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Globalization and ir

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Globalization and its types

Globalization and ir

  1. 1. Globalization and International Relations Presented by: Afifa Jamil Maham Faraz Abbasi Manahal Fatima Saima Hassan
  2. 2. Globalization and IR • This can be understood by two elements • the opening of borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas across international borders • the changes in institutional and policy regimes at the international and national levels that facilitate or promote such flows
  3. 3. • Increased in recent years • driven by technological advances and the reduced cost of making exchanges across borders and distances • Precise definition differs
  4. 4. Globalization “A process of growing interdependence that represents a fundamental change from a world of individual and independent states to a world of state interdependence.” • Both positive and negative effects • Interdependence refers to? • Interdependence is often used synonymously with globalization.
  5. 5. • Results; Political, cultural, social and economical change • The term globalization also includes change through the spread of ideas, information and perceptions which lead to cultural and social changes. • Global Village; in which every person of the world is connected to each other somehow.
  6. 6. Cultural Globalization Maham Faraz Abbasi
  7. 7. Definition “Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the Internet, popular culture media, and international travel.”
  8. 8. Examples • Meditation • Food • Fashion • Festivals • Any other example?
  9. 9. Influence of Globalization on Culture Positive Influence: Not all cultures born in one civilization World ; combination of different cultures People of one culture ; pick up other practices Societies have become large ; accept other people from other cultures Cooking , music , fashion all spread; globalization Communication b/w different culture; creativity
  10. 10. Diversity has been valued and promoted by IO Example? Example: Jerash festival in Jordan
  11. 11. Negative Influence  multinational corporations; promoting a consumer culture, exploitation of workers and markets and influencing societal values Global access to information; opened way to acquire cultural property Songs, dance etc  local cultures are ignored
  12. 12. Examples: 1997 MTV dominated local televisions Colonization of Latin America
  13. 13. Cultural Globalization and IR • IR has used globalization to reach its goal of understanding cultures • focus on how countries, people and organizations interact and globalization is making a profound effect on International relations. • They are interdependent • A country need all these to become powerful and influential
  14. 14. • Cultures are diminished and preserved • The popular cultures are used to benefit the majority and create solutions to various issues.
  15. 15. Social Globalization By Afifa Jamil
  16. 16. • defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away. • Social globalization pertains to human interaction within communities
  17. 17. Social Networking sites -Facebook, is the digital mapping of people's real-world social connections that has more than 900 million active users on the site -Communication can be delivered in the form of text, audio, or video. - Global exchange of views, opinions and ideas.
  18. 18. • Social Globalization is encompassing topics like : 1. Family 2. Religion 3. Education
  19. 19. Family
  20. 20. Family • transfer of family values and concepts of people of different societies around the world. • Leads to change in family morals and thinking.
  21. 21. Positive effects • Rise of feminism has helped reshape the concept’s about women’s status. • Allowed to do jobs • Traditional views about women removed
  22. 22. Negative effects • People have bigger perceptions about the perfect life and hence aim to leave extended families in order to go to different areas and do jobs for progress. • elderly being left to fend for themselves at a time when family support becomes more crucial. • are impacting relationships of marriage and commitment example: Germany recorded the lowest birthrate in the world from 2008 to 2013
  23. 23. Religion
  24. 24. Religion • Due to social globalization the ideas and beliefs of different religions are portrayed to people all around the world • helping in awareness of the needs and customs of people of different religions
  25. 25. Positive Effects • Globalization brings a culture of pluralism • religions maintain the Golden Rule: “what you do not wish done to yourself, do not do to others.” • globalization engenders greater religious tolerance in such areas as politics, economics, and society. • Social globalization has built global political forums that integrate cultural, ethnic, and religious differences example: UN (united nations) and OIC (organization of Islamic Council)
  26. 26. Negative effects • worshiping ways and practices contradict and are mostly incompatible with each other • Such religions tend, as a result, to be more inclined towards clashes and competition • Globalization can also lead to portraying negative images of religions due to television ‘Globalization is not only seen as a rival of Islamic ways, but also as an alien force divorced from Muslim realities’- Anoushirvan
  27. 27. Education
  28. 28. Education • rapid developments in technology and communications are foreseeing changes within learning systems across the world • Ideas, values and knowledge, changing the roles of students and teachers
  29. 29. Positive effects • increasing access to the world • is shaping children, the future citizens of the world into ‘global citizens • intelligent people with a broad range of skills and knowledge to apply to a competitive, information based society • introduction of technology into the classroom is changing the nature of delivering education
  30. 30. Negative Effects • second and third worlds have adopted educational ideals from western thought and are anxious to appear modern and therefore promote education as a symbol of modernity • has become common as the demand for high quality goods has risen
  31. 31. Economic Globalization Presented by: Manahal Fatima
  32. 32. The picture says it all…
  33. 33. What is Economic Globalization?: • Phenomenon in which economy of a country depends on another country • Countries interchange resources • EXTREMELY important role of economic relations between countries • WHO, IMF, EU, WTO, UN etc play an important role • International Trade: exchange of services and goods Examples?
  34. 34. • Effects a country’s policies and laws • WTO supervises trades
  35. 35. Advantages of Economic Globalization: • Increase in productivity • Economic growth • International peace • Cultural awareness
  36. 36. Disadvantages of Economic Globalization: • Depletion of resources • Violation of human rights • Power politics Examples? • Threat to local market • Examples? • Interdependence
  37. 37. Aspects of Economic Globalization and IR: • Easier transport of goods • Cross-border employment • Free trade • Reduction in cultural barriers, effective for economic globalization • Faster flow of information; economic relations are dependent of information
  38. 38. Effects of Economic Globalization on Developing Countries: Positive Effects: • Increased standard of living • Access to newer markets • Introduction to newer technologies • Stability
  39. 39. Negative Effects: • Widening disparity in income • Expansion of gap between countries • No fair trade
  40. 40. Examples of Economic Globalization? • Parts of automobiles being assembled in United States while coming from Japan • A shirt sold in France could have been made from Chinese cotton by workers in Thailand • Dozens of Asian restaurants in a western country • A fashion trend in Europe can come all the way to Pakistan
  41. 41. Political Globalization by:Saima Hassan
  42. 42. What is Political Globalization?  Increasing trend toward multilateralism, toward an emerging ‘transnational state apparatus,’ and toward the emergence of national and international nongovernmental organizations that act as watchdogs over governments and have increased their activities and influence
  43. 43. Examples of Political Globalization  European Union (EU)  Intergovernmental agencies like the: • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • World Trade Organization (WTO) • United Nations (EU)
  44. 44. Introduction of Political Globalization • At the political makeup of the international system, there have been a number of new institutions and organizations, such as international alliance institutions • The rise of non-state actors has brought a new dimension to international politics • Political globalization refers to the increasing number and power of human associations
  45. 45. Continue • Through political globalization governments can absorb the experiences from other countries • For example, today, china has learnt Open political psychology and democratic political conception from other countries • Political globalization accelerates the conflict between east and west. For example: • Some governments will distort correct values; even support other country's terrorist forces
  46. 46. Political Globalization Takes Place on Three Levels • In international agreements and contracts(also: governmental agreements) • In international organizations (governmental and non- governmental) • Around the world as a result of the internet communication system
  47. 47. Global Political Issues Mean Global Political Institutions • State economies and cultures have become connected • Global political issues are emerging such as: Terrorism, Climate Change, Disease, International Business, and International Crime • Global political institutions are developed in an effort to help create global goals for all states and to coordinate international efforts • Some of these institutions include: IMF, WTO, UN and WHO
  48. 48. Non-Governmental Organizations • Amnesty International, Free the Children, and Greenpeace • All fight for a specific cause by placing increased pressure on state Governments and Corporations • Goal is improving policies and Government actions • As an example, an organization may use the media and peaceful protests to draw attention to a specific issue
  49. 49. Global Governance • A movement towards political integration of transnational actors • Aim is negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region • Institutions of global governance are: United Nations, the International Criminal Court, the World Bank
  50. 50. Political Globalization on the Municipal and Provincial Level • Between various sub state authorities • An example of international cooperation on the municipal level is the rise of powerful city network • ”Global cities” like Tokyo, London, New York and Singapore tend to be more closely connected to each other then they are too many cities in their home countries
  51. 51. Political Globalization on the Regional Level • Proliferation of multilateral organization and agreements • For example, the European Community began in 1950 with French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman’s • Half a century later, 15 member states have formed a close community with political institution
  52. 52. Political Globalization on a Global Level • International organizations including the UN, NATO and WTO • These organizations is open to state only, and the decision making authority lies with representatives from nation governance
  53. 53. Pros of Political Globalization • Access to international aid and support • It contributes to world peace • Smaller countries can work together and gain more influence internationally • International organizations are often committed to spread values like freedom and to fight abuses within countries • Governments can learn from each other
  54. 54. Cons of Political Globalization • State sovereignty is reduced • The functioning of international and supranational organizations is often not “democratic” • Big countries can shape decisions in supranational organizations • Sometimes countries can veto decisions
  55. 55. Critical Analysis  Globalization has both positive and negative effects • A positive view of globalization is that it has the potential to increase productivity and living standards everywhere • It increases the GDP of a country • It increases the global village effect
  56. 56. • The greatest disadvantage of globalization is the uneven distribution of wealth • Cultural values of a nation are also “lost” in the process of globalization • Globalization has eradicated the concept of self- dependency of a nation • Considering all the aspects, globalization does more harm than good to any country
  57. 57. THANK YOU!
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Globalization and its types


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