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Liver – Functions, Disorders
and Diagnostic Tests
Objectives
SLO BI 6.13.1 Enumerate functions of liver
SLO BI 6.14.1 Discuss the biochemical tests
which are done to assess the function of
liver
SLO BI 11.17.5 Enumerate and explain the
biochemical basis of Liver Function tests
SLO BI 6.15.1 Discuss the biochemical
alterations in patients with jaundice
 Largest solid organ, right upper quadrant
 Large reserve capacity
 Capable of regeneration
 Functions:
 Metabolism: Fat, carbohydrates, protein,
xenobiotics, hormones
 Synthesis: Albumin, α and β globulins,
coagulation factors
 Storage: fluids, vitamins, minerals
Liver
Some examples of Liver dysfunction
 Hepatocellular diseases (viral hepatitis, ALD)
 Cholestastic disease (intra and extra hepatic
obstruction)
 Cirrhosis
 Cancer (secondary or primary)
 Fatty Liver
 Genetic Disorders
 Hemochromatosis (iron storage)
 Wilsons disease
Liver dysfunction diagnosis
 The diagnosis of liver disease depends on
a combination of patient history, physical
examination, laboratory testing, biopsy
and imaging studies such as ultrasound/
CT /MRI scans
Liver FunctionTest
Used to ……
 detect the presence of liver disease
 distinguish among different types of liver
disorders
 gauge the extent of known liver damage
 follow the response to treatment
Liver FunctionTest
Shortcomings
 can be normal in a patient with serious
liver disease and abnormal in a patient
with diseases that do not affect the liver
 rarely suggest a specific diagnosis rather
suggest a general category of liver disease
→ further directs the evaluation
Liver FunctionTest
point to be noted…….
 Liver – thousands of biochemical functions –
most cannot be measured
 Enzymes – do not measure liver function at all –
detect damage or interference with the bile flow
 Interpretation must be performed within the
context of the patient’s risk factors, symptoms,
concomitant conditions, medications, and
physical findings
 Differing laboratories  Differing normal
values
Liver Function Test
point to be noted…….
 No one test enables the clinician to accurately assess
the liver’s total functional capacity
 to increase the sensitivity and specificity use them as
a battery
 when one test provide abnormal finding or
persistently abnormal on serial determination –
probability of liver disease is high
 when all results are normal – probability of missing
occult liver disease is low
 Commonly employed tests: Bilirubin,
Aminotransferases, Alkaline phasphatase, Albimin
and Prothrombin time
Liver FunctionTest
Sample collection
 Serum or plasma
 Avoid hemolytic and lipemic sample
 Sample transport/storage
 Precautions (viral hepatitis B and C)
Liver FunctionTest
Categorization
 Test based on detoxification and excretory
function
 Test for enzymes that reflect damage to
hepatocytes
 Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis
 Test that measure synthetic function
Liver FunctionTest
Test based on detoxification and excretory
function:
Van den Bergh assay: determination of
total, conjugated (direct) and unconjugated
bilirubin (indirect)
 Normal value of total < 1-1.5mg/dl
 Normal value of direct: up to 15% of the
total (upper limit = 0.3mg/dl)
Liver FunctionTest
Test based on detoxification and
excretory function:
 Isolated elevation of UCB – bilirubin elevated
but < 15% direct - W/U for hemolysis – if
absent – Gilbert disease
 Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia – liver or
biliary tract disease
 In most liver diseases both fractions are
increased
Liver FunctionTest
Test based on detoxification and excretory
function:
Urine Bilirubin:
 any bilirubin found in urine is conjugated
bilirubin
 bilirubinuria implies the presence of liver disease
Blood ammonia:
 Was used for detecting encephalopathy or for
monitoring hepatic synthetic function (poor
corelation)
Liver FunctionTest
Test for enzymes that reflect damage to
hepatocytes
Aminnotransferases (ALT and AST):
 AST: Liver, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, kidneys,
brain, pancreas, lungs, leucocytes, and RBC - (Normal
serum level)
 ALT: Liver - (Normal serum level)
 Liver cell damage – increased permeability – increase
serum levels
 BUT poor correlation b/w liver cell damage and level of
AST and ALT
 Up to 300 U/L – non specific/ any type of liver disorder
Liver FunctionTest
Test for enzymes that reflect damage to
hepatocytes
Aminnotransferases (ALT and AST):
 Levels > 1000 U/L extensive hepatocellular injury (viral
hepatitis, Ischemic Liver disease, Drug or Toxin induced)
 In most acute hepatocellular damage ALT > AST
 AST:ALT > 2:1 (suggestive) & > 3:1 (highly suggestive)
of (Alcoholic Liver Disease) ALD
 Aminotransferases are usually not greatly elevated in
obstructive jaundice
Liver FunctionTest
Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis:
 ALP, 5’NT, GGT
 GGT – more diffuse localization – less specific
than ALP and 5’NT
 Use of GGT to identify patient with occult
alcohol use – questionable
 ALP: non pathological causes of increased levels
 Normal levels
Liver FunctionTest
Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis:
ALP:
 < 3 fold increase: not specific for cholestasis (seen
in almost any type of liver disease)
 >4 fold increase: cholestatic liver disorder,
infilterative liver disease (Cancer), bone conditions
with rapid turnover of bone (Pagets disease)
 ALP is NOT useful to distinguish b/w intra and
extra hepatic obstruction
Liver FunctionTest
Test that measure biosynthetic function of
the Liver
Serum albumin:
 Synthesized exclusively by hepatocytes
 T1/2: 15-20 days
 NOT a good indicator of acute/mild hepatic
dysfunction
 Minimum change in Viral hepatitis/drug induced
hepatitis/ Obs. Jaundice
 In hepatitis Alb levels less than 3gm/dl – chronic
liver disease
Liver FunctionTest
Test that measure biosynthetic function of
the Liver
Serum albumin:
 Other causes of decrease: Protein malnutrition/
Protein losing enteropathies / Nephrotic
syndrome/ Chronic infections
Liver FunctionTests
Test that measure biosynthetic function of the
Liver
Coagulation factors:
 Except for factor VIII, blood clotting factors are
exclusively synthesized in hepatocytes
 T1/2 of factor VII- 6 hrs / Fibrinogen – 5days
(shorter than albumin)
 Rapid turnover – thus measurement of clotting
factors is the single best acute measure of hapatic
synthetic function (in the diagnosis and assessment
of liver function in acute parenchymal liver disease)
Liver FunctionTests
Test that measure biosynthetic function of the
Liver
Coagulation factors:
 What is measured Prothrombin Time (PT) -
collectively measures II/V/VII/X
 Biosynthesis of factors II/VII/IX/X depends on Vit. K
 PT may be elevated in hepatitis, cirrhosis and disorders
that result in Vit. K deficiency (eg obstructive jaundice)
 Markedly prolonged PT (>5 secs above control), not
corrected by Vit. K is a poor prognostic sign in acute
viral hepatitis and other acute and chronic liver diseases
Hemolytic or Pre Hepatic Jaundice
Isolated elevation
of Bilirubin
(B – Normal to 5
mg/dl, no
bilirubinuria)
Fractionate
bilirubin
Direct Bilirubin
> 15%
Direct Bilirubin
< 15%
W/U Hemolysis
Yes
No
Hepatocellular or Hepatic Jaundice
• Bilirubin increased (Both fractions)
• Bilirubinuria
• ↑ ALT, AST
• ALP –Normal to 3 fold ↑
Albumin ↓
Albumin
Normal
PT: prolonged
with failure to
correct
PT :
Normal
Albumin ↓
Albumin
Normal • PT: prolonged
corrected by Vit. K
PT: Normal
Obstructive or Post Hepatic Jaundice
• Bilirubin increased (Both fractions)
• Bilirubinuria
• ↑ ALT, AST (<500 U/L)
• ALP: ↑ > 4 fold
Chronic
Isolated increase in
ALP
Fractionate ALP/ 5’NT
or GGT
Assess the origin of
ALP
Summary
Liver Function
test
Clinical implication of abnormality
ALT Hepatocellular damage
AST Hepatocellular damage
Bilirubin Cholestasis, impair conjugation, or biliary
obstruction
ALP Cholestasis, infiltrative disease, or biliary
obstruction
PT Synthetic function
Albumin Synthetic function
GGT Cholestasis or biliary obstruction
5`-nucleotidase Cholestasis or biliary obstruction

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Liver functions, disorders and diagnostic tests - ppt

  • 1. Liver – Functions, Disorders and Diagnostic Tests
  • 2. Objectives SLO BI 6.13.1 Enumerate functions of liver SLO BI 6.14.1 Discuss the biochemical tests which are done to assess the function of liver SLO BI 11.17.5 Enumerate and explain the biochemical basis of Liver Function tests SLO BI 6.15.1 Discuss the biochemical alterations in patients with jaundice
  • 3.  Largest solid organ, right upper quadrant  Large reserve capacity  Capable of regeneration  Functions:  Metabolism: Fat, carbohydrates, protein, xenobiotics, hormones  Synthesis: Albumin, α and β globulins, coagulation factors  Storage: fluids, vitamins, minerals Liver
  • 4. Some examples of Liver dysfunction  Hepatocellular diseases (viral hepatitis, ALD)  Cholestastic disease (intra and extra hepatic obstruction)  Cirrhosis  Cancer (secondary or primary)  Fatty Liver  Genetic Disorders  Hemochromatosis (iron storage)  Wilsons disease
  • 5. Liver dysfunction diagnosis  The diagnosis of liver disease depends on a combination of patient history, physical examination, laboratory testing, biopsy and imaging studies such as ultrasound/ CT /MRI scans
  • 6. Liver FunctionTest Used to ……  detect the presence of liver disease  distinguish among different types of liver disorders  gauge the extent of known liver damage  follow the response to treatment
  • 7. Liver FunctionTest Shortcomings  can be normal in a patient with serious liver disease and abnormal in a patient with diseases that do not affect the liver  rarely suggest a specific diagnosis rather suggest a general category of liver disease → further directs the evaluation
  • 8. Liver FunctionTest point to be noted…….  Liver – thousands of biochemical functions – most cannot be measured  Enzymes – do not measure liver function at all – detect damage or interference with the bile flow  Interpretation must be performed within the context of the patient’s risk factors, symptoms, concomitant conditions, medications, and physical findings  Differing laboratories  Differing normal values
  • 9. Liver Function Test point to be noted…….  No one test enables the clinician to accurately assess the liver’s total functional capacity  to increase the sensitivity and specificity use them as a battery  when one test provide abnormal finding or persistently abnormal on serial determination – probability of liver disease is high  when all results are normal – probability of missing occult liver disease is low  Commonly employed tests: Bilirubin, Aminotransferases, Alkaline phasphatase, Albimin and Prothrombin time
  • 10. Liver FunctionTest Sample collection  Serum or plasma  Avoid hemolytic and lipemic sample  Sample transport/storage  Precautions (viral hepatitis B and C)
  • 11. Liver FunctionTest Categorization  Test based on detoxification and excretory function  Test for enzymes that reflect damage to hepatocytes  Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis  Test that measure synthetic function
  • 12. Liver FunctionTest Test based on detoxification and excretory function: Van den Bergh assay: determination of total, conjugated (direct) and unconjugated bilirubin (indirect)  Normal value of total < 1-1.5mg/dl  Normal value of direct: up to 15% of the total (upper limit = 0.3mg/dl)
  • 13. Liver FunctionTest Test based on detoxification and excretory function:  Isolated elevation of UCB – bilirubin elevated but < 15% direct - W/U for hemolysis – if absent – Gilbert disease  Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia – liver or biliary tract disease  In most liver diseases both fractions are increased
  • 14. Liver FunctionTest Test based on detoxification and excretory function: Urine Bilirubin:  any bilirubin found in urine is conjugated bilirubin  bilirubinuria implies the presence of liver disease Blood ammonia:  Was used for detecting encephalopathy or for monitoring hepatic synthetic function (poor corelation)
  • 15. Liver FunctionTest Test for enzymes that reflect damage to hepatocytes Aminnotransferases (ALT and AST):  AST: Liver, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain, pancreas, lungs, leucocytes, and RBC - (Normal serum level)  ALT: Liver - (Normal serum level)  Liver cell damage – increased permeability – increase serum levels  BUT poor correlation b/w liver cell damage and level of AST and ALT  Up to 300 U/L – non specific/ any type of liver disorder
  • 16. Liver FunctionTest Test for enzymes that reflect damage to hepatocytes Aminnotransferases (ALT and AST):  Levels > 1000 U/L extensive hepatocellular injury (viral hepatitis, Ischemic Liver disease, Drug or Toxin induced)  In most acute hepatocellular damage ALT > AST  AST:ALT > 2:1 (suggestive) & > 3:1 (highly suggestive) of (Alcoholic Liver Disease) ALD  Aminotransferases are usually not greatly elevated in obstructive jaundice
  • 17. Liver FunctionTest Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis:  ALP, 5’NT, GGT  GGT – more diffuse localization – less specific than ALP and 5’NT  Use of GGT to identify patient with occult alcohol use – questionable  ALP: non pathological causes of increased levels  Normal levels
  • 18. Liver FunctionTest Test for enzymes that reflect cholestasis: ALP:  < 3 fold increase: not specific for cholestasis (seen in almost any type of liver disease)  >4 fold increase: cholestatic liver disorder, infilterative liver disease (Cancer), bone conditions with rapid turnover of bone (Pagets disease)  ALP is NOT useful to distinguish b/w intra and extra hepatic obstruction
  • 19. Liver FunctionTest Test that measure biosynthetic function of the Liver Serum albumin:  Synthesized exclusively by hepatocytes  T1/2: 15-20 days  NOT a good indicator of acute/mild hepatic dysfunction  Minimum change in Viral hepatitis/drug induced hepatitis/ Obs. Jaundice  In hepatitis Alb levels less than 3gm/dl – chronic liver disease
  • 20. Liver FunctionTest Test that measure biosynthetic function of the Liver Serum albumin:  Other causes of decrease: Protein malnutrition/ Protein losing enteropathies / Nephrotic syndrome/ Chronic infections
  • 21. Liver FunctionTests Test that measure biosynthetic function of the Liver Coagulation factors:  Except for factor VIII, blood clotting factors are exclusively synthesized in hepatocytes  T1/2 of factor VII- 6 hrs / Fibrinogen – 5days (shorter than albumin)  Rapid turnover – thus measurement of clotting factors is the single best acute measure of hapatic synthetic function (in the diagnosis and assessment of liver function in acute parenchymal liver disease)
  • 22. Liver FunctionTests Test that measure biosynthetic function of the Liver Coagulation factors:  What is measured Prothrombin Time (PT) - collectively measures II/V/VII/X  Biosynthesis of factors II/VII/IX/X depends on Vit. K  PT may be elevated in hepatitis, cirrhosis and disorders that result in Vit. K deficiency (eg obstructive jaundice)  Markedly prolonged PT (>5 secs above control), not corrected by Vit. K is a poor prognostic sign in acute viral hepatitis and other acute and chronic liver diseases
  • 23. Hemolytic or Pre Hepatic Jaundice Isolated elevation of Bilirubin (B – Normal to 5 mg/dl, no bilirubinuria) Fractionate bilirubin Direct Bilirubin > 15% Direct Bilirubin < 15% W/U Hemolysis Yes No
  • 24. Hepatocellular or Hepatic Jaundice • Bilirubin increased (Both fractions) • Bilirubinuria • ↑ ALT, AST • ALP –Normal to 3 fold ↑ Albumin ↓ Albumin Normal PT: prolonged with failure to correct PT : Normal
  • 25. Albumin ↓ Albumin Normal • PT: prolonged corrected by Vit. K PT: Normal Obstructive or Post Hepatic Jaundice • Bilirubin increased (Both fractions) • Bilirubinuria • ↑ ALT, AST (<500 U/L) • ALP: ↑ > 4 fold Chronic Isolated increase in ALP Fractionate ALP/ 5’NT or GGT Assess the origin of ALP
  • 26. Summary Liver Function test Clinical implication of abnormality ALT Hepatocellular damage AST Hepatocellular damage Bilirubin Cholestasis, impair conjugation, or biliary obstruction ALP Cholestasis, infiltrative disease, or biliary obstruction PT Synthetic function Albumin Synthetic function GGT Cholestasis or biliary obstruction 5`-nucleotidase Cholestasis or biliary obstruction