rock portion of Earth’s surface, forms ocean floor • Hydrosphere—water elements on Earth including atmospheric water • Biosphere—atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere combined • Plants and animals live within biosphere continued The Structure of the Earth Continued . . . NEXT
  9. 9. SECTION 1 continued The Structure of the Earth Continental Drift • Continental Drift—1912 hypothesis of Alfred Wegener: • Earth once one supercontinent; Wegener calls it Pangaea, “all earth” • Pangaea splits into many plates that slowly drift apart NEXT
  10. 10. Section 2 Bodies of Water and Landforms • Water covers about three-fourths of the earth’s surface. • The earth’s surface displays a variety of landforms. NEXT
  11. 11. Bodies of Water Ocean Motion • The ocean circulates through currents, waves, tides • Currents act like rivers flowing through the ocean • Waves are swells or ridges produced by winds • Tides are the regular rising and falling of the ocean - created by gravitational pull of the moon or sun • Motion of ocean helps distribute heat on the planet - winds are heated and cooled by ocean water Bodies of Water and Landforms SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 2 Hydrologic Cycle • Hydrologic Cycle—cycle of water between atmosphere, oceans, earth Lakes, Rivers, and Streams • Lakes hold more than 95% of the earth’s fresh water • Freshwater lakes, like the Great Lakes, are result of glacial action • Saltwater lakes form when outlet to sea is cut off: - streams and rivers carry salts into lake - salts build up with nowhere to go Continued . . . continued Bodies of Water NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 Lakes, Rivers, and Streams • Rivers and streams carry water to and from larger bodies of water • Tributaries are smaller rivers, streams that feed into larger ones • Drainage basin—area drained by river and its tributaries Ground Water • Ground water—water held in the pores of rock • Water table—level at which the rock is saturated continued Bodies of Water NEXT
  14. 14. Landforms Landforms • Landforms are naturally formed features on Earth’s surface SECTION 2 Oceanic Landforms • Continental shelf—sea floor from continent’s edge to deep ocean • Sea floor has ridges, valleys, canyons, plains, mountain ranges • Islands are formed by volcanoes, sand, or coral deposits NEXT
  15. 15. Section 3 Internal Forces Shaping the Earth • Internal forces reshape the earth’s surface. • Internal forces shaping the earth often radically alter the lives of people as well. NEXT
  16. 16. Landforms Continental Landforms • Relief—difference in landform elevation from lowest to highest point • Four categories of relief—mountains, hills, plains, plateaus • Topography—the configurations and distribution of landforms • Topographic map shows vertical dimensions, relationship of landforms Internal Forces Shaping the Earth SECTION 3 NEXT
  17. 17. SECTION 3 The Earth Moves • Tectonic plates are massive, moving pieces of Earth’s lithosphere • Plates ride above circulating, heated rock •  Geographers study plate movements to understand: - how the earth is reshaped - how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed Plate Tectonics Plate Movement •  Plates move in one of four ways: - by spreading, or moving apart - subduction, or diving under another plate - collision, or crashing together - sliding past each other in a shearing motion Continued . . . NEXT
  18. 18. SECTION 3 Plate Movement • Movement of plates effects surface of the earth • Saudi Arabia–Egypt’s plates are spreading apart, widening Red Sea • India’s plate is crashing into Asian continent, building up Himalayas •  Three types of boundaries mark plate movement: - divergent boundary - convergent boundary - transform boundary continued Plate Tectonics Continued . . . NEXT
  19. 19. SECTION 3 Folds and Faults • Two plates meeting can cause folding, cracking of rock • Fault occurs when pressure causes rock to fracture, or crack • Fault line is place where plates move past each other continued Plate Tectonics NEXT
  20. 20. SECTION 3 The Earth Trembles • An earthquake occurs when plates grind or slip at a fault line • A seismograph detects earthquakes and measures the waves they create Earthquakes Earthquake Locations • Location in the earth where an earthquake begins is called the focus • Epicenter—the point directly above focus on the earth’s surface • Nearly 95% of earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries Continued . . . NEXT
  21. 21. SECTION 3 Earthquake Damage •  Earthquakes release energy in the form of motion, causing: - landslides - land displacement - fires (broken gas lines) - collapsed buildings • Richter Scale—numeric scale showing relative strength of earthquake continued Earthquakes Tsunami • Tsunami, a giant ocean wave, begins at epicenter of an earthquake: - travels at up to 450 mph - waves of 50–100 ft. or higher NEXT
  22. 22. SECTION 3 The Explosive Earth • Volcano—underground materials pour from crack in the earth’s surface • Most volcanoes occur at tectonic plate boundaries Volcanoes Volcanic Action • Eruption—lava, gases, ash, dust, explode from vent in Earth’s crust • Lava—magma that has reached the earth’s surface; may create landform Continued . . . NEXT
  23. 23. SECTION 3 Ring of Fire • Ring of Fire—zone around rim of Pacific Ocean: - meeting point of eight tectonic plates - vast majority of the earth’s active volcanoes located here • “Hot spots” are where magma rises to surface from mantle • Hot springs, geysers indicate high temperatures in earth’s crust • Some volcanic action is useful: - volcanic ash produces fertile soil - hot springs are tapped for heat, energy continued Volcanoes NEXT
  24. 24. Section 4 External Forces Shaping the Earth • Wind, heat, cold, glaciers, rivers, and floods alter the surface of the earth. • The results of weathering and erosion change the way humans interact with the environment. NEXT
  25. 25. Weathering External Forces Shaping the Earth SECTION 4 Altering the Landscape • Weathering—processes that alter rock on or near the earth’s surface • Can change landscapes over time and create soil for plant life • Sediment—mud, sand, silt created by weathering processes Mechnical Weathering • Mechanical weathering—processes that break rock into smaller pieces • Does not change rock’s composition, only size • Examples: frost, plant roots, road construction, mining Continued . . . NEXT
  26. 26. SECTION 4 Chemical Weathering • Chemical weathering—interaction of elements creates new substance • Example: when iron rusts it reacts to oxygen in air and crumbles • Warm, moist climates produce more chemical weathering than cool, dry continued Weathering NEXT
  27. 27. SECTION 4 Weathered Material Moves • Erosion—when weathered material moves by winds, water, ice, gravity - movement grinds rock into smaller pieces, carries to new location • Example: water carries topsoil from hill to river, river narrows Erosion Water Erosion • Most streams erode vertically and horizontally - a valley cut by a stream gets deeper, wider; forms v-shaped valley - a river deposits sediment at ocean, creates delta—fan-like landform Continued . . . NEXT
  28. 28. SECTION 4 Wind Erosion • Wind transports sediment from one place to another • Loess—wind-blown silt and clay sediment; produces fertile soil continued Erosion Glacial Erosion • Glacier—large, long-lasting mass of ice; forms in mountainous areas • Glaciation—changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers • Example: cutting u-shaped valleys in land • Moraine—hill or ridge formed by rocks deposited by glacier NEXT
  29. 29. SECTION 4 Soil Formation • Soil—loose mix of weathered rock, organic matter, air, water • Soil supports plant growth; fertility is dependent on three factors: - texture - amount of humus, which is organic material in soil - amount of air and water Building Soil Continued . . . NEXT
  30. 30. SECTION 4 Soil Factors • When geographers study soil, they look at five factors: - parent material—the chemical composition of the original rock - relief—the steeper the slope, the greater erosion; less soil made - organisms—plants, worms, ants, bacteria loosen soil; supply nutrients - climate—hot, cold, wet, dry climates produce different soils - time—about 2.5 cubic cm. of soil produced each century continued Building Soil NEXT
  31. 31. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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