SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 26
Download to read offline
PROBIOTICS
-TEJA NAVEEN
DEFINITION
1. WHO defines Probiotics as “Live micro organisms which when administered in
adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”
2.
Lactobacillus species
L. Acidophilus
L.casei (rhamnosus)
L.reuteri
L.salivarius
L.Plantarum
Bifidobacterium species
B.bifidum
B.longum
B.breve
B.infantis
B.lactis
Others
Saccharomyces boulardii
Non pathogenic E.coli
S.thermophilus
Clostridium butyricum
MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT
1. Benefits of probiotics are incompletely understood
2. Suppression of growth or epithelial binding/invasion by pathogenic
bacteria
3. Improvement of intestinal bacterial function
4. Modulation of the immune system
5. Modulation of pain perception
1. Some of the commercially available probiotics include:
2. VSL#3 (Bifidobacterium breve,B.longum,B.infantis,Lactobacillus
acidophillus,L.plantarum,L.paracasei,L.bulgaricus,streptococcus thermophilus)
3. Align(B.infantis)
4. Culturelle(L.rhamnosus GG)
5. DanActive(L.casei)
6. Mutaflor(E.coli Nissle 1917)
7. Florastor(s.boulardii)
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE PROBIOTICS
1. Able to survive the passage through the digestive system
2. Able to attach to the intestinal epithelial and colonise
3. Able to maintain good viability
4. Able to utilise the nutrients and substrates in a normal diet
5. Non pathogenic and non toxic
6. Stability of desired characteristics during processing,storage and transportation
7. Anti-inflammatory,antimutagenic,immunostimulatory
MICROBIOTA AND MICROBIOME
1. Healthy adult harbours~ 100 trillion bacteria in gut alone
2. This is 10x the number of human cells we possess
3. Humans possess 23,000 genes
4. Microbiota contributes ~33,00,000
5. Communal gut microbial genome (microbiome) is ~150 times larger than human
genome
6. Is dominated by 4 large groups of bacteria or phyla:
Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes,Firmicutes,Proteobacteria
1. Bacteria express glycoside hydrolyse which converts glycans into useable sugars
2. No enzyme encoded in human genome is capable of digesting glycans -only bacterial
enzymes
3. Many carbohydrates are digestible only by bacteria and produce SCFA-primary fuel
for colonocytes
4. 10-15% of adult energy may be generated by SCFA production
1. PREBIOTICS- Nondigestable carbohydrates that stimulate the growth and activity of
beneficial colonic bacteria
2. Best source of prebiotic fiber are Inulin and oligosaccharides(fructooligosaccharides and
galactooligosaccharides)
3. Traditional dietary sources of PREBIOTICS include soybeans,raw oats,unrefined wheat and
barely
4. When these are metabolised by gut microbes,short chain fatty acids are produced
5. SCFs nourish cells that line the gut
6. Reduces the risk for cancer in the gut
7. Enhance calcium absorption and relieve constipation and diarrhoea
8. SYNBIOTICS- Mixture of Pro and PREBIOTICS
DIET INFLUENCES MICROBIOME COMPOSITION
Long term diet is associated with development of specific Enterocytes
1. Diets high in animal protein and fat with high levels of Bacteroides and low levels of
Prevotella
2. Diets high in carbohydrates but low in animal protein and fat with higher levels of
prevotella butvlower levels of Bacteroides
Japanese harbour organisms that produce enzyme that aids in sea weed digestion
Microbiota of African children enriched in Bacteroides and depleted in Firmicutes to
maximize energy uptake from fibre rich diet.
REVERSING DYSBIOSIS
1. Colectomy
2. Colon cleaning
3. Antibiotics
4. Prebiotics
5. Probiotics
6. Faecal transplantation
ALLERGIC DISEASES
1. Studies have shown differences in the early colonisation patterns of infants who
develop allergic disease
2. Low levels of Bifidobacterium and early colonisation with potentially pathogenic
bacteria,such as Clostridioides(formerly clostridium) difficile and staphylococcus
aureus, were more prevalent in children who subsequently developed allergy
3. High diversity of Microbiota is required for immune system maturation,which is less
in allergic patients
4. World Allergy organisation suggests use of PREBIOTICS only in infants who are not
exclusively breastfed and probiotics in pregnant and lactating women and in infants
when there is high risk of allergy in the children
1. CONSTIPATION- Improvement in defecation frequency ,stool consistency,and
intestinal transit time with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010,B.lactis
BB12,Lactobacillus casei Shirota,L.reuteri DSM 19738 and E.coli Nissle 1917.
2. Should be avoided in management of severe constipation in elderly and in children
with functional constipation
3. PANCREATITIS- Probiotics did not reduce the risk of infectious complications and
actually increased mortality from mesentric ischemia.
4. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE: Lactose fermenting Lactobacillus acidophilus strain
showed reduced symptoms after in vivo lactose challenge
DIARRHEAL ILLNESSES
1. Infectious diarrhoea- May be considered for use in children and adults.It reduces the
duration of diarrhoea
2. In acute rotavirus diarrhoea in children ,VSL#3 significantly decreased stool frequency.
3. Lactobacillus GG showed a dose dependent decrease in fecal shedding of rotavirus
4. Protective mechanisms include strengthening the mucosal barrier,blocking viral
entry,decreased viral toxin expression,and inducing antiviral IgA.
5. A combination of seven Lactobacillus,Bifidobacterium, and streptococcus
thermophilus significantly decreased acute dysentery bleeding and hospitalisation.
6. Celiac diseases- No evidence to support the use of probiotics in patients with celiac
disease
Clostridioides(formerly clostridium) difficle infection
1. Probiotics when given with antibiotics,there is 60% risk reduction in development of
clostridium difficle associated diarrhoea
2. No enough evidence to support use of probiotics in treating clostridium difficile
infection
3. Pouchitis-Study of patients with pouchitis showed persistence of Fusobacteria and
enteric species,increased clostridium perfringens,and the absence of streptococcus
species
4. VSL#3 found more effective for preventing relapse of chronic pouchitis and
prevention onset of pouchitis
FECAL TRANSPLANTATION
1. First performed in 1958 for fulminant pseudomembranes
2. Now accepted as effective for recurrent C.difficile
3. 92% effective when standard therapy failed
4. Administered by NG,NJ,enema or colonoscopy
5. Efficacy slightly improved with antibiotics before Microbiota transplantation
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
1. Various probiotic species have shown promise in the treatment of ulcerative
colitis,but these studies are done in small no of patients and no strong conclusions
in systematic reviews
2. E. coli 1917 Nissle was shown to be as effective as low dose 5-ASA in preventing
relapse
3. Lactobacillus GG appeared to be more effective than standard treatment involving
mesalazine in prolonging relapse free time,but did not influence relapse rates
4. Combination of a prebiotic and a probiotic(B.longum) was associated with
improvement in histological scores
5. Crohn disease- Available data do not support clinical effectiveness of probiotic
therapy for either induction or maintenance of remission
NEXT GENERATION PROBIOTICS
1. These come from the human intestinal microbes and include novel bacteria that
have not been previously used as health promoting agent.
2. L.reuteri produces an antibacterial compound from glycerol called reuterin and this
can eliminate clostridium difficile.
3. It has also got antibiotic resistance properties,so this can be used in recurrent
c.difficile infection in addition to antibiotics

More Related Content

What's hot

Probiotics and your health
Probiotics and your healthProbiotics and your health
Probiotics and your healththecaregroup
 
Saccharomyces Boulardii Probiotic
Saccharomyces Boulardii ProbioticSaccharomyces Boulardii Probiotic
Saccharomyces Boulardii ProbioticRaga C
 
The Basics of Probiotics
The Basics of ProbioticsThe Basics of Probiotics
The Basics of ProbioticsSmart Biotics
 
Probiotics and health benefits
Probiotics and health benefitsProbiotics and health benefits
Probiotics and health benefitsAshwini Shellikeri
 
Good Belly Probiotic
Good Belly ProbioticGood Belly Probiotic
Good Belly ProbioticRaga C
 
Trunature Digestive Probiotic
Trunature Digestive ProbioticTrunature Digestive Probiotic
Trunature Digestive ProbioticRaga C
 
What Are Acidophilus Probiotics
What Are Acidophilus ProbioticsWhat Are Acidophilus Probiotics
What Are Acidophilus ProbioticsRaga C
 
CVS Probiotics
CVS ProbioticsCVS Probiotics
CVS ProbioticsRaga C
 
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care Physicians
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care PhysiciansProbiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care Physicians
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care PhysiciansJarrod Lee
 
Cottage Cheese Probiotic
Cottage Cheese ProbioticCottage Cheese Probiotic
Cottage Cheese ProbioticRaga C
 

What's hot (20)

Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Probiotics and your health
Probiotics and your healthProbiotics and your health
Probiotics and your health
 
Saccharomyces Boulardii Probiotic
Saccharomyces Boulardii ProbioticSaccharomyces Boulardii Probiotic
Saccharomyces Boulardii Probiotic
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
The Basics of Probiotics
The Basics of ProbioticsThe Basics of Probiotics
The Basics of Probiotics
 
Probiotics and health benefits
Probiotics and health benefitsProbiotics and health benefits
Probiotics and health benefits
 
Good Belly Probiotic
Good Belly ProbioticGood Belly Probiotic
Good Belly Probiotic
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Trunature Digestive Probiotic
Trunature Digestive ProbioticTrunature Digestive Probiotic
Trunature Digestive Probiotic
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
What Are Acidophilus Probiotics
What Are Acidophilus ProbioticsWhat Are Acidophilus Probiotics
What Are Acidophilus Probiotics
 
PRE & PROBIOTICS
PRE & PROBIOTICSPRE & PROBIOTICS
PRE & PROBIOTICS
 
CVS Probiotics
CVS ProbioticsCVS Probiotics
CVS Probiotics
 
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care Physicians
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care PhysiciansProbiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care Physicians
Probiotics for the Gut - A Guide for Primary Care Physicians
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 
Cottage Cheese Probiotic
Cottage Cheese ProbioticCottage Cheese Probiotic
Cottage Cheese Probiotic
 
Probiotics
ProbioticsProbiotics
Probiotics
 

Similar to Benefits of Probiotics and Their Role in Gut and Overall Health

Probiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics and PrebioticsProbiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics and Prebioticsmontica sawant
 
Living microorganisms in therapy
Living microorganisms in therapyLiving microorganisms in therapy
Living microorganisms in therapyCSN Vittal
 
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in children
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in childrenWhich probiotic for acute diarrheea in children
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in childrengfalakha
 
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptx
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptxCcm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptx
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptxAshishSharma907946
 
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & Prebiotics
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & PrebioticsMuyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & Prebiotics
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & PrebioticsMathew Rogers Muyinda
 
Prebiotic and probiotic.
Prebiotic and probiotic.Prebiotic and probiotic.
Prebiotic and probiotic.151212345
 
Probiotics in Adult Gastroenterology
Probiotics in Adult GastroenterologyProbiotics in Adult Gastroenterology
Probiotics in Adult Gastroenterologynutritionistrepublic
 
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptx
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptxprebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptx
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptxJo Martin Kuncheria
 
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)wuokanyi
 
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?""Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"ibdsf00
 
Git j club fmt.
Git j club fmt.Git j club fmt.
Git j club fmt.Shaikhani.
 
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowel
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowelSymptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowel
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowelEneutron
 

Similar to Benefits of Probiotics and Their Role in Gut and Overall Health (20)

Probiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics and PrebioticsProbiotics and Prebiotics
Probiotics and Prebiotics
 
Probiotics ppt
Probiotics pptProbiotics ppt
Probiotics ppt
 
Probiotics in Pediatric Practice
Probiotics in Pediatric PracticeProbiotics in Pediatric Practice
Probiotics in Pediatric Practice
 
probioticsppt-160528055555.pptx
probioticsppt-160528055555.pptxprobioticsppt-160528055555.pptx
probioticsppt-160528055555.pptx
 
Living microorganisms in therapy
Living microorganisms in therapyLiving microorganisms in therapy
Living microorganisms in therapy
 
Probiotics&prebiotics
Probiotics&prebioticsProbiotics&prebiotics
Probiotics&prebiotics
 
Probiotics&prebiotic
Probiotics&prebioticProbiotics&prebiotic
Probiotics&prebiotic
 
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in children
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in childrenWhich probiotic for acute diarrheea in children
Which probiotic for acute diarrheea in children
 
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptx
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptxCcm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptx
Ccm prebiotics probiotics synbiotics.pptx
 
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & Prebiotics
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & PrebioticsMuyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & Prebiotics
Muyinda Mathew Rogers - Probiotics & Prebiotics
 
Prebiotic and probiotic.
Prebiotic and probiotic.Prebiotic and probiotic.
Prebiotic and probiotic.
 
Probiotics in Adult Gastroenterology
Probiotics in Adult GastroenterologyProbiotics in Adult Gastroenterology
Probiotics in Adult Gastroenterology
 
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptx
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptxprebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptx
prebiotics & probiotics in pediatric practice New.pptx
 
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)
181550 181550-181550-181550-ibds (1)
 
Probiotics in pediatrics.pptx mmm
Probiotics in pediatrics.pptx mmmProbiotics in pediatrics.pptx mmm
Probiotics in pediatrics.pptx mmm
 
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?""Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"
"Probiotics: What Are They? What Can They Do for You?"
 
Probiotics
Probiotics Probiotics
Probiotics
 
Git j club fmt.
Git j club fmt.Git j club fmt.
Git j club fmt.
 
42861
4286142861
42861
 
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowel
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowelSymptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowel
Symptomatic treatment of Dysbacteriosis & Gaseous bowel
 

Recently uploaded

Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxpdamico1
 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptSystemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptraviapr7
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamAkebom Gebremichael
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)MohamadAlhes
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfSasikiranMarri
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!ibtesaam huma
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxEx WHO/USAID
 
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UK
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UKExploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UK
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UKPrivate GP London
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxScreening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxtadehabte
 
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptRheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptraviapr7
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityHarshChauhan475104
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisGolden Helix
 
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdf
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdfSGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdf
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdfHongBiThi1
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxSasikiranMarri
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptx
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptxL1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptx
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptxDr Bilal Natiq
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfMyThaoAiDoan
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.pptSystemic  Lupus  Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -SLE PT2.ppt
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
 
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdfHistory and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
History and Development of Pharmacovigilence.pdf
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
 
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UK
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UKExploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UK
Exploring the Variety of Private Blood Tests in the UK
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
 
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptxScreening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
Screening for colorectal cancer AAU.pptx
 
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptRheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
 
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand UniversityCEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
CEHPALOSPORINS.pptx By Harshvardhan Dev Bhoomi Uttarakhand University
 
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic AnalysisVarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
VarSeq 2.6.0: Advancing Pharmacogenomics and Genomic Analysis
 
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdf
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdfSGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdf
SGK NĂNG LƯỢNG SINH HỌC MỚI 2019 RẤT HAY NHÉ.pdf
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptxInformed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
Informed Consent Empowering Healthcare Decision-Making.pptx
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
 
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptx
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptxL1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptx
L1.INTRODUCTION to ENDOCRINOLOGY MEDICINE.pptx
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
 

Benefits of Probiotics and Their Role in Gut and Overall Health

  • 2. DEFINITION 1. WHO defines Probiotics as “Live micro organisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host” 2. Lactobacillus species L. Acidophilus L.casei (rhamnosus) L.reuteri L.salivarius L.Plantarum Bifidobacterium species B.bifidum B.longum B.breve B.infantis B.lactis Others Saccharomyces boulardii Non pathogenic E.coli S.thermophilus Clostridium butyricum
  • 3. MECHANISMS OF BENEFIT 1. Benefits of probiotics are incompletely understood 2. Suppression of growth or epithelial binding/invasion by pathogenic bacteria 3. Improvement of intestinal bacterial function 4. Modulation of the immune system 5. Modulation of pain perception
  • 4. 1. Some of the commercially available probiotics include: 2. VSL#3 (Bifidobacterium breve,B.longum,B.infantis,Lactobacillus acidophillus,L.plantarum,L.paracasei,L.bulgaricus,streptococcus thermophilus) 3. Align(B.infantis) 4. Culturelle(L.rhamnosus GG) 5. DanActive(L.casei) 6. Mutaflor(E.coli Nissle 1917) 7. Florastor(s.boulardii)
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE PROBIOTICS 1. Able to survive the passage through the digestive system 2. Able to attach to the intestinal epithelial and colonise 3. Able to maintain good viability 4. Able to utilise the nutrients and substrates in a normal diet 5. Non pathogenic and non toxic 6. Stability of desired characteristics during processing,storage and transportation 7. Anti-inflammatory,antimutagenic,immunostimulatory
  • 6. MICROBIOTA AND MICROBIOME 1. Healthy adult harbours~ 100 trillion bacteria in gut alone 2. This is 10x the number of human cells we possess 3. Humans possess 23,000 genes 4. Microbiota contributes ~33,00,000 5. Communal gut microbial genome (microbiome) is ~150 times larger than human genome 6. Is dominated by 4 large groups of bacteria or phyla: Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes,Firmicutes,Proteobacteria
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. 1. Bacteria express glycoside hydrolyse which converts glycans into useable sugars 2. No enzyme encoded in human genome is capable of digesting glycans -only bacterial enzymes 3. Many carbohydrates are digestible only by bacteria and produce SCFA-primary fuel for colonocytes 4. 10-15% of adult energy may be generated by SCFA production
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. 1. PREBIOTICS- Nondigestable carbohydrates that stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial colonic bacteria 2. Best source of prebiotic fiber are Inulin and oligosaccharides(fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides) 3. Traditional dietary sources of PREBIOTICS include soybeans,raw oats,unrefined wheat and barely 4. When these are metabolised by gut microbes,short chain fatty acids are produced 5. SCFs nourish cells that line the gut 6. Reduces the risk for cancer in the gut 7. Enhance calcium absorption and relieve constipation and diarrhoea 8. SYNBIOTICS- Mixture of Pro and PREBIOTICS
  • 15. DIET INFLUENCES MICROBIOME COMPOSITION Long term diet is associated with development of specific Enterocytes 1. Diets high in animal protein and fat with high levels of Bacteroides and low levels of Prevotella 2. Diets high in carbohydrates but low in animal protein and fat with higher levels of prevotella butvlower levels of Bacteroides Japanese harbour organisms that produce enzyme that aids in sea weed digestion Microbiota of African children enriched in Bacteroides and depleted in Firmicutes to maximize energy uptake from fibre rich diet.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. REVERSING DYSBIOSIS 1. Colectomy 2. Colon cleaning 3. Antibiotics 4. Prebiotics 5. Probiotics 6. Faecal transplantation
  • 19. ALLERGIC DISEASES 1. Studies have shown differences in the early colonisation patterns of infants who develop allergic disease 2. Low levels of Bifidobacterium and early colonisation with potentially pathogenic bacteria,such as Clostridioides(formerly clostridium) difficile and staphylococcus aureus, were more prevalent in children who subsequently developed allergy 3. High diversity of Microbiota is required for immune system maturation,which is less in allergic patients 4. World Allergy organisation suggests use of PREBIOTICS only in infants who are not exclusively breastfed and probiotics in pregnant and lactating women and in infants when there is high risk of allergy in the children
  • 20. 1. CONSTIPATION- Improvement in defecation frequency ,stool consistency,and intestinal transit time with Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010,B.lactis BB12,Lactobacillus casei Shirota,L.reuteri DSM 19738 and E.coli Nissle 1917. 2. Should be avoided in management of severe constipation in elderly and in children with functional constipation 3. PANCREATITIS- Probiotics did not reduce the risk of infectious complications and actually increased mortality from mesentric ischemia. 4. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE: Lactose fermenting Lactobacillus acidophilus strain showed reduced symptoms after in vivo lactose challenge
  • 21. DIARRHEAL ILLNESSES 1. Infectious diarrhoea- May be considered for use in children and adults.It reduces the duration of diarrhoea 2. In acute rotavirus diarrhoea in children ,VSL#3 significantly decreased stool frequency. 3. Lactobacillus GG showed a dose dependent decrease in fecal shedding of rotavirus 4. Protective mechanisms include strengthening the mucosal barrier,blocking viral entry,decreased viral toxin expression,and inducing antiviral IgA. 5. A combination of seven Lactobacillus,Bifidobacterium, and streptococcus thermophilus significantly decreased acute dysentery bleeding and hospitalisation. 6. Celiac diseases- No evidence to support the use of probiotics in patients with celiac disease
  • 22. Clostridioides(formerly clostridium) difficle infection 1. Probiotics when given with antibiotics,there is 60% risk reduction in development of clostridium difficle associated diarrhoea 2. No enough evidence to support use of probiotics in treating clostridium difficile infection 3. Pouchitis-Study of patients with pouchitis showed persistence of Fusobacteria and enteric species,increased clostridium perfringens,and the absence of streptococcus species 4. VSL#3 found more effective for preventing relapse of chronic pouchitis and prevention onset of pouchitis
  • 23. FECAL TRANSPLANTATION 1. First performed in 1958 for fulminant pseudomembranes 2. Now accepted as effective for recurrent C.difficile 3. 92% effective when standard therapy failed 4. Administered by NG,NJ,enema or colonoscopy 5. Efficacy slightly improved with antibiotics before Microbiota transplantation
  • 24. INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE 1. Various probiotic species have shown promise in the treatment of ulcerative colitis,but these studies are done in small no of patients and no strong conclusions in systematic reviews 2. E. coli 1917 Nissle was shown to be as effective as low dose 5-ASA in preventing relapse 3. Lactobacillus GG appeared to be more effective than standard treatment involving mesalazine in prolonging relapse free time,but did not influence relapse rates 4. Combination of a prebiotic and a probiotic(B.longum) was associated with improvement in histological scores 5. Crohn disease- Available data do not support clinical effectiveness of probiotic therapy for either induction or maintenance of remission
  • 25.
  • 26. NEXT GENERATION PROBIOTICS 1. These come from the human intestinal microbes and include novel bacteria that have not been previously used as health promoting agent. 2. L.reuteri produces an antibacterial compound from glycerol called reuterin and this can eliminate clostridium difficile. 3. It has also got antibiotic resistance properties,so this can be used in recurrent c.difficile infection in addition to antibiotics