Chapter 12 Transmission  Control Protocol (TCP)
CONTENTS <ul><li>PROCESS-TO-PROCESS COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>TCP SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBERING BYTES </li></...
CONTENTS  (continued) <ul><li>CONGESTION CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>SEGMENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CHE...
Figure  12-1 Position of TCP in TCP/IP protocol suite
PROCESS  TO  PROCESS COMMUNICATION 12.1
Figure  12-2 TCP versus IP
Figure  12-3 Port numbers
TCP SERVICES 12.2
Figure  12-4 Stream delivery
Figure  12-5 Sending and receiving buffers
Figure  12-6 TCP segments
NUMBERING BYTES 12.3
The bytes of data being transferred  in each connection are numbered by TCP.  The numbering starts with  a randomly genera...
Example 1 Imagine a TCP connection is transferring  a file of 6000 bytes. The first byte is  numbered 10010. What are the ...
Solution The following shows the sequence number for each segment: Segment 1     10,010  (10,010 to 11,009) Segment 2   ...
The value of the sequence number field in  a segment defines the number  of the first data byte  contained in that segment.
The value of the acknowledgment field in a  segment defines the number of the  next byte a party expects to receives.  The...
FLOW CONTROL 12.4
A sliding window is used to make  transmission more  efficient as well as to control the flow of  data so that the destina...
Figure  12-7 Sender buffer
Figure  12-8 Receiver window
Figure  12-9 Sender buffer and sender window
Figure  12-10 Sliding the sender window
Figure  12-11 Expanding the sender window
Figure  12-12 Shrinking the sender window
In TCP, the sender window  size is totally controlled  by the receiver window value. However, the actual window size  can ...
Some Points about TCP’s Sliding Windows: 1. The source does not have to send a    full window’s worth of data. 2.  The siz...
SILLY WINDOW SYNDROME 12.5
ERROR CONTROL 12.6
Figure  12-13 Corrupted segment
Figure  12-14 Lost segment
Figure  12-15 Lost acknowledgment
TCP TIMERS 12.7
Figure  12-16 TCP timers
CONGESTION CONTROL 12.8
TCP assumes that the cause of  a lost segment is due to  congestion in the network.
If the cause of the lost segment  is congestion,  retransmission of the segment  not only does not remove the cause,  it a...
Figure  12-17 Multiplicative decrease
Figure  12-18 Congestion avoidance strategies
SEGMENT 12.9
Figure  12-19 TCP segment format
Figure  12-20 Control field
OPTIONS 12.10
Figure  12-21 Options
Figure  12-22 End of option  option
Figure  12-23 No operation  option
Figure  12-24 Maximum segment size  option
Figure  12-25 Window scale factor  option
Figure  12-26 Timestamp  option
CHECKSUM 12.11
Figure  12-12 Pseudoheader added to the TCP datagram
CONNECTION 12.12
Figure  12-28 Three-way handshaking
Figure  12-29 Four-way handshaking
STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM 12.13
Figure  12-30 State transition diagram
Figure  12-31 Client states
Figure  12-32 Server states
TCP OPERATION 12.14
Figure  12-33 Encapsulation and decapsulation
Figure  12-34 Multiplexing and demultiplexing
TCP  PACKAGE 12.15
Figure  12-35 TCP package
Figure  12-36 TCBs Transmission control blocks
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Ch12

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Ch12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>PROCESS-TO-PROCESS COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>TCP SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBERING BYTES </li></ul><ul><li>FLOW CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>SILLY WINDOW SYNDROME </li></ul><ul><li>ERROR CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>TCP TIMERS </li></ul>
  3. 3. CONTENTS (continued) <ul><li>CONGESTION CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>SEGMENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CHECKSUM </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECTION </li></ul><ul><li>STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>TCP OERATION </li></ul><ul><li>TCP PACKAGE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 12-1 Position of TCP in TCP/IP protocol suite
  5. 5. PROCESS TO PROCESS COMMUNICATION 12.1
  6. 6. Figure 12-2 TCP versus IP
  7. 7. Figure 12-3 Port numbers
  8. 8. TCP SERVICES 12.2
  9. 9. Figure 12-4 Stream delivery
  10. 10. Figure 12-5 Sending and receiving buffers
  11. 11. Figure 12-6 TCP segments
  12. 12. NUMBERING BYTES 12.3
  13. 13. The bytes of data being transferred in each connection are numbered by TCP. The numbering starts with a randomly generated number.
  14. 14. Example 1 Imagine a TCP connection is transferring a file of 6000 bytes. The first byte is numbered 10010. What are the sequence numbers for each segment if data is sent in five segments with the first four segments carrying 1,000 bytes and the last segment carrying 2,000 bytes?
  15. 15. Solution The following shows the sequence number for each segment: Segment 1  10,010 (10,010 to 11,009) Segment 2  11,010 (11,010 to 12,009) Segment 3   12,010 (12,010 to 13,009) Segment 4   13,010 (13,010 to 14,009) Segment 5  14,010 (14,010 to 16,009)
  16. 16. The value of the sequence number field in a segment defines the number of the first data byte contained in that segment.
  17. 17. The value of the acknowledgment field in a segment defines the number of the next byte a party expects to receives. The acknowledgment number is cumulative.
  18. 18. FLOW CONTROL 12.4
  19. 19. A sliding window is used to make transmission more efficient as well as to control the flow of data so that the destination does not become overwhelmed with data. TCP’s sliding windows are byte oriented.
  20. 20. Figure 12-7 Sender buffer
  21. 21. Figure 12-8 Receiver window
  22. 22. Figure 12-9 Sender buffer and sender window
  23. 23. Figure 12-10 Sliding the sender window
  24. 24. Figure 12-11 Expanding the sender window
  25. 25. Figure 12-12 Shrinking the sender window
  26. 26. In TCP, the sender window size is totally controlled by the receiver window value. However, the actual window size can be smaller if there is congestion in the network.
  27. 27. Some Points about TCP’s Sliding Windows: 1. The source does not have to send a full window’s worth of data. 2. The size of the window can be increased or decreased by the destination. 3. The destination can send an acknowledgment at any time.
  28. 28. SILLY WINDOW SYNDROME 12.5
  29. 29. ERROR CONTROL 12.6
  30. 30. Figure 12-13 Corrupted segment
  31. 31. Figure 12-14 Lost segment
  32. 32. Figure 12-15 Lost acknowledgment
  33. 33. TCP TIMERS 12.7
  34. 34. Figure 12-16 TCP timers
  35. 35. CONGESTION CONTROL 12.8
  36. 36. TCP assumes that the cause of a lost segment is due to congestion in the network.
  37. 37. If the cause of the lost segment is congestion, retransmission of the segment not only does not remove the cause, it aggravates it.
  38. 38. Figure 12-17 Multiplicative decrease
  39. 39. Figure 12-18 Congestion avoidance strategies
  40. 40. SEGMENT 12.9
  41. 41. Figure 12-19 TCP segment format
  42. 42. Figure 12-20 Control field
  43. 43. OPTIONS 12.10
  44. 44. Figure 12-21 Options
  45. 45. Figure 12-22 End of option option
  46. 46. Figure 12-23 No operation option
  47. 47. Figure 12-24 Maximum segment size option
  48. 48. Figure 12-25 Window scale factor option
  49. 49. Figure 12-26 Timestamp option
  50. 50. CHECKSUM 12.11
  51. 51. Figure 12-12 Pseudoheader added to the TCP datagram
  52. 52. CONNECTION 12.12
  53. 53. Figure 12-28 Three-way handshaking
  54. 54. Figure 12-29 Four-way handshaking
  55. 55. STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAM 12.13
  56. 56. Figure 12-30 State transition diagram
  57. 57. Figure 12-31 Client states
  58. 58. Figure 12-32 Server states
  59. 59. TCP OPERATION 12.14
  60. 60. Figure 12-33 Encapsulation and decapsulation
  61. 61. Figure 12-34 Multiplexing and demultiplexing
  62. 62. TCP PACKAGE 12.15
  63. 63. Figure 12-35 TCP package
  64. 64. Figure 12-36 TCBs Transmission control blocks

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