Dams & water conflicts in INDIA and abroad.


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This presentation is about Dams and conflicts related dude to water ie water conflicts in India as well as on the International level
The international Disputes covered are:
India Pakistan Dispute
India China Dispute
Isreal-Arab Dispute
Singapore -Malasiya dispute.

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Dams & water conflicts in INDIA and abroad.

  2. 2. What is a DAM? • A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water apart from managing or preventing water flow into specific land regions.
  3. 3. List of Indian Dams. 1. Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India. 2. The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and one of the tallest in the world. It is a multi-purpose rock and earth- fill embankment dam on theBhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. 3. The oldest dam in India was constructed during 1st century A.D. across the river Cauvery in Tamilnadu by Karikala Cholan. This dam was named as "Kallanai Dam" by Karikala Cholan. Kallanai dam is located 48kms away from the temple town Tanjavur. The height of this dam is 320 meters and width is 60 meters.
  4. 4. OTHER IMPORTANT DAMS IN INDIA 1. Bhakra Nangal Dam 2. Hirakud dam 3.Damodar Valley Dam 4. Krishnarajasagar Dam 5.Nagarjunasagar Dam 6.Koyna Dam 7. Mettur Dam
  5. 5. Dr.Manmohan Singh
  6. 6. PM's Independence Day Speech, 2009 Dr Manmohan Singh, said: “Climate change is threatening our ecosystems; water scarcity is becoming a way of life and pollution is a growing threat to our health and habitat.”
  7. 7. India has 16 % of the world’s population and 4% of its fresh water resources. Water availability(Rank): Weighted average: 14.0 thousand cubic metres # 1 Iceland: 294.34 thousand cubic metres # 47 USA: 7.09 thousand cms # 68 UK: 3.1 thousand cms # 89 China: 1.72 thousand cms # 93 India: 1.56 thousand cubic metres # 141 Botswana: -7.46 thousand cubic metres Severe water stress: Weighted average: 25.5 % #1 Israel: 100 % # 23 India: 80.2 % # 36 China: 44.7 % # 42 United States: 31.3 % # 51 United Kingdom: 21 %
  8. 8. Conflict Over Water!
  9. 9. The next WORLD WAR will be over WATER
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS • Indo-China dispute • Indo-Pakistan dispute
  11. 11. China and India • The Brahmaputra River has caused tension between India and China and could be a flashpoint for two of the world's biggest armies. • In 2000, India accused China of not sharing information of the river's status in the run up to landslides in Tibet which caused floods in northeastern India and Bangladesh.
  12. 12. China and India • Chinese proposals to divert the river have concerned Delhi. • China, nevertheless maintains that it has no plans to divert the waters of the Brahmaputra. • However, considering China’s usual reluctance to share information and the absence of a water sharing treaty between the two, this becomes a major concern for India.
  13. 13. China and India • Analysts propose that the Brahmaputra issue can be a potential reason for a possible 2nd INDO-CHINA WAR.
  15. 15. Agenda 1. Background 2. Role of World Bank 3. Indus Water Treaty 4. 5. Conclusion
  16. 16. Back Ground
  17. 17. Back Ground • Came to light on April 1,1948 after partition of Punjab • Cut across the rivers and canals • India cutoff flow of canal water to West Punjab • Stopped the water of the rivers Ravi and Sutlej • India wanted to damage Pakistan economically
  18. 18. HOW DID THIS HAPPEN? • Ferozepur and Madhopur head-works given to India. • June 1947, Kashmiris revolted against Maharaja of Kashmir. • Maharaja signed accession with India on 26th October 1947. • Standstill Agreement signed on 18 December 1947. • India cut off supplies from Ferozepur on 1st April 1948.
  19. 19. Effects • It was a grave blow to agriculture of Pakistan • Pakistan’s agriculture vitally and entirely depend on canals drawn from Indus • Rain fall is scanty and undependable • Effected agriculture very badly • Pakistan also purchased water from India to avoid economic disaster.
  20. 20. Role of World Bank
  21. 21. Role of World Bank • Critical disputes resolution was the intervention of the World Bank • Both countries had applied to W.B. for development loans • WB decided to refuse development loans to India and Pakistan
  22. 22. World Bank Plan WB would approve loans if 3 conditions were met: • 1)Indus basin had enough water for both countries • 2) The basin was treated as a single unit implying all the rivers were to be discussed • 3) Past grievances put aside and technical rather than a political focus retained
  23. 23. World Bank Plan • Divide Indus Basin into 2 parts • India- 3 eastern rivers i.e. Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi • Pakistan – 3 western rivers i.e. Chenab , Jhelum and the Indus
  24. 24. World Bank Plan • Pakistan – not fully convinced refused to sign until 1958 • Treaty formalized 1960
  25. 25. Indus Waters Treaty
  26. 26. Indus Waters Treaty • The Indus Waters Treaty is a water sharing treaty between the Republic of India and Islamic republic of Pakistan • The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India • It could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war.
  27. 27. • The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 • By Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan
  28. 28. Clauses of Treaty
  29. 29. Clauses of Treaty • The Indus System of Rivers comprises three Western Rivers the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab and three Eastern Rivers - the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi; and with minor exceptions • the treaty gives India exclusive use of all of the waters of the Eastern Rivers and their tributaries before the point where the rivers enter Pakistan
  30. 30. • Pakistan has exclusive use of the Western Rivers- the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab • The agreement set up a commission to adjudicate any future disputes arising over the allocation of waters • The Commission is required to meet regularly to discuss potential disputes as well as cooperative arrangements for the development of the basin
  31. 31. • Either party must notify the other of plans to construct any engineering works which would affect the other party and to provide data about such works • In cases of disagreement, a neutral expert is called in for mediation and arbitration • Commission was created to resolve, the annual inspections and exchange of data continue, unperturbed by tensions on the subcontinent.
  32. 32. Conclusion
  33. 33. Conclusion • The Indus Water Treaty (1960) signed with India under Stress From U.N. Pressure • It was a result of Pakistan’s fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India
  34. 34. • No interference was agreed by India and Pakistan in the natural flows of the western rivers (Indus, Jhelum and Chenab) and eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas and Sutlej), respectively • Pakistan strongly object to the designs of such projects for having potential to change / disrupt flows downstream • It is in the interest of India and Pakistan to follow the treaty in letter and spirit
  35. 35. Thank You!