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Kresnayana Yahya, M.Sc
EKONOMI KEMARITIMAN
Dalam Sistim pertahanan dan keamanan
Kresnayana Yahya
Email: kresna49@yahoo.com
Blog: http://www.kresnayana.com
Armada laut
Country Classification by 2010 GDP Share

                                   N11
                                   Bangladesh
               World               Egypt            Growth Markets
                                   Iran
                                   Nigeria
                                   Pakistan
                                   Philippines             Mexico
                    Emerging       Vietnam                  2% Korea
                     Markets       Mexico                         2%
                      12%          Korea
                                   Turkey                             Turkey
                                   Indonesia                            1%
                         Growth                                         Indonesia
                                                 China
                         Markets                  9%
                                                                           1%
        Developed         23%
         Markets
                                                                        Brazil
           65%                                                           3%



                                                             Russia
                                                   India
                                                              3%
                                                    2%
Source: GSAM
Population Growth

Figure 8.3




  9
Struktur penduduk dunia
n Jepang : median age 47
n Europe : median age 40

n USA : median age 36

n China : median age 37

n Indonesia : median age 28

n India : median age 24 years




    10
pengembangan leadership siswa   11
Bonus demography
                                       12




pengembangan leadership siswa
Demography Bonus




Sumber : Proyeksi Penduduk 2000 – 2025 BPS , diolah
Indonesia : Young population
  Indonesia

          6%
                                                                               Indonesia demographic structure

                                                                               Productive age group 15-
                                                                               64 year covers 66 % or 165
     66%                                                                       milion

                                                                               Children below 15 years :
                                                                               70 milion

               28%


                                                    pengembangan leadership siswa                                14
Sumber: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart?page=1&fsrc=scn/fb/wl/bl/dailychartjan10 (20101120_WOC951)
UNEMPLOYMENT DATA:
   Source of Data: National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas),
   conducted every Feb and August, number of sampel 68,000
   HH
                   Unemployment Rate and Development Target 2004-2014
                                         MTDP: Medium Term Development Plan




  PROBLEMS:
  § Unemployment Rate: 6,80%          § 49,5% elementary school
  § 66% work in informal sector       § 30,7% under employed
MACRO POVERTY DATA:
    Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas),
    conducted every March, number of sampel 68,000 HH

                          Poverty Rate and Development Target 2004-2014




PROBLEMS:
                                   § 58% of the poor work in
§ Poverty disparities across region
                                     agriculture
§ 63% of the poor live in rural area
                                   § Many households are clustered
                                     around poverty line
TREND OF POVERTY AND GINI RATIO 2004-2011




                                                         Poor People (%)
Gini Ratio




 Poverty decreases but income inequality tends
 to increase ....
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) DATA:
•   Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas) and Regional
    GDP, calculated annualy, districts level
•   The usage of HDI: one of the General Allocation Fund allocators

HDI Indonesia, 1996-2010

                                           Life Expectancy By Province,
                                                       2009
Investasi di Indonesia




                         19
East Java Prospects
        10 %        Port & refinery                Oil & Gas
                               Gas
 Oil & Gas

                                     Bridge
                                      Toll        Fisheries
                                                              11 %



                                                               Oil



                                             Fisheries
                    Port Waterfront city
                 23 %
                                       Southern Highway
Keterangan:
- - - : Rencana jalan Tol     56 %                                   20
Marine/Maritime Sector
Marine business        Marine and coastal            Marine research and
                           resources                       studies

  Navigation and            Biological
      ports                                          Education and training of
                              Mineral                        experts
 Shipbuilding and
      repair            Renewable energy
                                                        Investigations and
                                                     experimental development
 Marine recreation
                         Marine            Fishery     Maritime technology
                       environment
Fishing, aquaculture
  and fish handling

                         Marine           Marine          Marine cultural
                        sociology        economy            heritage
The Opportunity
The €1.2 Trillion Global Market
A Market Focus: A Trillion $ Global Marine Market

                       Shipping &Transport            Marine Tourism
                       €342.7Bn                       €180.1Bn




        Oil & Gas, Minerals
                                                             Fisheries &
        €93.8Bn
                                                             Aquaculture
                                                             €159.7Bn


       Marine Equipment
       €72.8Bn

                                                              Marine Biotech &
                                                              Seaweed
                                                              €8.1Bn
        Ports &
        Shipbuilding
        €62.7Bn



                                 Marine IT & Survey   Renewable Energy
                                 €6.7Bn               €128 M
Acknowledgement: Prof John Delaney
                                                                                           Univ Washington




   HIGH-TECH                OCEAN ENERGY
  AQUACULTURE                                                               ROBOTICS

                    A dynamic maritime economy, in harmony
                    with the environment; supported by
                    sound science and technology, which
                    allows human beings to continue to reap
                    the rich harvest from the oceans in a
                    sustainable manner.

                          Integrated Maritime Policy for the EU (2007)
DEEP-SEA FRONTIER




                                                                          SENSORS &
                    ADVANCED SEABED MAPPING                                REMOTE
Convergence


                                           Maritime Tourism
                                              & Leisure
                                                                                 Aquaculture
             Green                                                                 – Fisheries
          Technologies
                                                eHealth



                                    ICT   Functional Foods
                                                              Food
                  Smart Sensors




                                                                                                 Shipping
                                                               Site Survey
 Ocean                    Renewable                             - Seabed Mapping                 Financial
 Energy                  Ocean Energy                                                            Services
                                                Bio-             Marine BioTec

                                             technology
BLUE Economy
• Potensi ekonomi laut Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 1,2
  triliun dollar AS per tahun, atau setara dengan 10 kali
  Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara (APBN) pada
  tahun 2012. "Apabila potensi itu dapat dioptimalkan
  sebaik mungkin maka dapat menjadi tulang punggung
  bagi pembangunan Indonesia," tutur Menteri Kelautan
  dan Perikanan Sharif Cicip Sutardjo
• Pada tahun 2011 saja ekspor perikanan Indonesia
  hanya mencapai US$ 3,34 Milyar kalah jauh jika
  dibandingkan dengan Vietnam yang mencapai US$ 25
  Milyar.
Kepulauan maritim
• Indonesia memiliki wilayah laut seluas 5,8 juta
  kilometer persegi yang terdiri dari wilayah
  teritorial sebesar 3,2 juta km2 dan wilayah ZEE
  Indonesia 2,7 juta km2. Selain itu, terdapat
  17.840 pulau di Indonesia dengan garis pantai
  sepanjang 95.181 km. Indonesia telah
  meratifikasi Konvensi Hukum Laut
  Internasional (UNCLOS 1982) dengan UU No
  17/1985.
Potensi Pangan
• Indonesia, 75 persen dari wilayahnya berupa
  laut, dan 28 persen total wilayah daratnya
  berupa perairan sungau, danau, waduk dan
  rawa.
• Usaha aquaculture merupakan sektor pangan
  yang pertumbuhannya paling pesat diantara
  sektor produksi pangan yang lain, total
  produksinya baru mencapai 60 juta ton
  pertahun.
TARGETS, 2010 - 2014
                   2010    2011 2012 2013 2014
PRODUCTION
  (million ton)    10.76   12.26   1485   18.49 22.39

    Capture        5.38    5.41    5.44   5.47 5.50
    Farming        5.38    6.85    9.41   13.02 16.89

CONSUMPTION
    (kg/capita)    30.47 31.57 34.09 36.31 38.67
     EXPORT
     ($ Billion)    2.9   3.2   3.6   4.2   5.0
Source ; MOMAF-RI (2009)                          32
POTENSI ekonomi


  F




Laut dan seluruh daya
     dukungnya
Menggali potensi Laut Indonesia
• Diperlukan pemetaan , penyiapan Kebijakan
  terpadu
• Pemanfaatan - Pendayagunaan –
  Pengembangan Knowledge – kemampuan
  Research and Development , Research for
  Development
• Pengembangan –pelatihan kompetensi
  kelautan
Industri maritim
• Jasa kepelabuhanan, jasa eco tourism, Jasa
  Transportasi
• Jasa Marine Financial services
• Produksi kapal, peralatan navigasi, perangkat
  ICT
• Marine Insurance
• Energy dari Ocean Power
• Pangan dari hasil laut
Geography and Its “Regions”




  culture             behaviour                              society
Geog as science   Geog research praxis                      Scientific
  content         Geographic research                     Geographers
                                                          community
                                                             Theory Environment
                                                             Culture Atmosphere
                                                             Politics Hydrology
              (Source: from Grano 1981: 19 in Johnston 1991: 277)
                                                             Economy Morphology
Aquaculture
                                    Human
                                   dimension                      Land based
                                                                   pollution

                 Tourism
                                 Coastal Zone        Catchments
            Marine
            energy
                                                                   Fisheries
         Aggregate                        Off-shore area
          materials
                                                           Maritime
                       ICZM / Marine
                       Spatial Planning                    transport
                                             Marine
         Natura2000                        ecosystems
           at sea
                             Marine
                            Protected
                              Areas


Statistical unit coastal account
Coastal accounts and ecosystem
    appraoch
     Coasts as human ecosystems: Europe’s coasts are result of
     interaction of human and natural processes


•    Natural systems
           –   River basins and coastal waters
           –   Coastal sediment systems (cells)
           –   Marine (sub)regions
           –   Coastal ecosystems (broad scale types)
•    Human systems
           –   Coastal regions (statistical units)
           –   Governance (coastal management plans)
           –   Developement and resource use (economic sectors)
Ecosystem approach in accounting
    practice
•    Data availability
           –   Spatial data coverage to populate coastal units across
               sea/land interface
           –   Sufficient and balanced represenation of human and natural
               coastal processes

•    Policy relevancy
           –   Spatial management units use ecosystem-based approach
           –   Policy concepts and related reporting data flows

•    Methodology used for accounting
           –   Spatial accounting units (data model) is adequately
               representing the reality
           –   Sound assumptions for models and frameworks for data
               ingtegration
GENERAL applicability
     of policy for                               River basins, inland and
delineation of coastal                            coastal water bodies,
     spatial units

                           Coastal zone
           Inner waters    management
                              units

     Territorial waters




   Member States          Coastal habitats and            Marine
    sovereignty or             species                 (sub)regions
  jurisdiction waters
                           Maritime economy,
                            including fishing

    High seas
   (UN Conventions)
Potensi daya usaha Maritime
             Indonesia

• Potensi menarik kegiatan usaha di laut
  dan daya serap tenaga kerja di laut
  dan pesisirnya : 5 juta orang .
• Pertambahan pelabuhan dan armada
  penangkapan ikan
• Penambahan armada satuan
  transportasi untuk Logistik Nasional
Ship Prices Rising:
                Bigger Ships, Strong Demand
                                         $ Millions
                                                                                $220
      LNG Carrier
                                                                 $150
                                                                               2007
       Large Crude                                          $129
                                                                               2002
         Carrier                          $64
                                                    •Ship prices are up 50% on
                                                    average. Builders are ramping-up
     Capesize Bulk                         $68
                                                    production, cutting production
       Carrier                     $36              time. China is trying to compete
                                                    with Japan and Korea.
Midsize Container                        $57        •Cargo/Hull losses for a mage-ship
      Ship                        $33               could exceed $1B - $2 billion.

                       $0          $50          $100         $150       $200      $250
Source: Clarkson Research Services, Insurance Information Institute
Ocean and Wave Power

• Why Ocean and Wave Power?

• Technological Feasibility

• Cost competitiveness (measured against
 fossil fuels)
Advantages of Offshore Ocean
Wave Power
• Clean renewable source of energy
• Nearly unlimited
• More Predictable than wind and sun
• Little environmental impact
• Not visible from shore
• Proximity to markets needing electricity
World Coastal Population

• 50% of the world's population currently
  live within sixty kilometers of the coast

• By 2015, the world population will exceed
  8 billion people

• 3.4 billion living on coast
Potential World-Wide Wave
             Energy
• IEA (International Energy Agency)
 estimates that wave energy can supply
 between 10 and 50% of world demand

• World demand of 15,000 TWh
World Energy Council Estimates

• 2 terawatts of clean and accessible ocean
 energy

• Equivalent to twice the world’s current
 electricity generation
World Energy Council 2001
       Survey estimates
• 2 TW of exploitable wave power
 worldwide

• 50% of the total European power
 consumption could be generated from
 European coastal waters
Independent market assessment of
wave energy economic contribution to
         electricity market
• Estimated 2,000 TWh/year

• 10% of world electricity consumption

• Equal to current world-wide large scale
 hydroelectric projects
Ocean Power Delivery (Pelamis)
• Pelamis has a similar output to a modern wind
    turbine
•    Full-scale prototype is operational
•   Tested at the European Marine Energy Centre in
    Orkney.
•   A typical 30MW installation would occupy a
    square kilometer of ocean and provide sufficient
    electricity for 20,000 homes
•   Twenty farms could power a city such as
    Edinburgh
Competitive Price Requirements
(wave power level of 15 kw per meter)
Can fish continue to feed the world?




      Campbell, Neil A.: Mitchell, Lawrence G.; Reece, Jane B., Biology: Concepts and Connections, 2nd Edition, © 1997, p. 711.
                                                   Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Economic sustainability


 Economic Development and
 sociocultural protection        Economic growth
                                 Private profit                   Conservationism
                                 Market expansion



                 Local self-reliance STD        Ecological process
                 Social accountability          Biological diversity
                 Strengthen                     Biological resources
                 community identity             Carrying capacity



Social and cultural sustainability                         Ecological sustainability
                                     Deep ecology                                         54
                                                http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
55
http://www.cadi.ph/sustainable_development.htm
¡   Economic viability
¡   Local prosperity
¡   Employment quality
¡   Social equity
¡   Visitor fulfillment
¡   Local control
¡   Community wellbeing
¡   Cultural richness
¡   Physical integrity
¡   Biological diversity
¡   Resource efficiency
¡   Environmental purity
                                                                                      56
               Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers, in September 2005
                              —— released by UNEP and WTO.
Potensi Biota laut abitats




                                  Sandbanks




  Rocky Reefs
                         Seagrass Beds
The Importance of the Sea

            • Transport
            • Heritage
            • Recreation
44,000 different kinds of plants and animals
recorded in UK waters – half UK’s Biodiversity.
Human Activities
§Land use
§Tourism
§Oil &Gas
§Mariculture
§Coastal Defence
§Ports & Navigation
§Military Activities
§Culture
§Conservation
§Dredging & Disposal
§Submarine Cables
§Fishing
§Renewable Energy
§Marine Recreation
                       How do we balance the needs of the
§Mineral Extraction
                       environment with our own social and
                               economic needs?
Marine Management Organisation

        Marine plans




                                    The
     Fisheries                    MMO’s
    management                                              Marine
                                   main
                                 functions                 Licensing




                 Marine nature
                 conservation
                                             Emergencies
Planning – how does it work

                               High level objectives




Live within     Achieving a           Promote good   Use sound science   Ensure a strong,
environmental   sustainable marine    governance                         healthy and just
limits          economy                                                  society



                   Marine Policy Statement (MPS)


                                     Marine Plans


                                      Licensing
Conserving Biodiversity


               Marine Protected Areas



   Special Areas
                                             Special
  of Conservation
                                        Protection Areas
      (Habitats
                                        (Birds Directive)
     Directive)

                       Marine
                    Conservation
                    Zones (Marine
                        Act)
Potensi Wisata laut dan bio diversity
TAMAN LAUT BUNAKEN

        TAMAN LAUT PADANG




                                   RAJA AMPAT PAPUA

TAMAN LAUT GILIS LOMBOK




                            TAMAN LAUT FLORES
Industri Makanan Hasil Kelautan
Industri Kreatif Hasil Kelautan
Tantangan masa depan
           Indonesia
• Perubahan struktur kependudukan
• Peningkatan daya beli dan penambahan
  jumlah kelas menengah
• Pergeseran aktivitas : makin ke Financial
• Peningkatan peran Global
• Tumbuhnya simpul simpul baru
  pertumbuhan, sektor sektor baru
• From Green economy to BLUE economy
Membangun kelembagaan BLUE
          Economy
• Peran Angkatan Laut akan menjadi makin besar
  seiring pengembangan bisnis dan ekonomi
  Kelautan
• Kemajuan utama bersumber pada
  pengembangan KNOWLEDGE Center, Ocean
  Training center
• Integrasi : Food – Energy - Ocean management
• 70 % penduduk akan berjarak 60 km dari
  pantai dan pesisir
Peran Angkatan Laut
• Industri maritim akan menjadi besar dan
  melipat dua dalam kekuatan dalam 15 tahun
  mendatang
• Peran dalam sistim Logistik akan menjadi 3
  kali lebih besar karena peningkatan
  permintaan dan ekspansi usaha
• Peran pengembangan dan pengawasan
  ketahanan /keamanan menjadi makin terpadu
  dengan pertumbuhan
END OF SLIDES
                THANK YOU

Kresnayana Yahya
Email: kresna49@yahoo.com
Blog: http://www.kresnayana.com
                         Enciety Business Consult   75

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EKONOMI KEMARITIMAN DALAM SISTIM PERTAHANAN DAN KEAMANAN

  • 2. EKONOMI KEMARITIMAN Dalam Sistim pertahanan dan keamanan Kresnayana Yahya Email: kresna49@yahoo.com Blog: http://www.kresnayana.com
  • 3.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Country Classification by 2010 GDP Share N11 Bangladesh World Egypt Growth Markets Iran Nigeria Pakistan Philippines Mexico Emerging Vietnam 2% Korea Markets Mexico 2% 12% Korea Turkey Turkey Indonesia 1% Growth Indonesia China Markets 9% 1% Developed 23% Markets Brazil 65% 3% Russia India 3% 2% Source: GSAM
  • 10. Struktur penduduk dunia n Jepang : median age 47 n Europe : median age 40 n USA : median age 36 n China : median age 37 n Indonesia : median age 28 n India : median age 24 years 10
  • 12. Bonus demography 12 pengembangan leadership siswa
  • 13. Demography Bonus Sumber : Proyeksi Penduduk 2000 – 2025 BPS , diolah
  • 14. Indonesia : Young population Indonesia 6% Indonesia demographic structure Productive age group 15- 64 year covers 66 % or 165 66% milion Children below 15 years : 70 milion 28% pengembangan leadership siswa 14 Sumber: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart?page=1&fsrc=scn/fb/wl/bl/dailychartjan10 (20101120_WOC951)
  • 15. UNEMPLOYMENT DATA: Source of Data: National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), conducted every Feb and August, number of sampel 68,000 HH Unemployment Rate and Development Target 2004-2014 MTDP: Medium Term Development Plan PROBLEMS: § Unemployment Rate: 6,80% § 49,5% elementary school § 66% work in informal sector § 30,7% under employed
  • 16. MACRO POVERTY DATA: Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas), conducted every March, number of sampel 68,000 HH Poverty Rate and Development Target 2004-2014 PROBLEMS: § 58% of the poor work in § Poverty disparities across region agriculture § 63% of the poor live in rural area § Many households are clustered around poverty line
  • 17. TREND OF POVERTY AND GINI RATIO 2004-2011 Poor People (%) Gini Ratio Poverty decreases but income inequality tends to increase ....
  • 18. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) DATA: • Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas) and Regional GDP, calculated annualy, districts level • The usage of HDI: one of the General Allocation Fund allocators HDI Indonesia, 1996-2010 Life Expectancy By Province, 2009
  • 20. East Java Prospects 10 % Port & refinery Oil & Gas Gas Oil & Gas Bridge Toll Fisheries 11 % Oil Fisheries Port Waterfront city 23 % Southern Highway Keterangan: - - - : Rencana jalan Tol 56 % 20
  • 21. Marine/Maritime Sector Marine business Marine and coastal Marine research and resources studies Navigation and Biological ports Education and training of Mineral experts Shipbuilding and repair Renewable energy Investigations and experimental development Marine recreation Marine Fishery Maritime technology environment Fishing, aquaculture and fish handling Marine Marine Marine cultural sociology economy heritage
  • 22. The Opportunity The €1.2 Trillion Global Market
  • 23. A Market Focus: A Trillion $ Global Marine Market Shipping &Transport Marine Tourism €342.7Bn €180.1Bn Oil & Gas, Minerals Fisheries & €93.8Bn Aquaculture €159.7Bn Marine Equipment €72.8Bn Marine Biotech & Seaweed €8.1Bn Ports & Shipbuilding €62.7Bn Marine IT & Survey Renewable Energy €6.7Bn €128 M
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  • 25. Acknowledgement: Prof John Delaney Univ Washington HIGH-TECH OCEAN ENERGY AQUACULTURE ROBOTICS A dynamic maritime economy, in harmony with the environment; supported by sound science and technology, which allows human beings to continue to reap the rich harvest from the oceans in a sustainable manner. Integrated Maritime Policy for the EU (2007) DEEP-SEA FRONTIER SENSORS & ADVANCED SEABED MAPPING REMOTE
  • 26. Convergence Maritime Tourism & Leisure Aquaculture Green – Fisheries Technologies eHealth ICT Functional Foods Food Smart Sensors Shipping Site Survey Ocean Renewable - Seabed Mapping Financial Energy Ocean Energy Services Bio- Marine BioTec technology
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  • 29. BLUE Economy • Potensi ekonomi laut Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 1,2 triliun dollar AS per tahun, atau setara dengan 10 kali Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara (APBN) pada tahun 2012. "Apabila potensi itu dapat dioptimalkan sebaik mungkin maka dapat menjadi tulang punggung bagi pembangunan Indonesia," tutur Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan Sharif Cicip Sutardjo • Pada tahun 2011 saja ekspor perikanan Indonesia hanya mencapai US$ 3,34 Milyar kalah jauh jika dibandingkan dengan Vietnam yang mencapai US$ 25 Milyar.
  • 30. Kepulauan maritim • Indonesia memiliki wilayah laut seluas 5,8 juta kilometer persegi yang terdiri dari wilayah teritorial sebesar 3,2 juta km2 dan wilayah ZEE Indonesia 2,7 juta km2. Selain itu, terdapat 17.840 pulau di Indonesia dengan garis pantai sepanjang 95.181 km. Indonesia telah meratifikasi Konvensi Hukum Laut Internasional (UNCLOS 1982) dengan UU No 17/1985.
  • 31. Potensi Pangan • Indonesia, 75 persen dari wilayahnya berupa laut, dan 28 persen total wilayah daratnya berupa perairan sungau, danau, waduk dan rawa. • Usaha aquaculture merupakan sektor pangan yang pertumbuhannya paling pesat diantara sektor produksi pangan yang lain, total produksinya baru mencapai 60 juta ton pertahun.
  • 32. TARGETS, 2010 - 2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 PRODUCTION (million ton) 10.76 12.26 1485 18.49 22.39 Capture 5.38 5.41 5.44 5.47 5.50 Farming 5.38 6.85 9.41 13.02 16.89 CONSUMPTION (kg/capita) 30.47 31.57 34.09 36.31 38.67 EXPORT ($ Billion) 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.2 5.0 Source ; MOMAF-RI (2009) 32
  • 33.
  • 34. POTENSI ekonomi F Laut dan seluruh daya dukungnya
  • 35. Menggali potensi Laut Indonesia • Diperlukan pemetaan , penyiapan Kebijakan terpadu • Pemanfaatan - Pendayagunaan – Pengembangan Knowledge – kemampuan Research and Development , Research for Development • Pengembangan –pelatihan kompetensi kelautan
  • 36. Industri maritim • Jasa kepelabuhanan, jasa eco tourism, Jasa Transportasi • Jasa Marine Financial services • Produksi kapal, peralatan navigasi, perangkat ICT • Marine Insurance • Energy dari Ocean Power • Pangan dari hasil laut
  • 37. Geography and Its “Regions” culture behaviour society Geog as science Geog research praxis Scientific content Geographic research Geographers community Theory Environment Culture Atmosphere Politics Hydrology (Source: from Grano 1981: 19 in Johnston 1991: 277) Economy Morphology
  • 38. Aquaculture Human dimension Land based pollution Tourism Coastal Zone Catchments Marine energy Fisheries Aggregate Off-shore area materials Maritime ICZM / Marine Spatial Planning transport Marine Natura2000 ecosystems at sea Marine Protected Areas Statistical unit coastal account
  • 39. Coastal accounts and ecosystem appraoch Coasts as human ecosystems: Europe’s coasts are result of interaction of human and natural processes • Natural systems – River basins and coastal waters – Coastal sediment systems (cells) – Marine (sub)regions – Coastal ecosystems (broad scale types) • Human systems – Coastal regions (statistical units) – Governance (coastal management plans) – Developement and resource use (economic sectors)
  • 40. Ecosystem approach in accounting practice • Data availability – Spatial data coverage to populate coastal units across sea/land interface – Sufficient and balanced represenation of human and natural coastal processes • Policy relevancy – Spatial management units use ecosystem-based approach – Policy concepts and related reporting data flows • Methodology used for accounting – Spatial accounting units (data model) is adequately representing the reality – Sound assumptions for models and frameworks for data ingtegration
  • 41. GENERAL applicability of policy for River basins, inland and delineation of coastal coastal water bodies, spatial units Coastal zone Inner waters management units Territorial waters Member States Coastal habitats and Marine sovereignty or species (sub)regions jurisdiction waters Maritime economy, including fishing High seas (UN Conventions)
  • 42. Potensi daya usaha Maritime Indonesia • Potensi menarik kegiatan usaha di laut dan daya serap tenaga kerja di laut dan pesisirnya : 5 juta orang . • Pertambahan pelabuhan dan armada penangkapan ikan • Penambahan armada satuan transportasi untuk Logistik Nasional
  • 43. Ship Prices Rising: Bigger Ships, Strong Demand $ Millions $220 LNG Carrier $150 2007 Large Crude $129 2002 Carrier $64 •Ship prices are up 50% on average. Builders are ramping-up Capesize Bulk $68 production, cutting production Carrier $36 time. China is trying to compete with Japan and Korea. Midsize Container $57 •Cargo/Hull losses for a mage-ship Ship $33 could exceed $1B - $2 billion. $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 Source: Clarkson Research Services, Insurance Information Institute
  • 44. Ocean and Wave Power • Why Ocean and Wave Power? • Technological Feasibility • Cost competitiveness (measured against fossil fuels)
  • 45. Advantages of Offshore Ocean Wave Power • Clean renewable source of energy • Nearly unlimited • More Predictable than wind and sun • Little environmental impact • Not visible from shore • Proximity to markets needing electricity
  • 46. World Coastal Population • 50% of the world's population currently live within sixty kilometers of the coast • By 2015, the world population will exceed 8 billion people • 3.4 billion living on coast
  • 47. Potential World-Wide Wave Energy • IEA (International Energy Agency) estimates that wave energy can supply between 10 and 50% of world demand • World demand of 15,000 TWh
  • 48. World Energy Council Estimates • 2 terawatts of clean and accessible ocean energy • Equivalent to twice the world’s current electricity generation
  • 49. World Energy Council 2001 Survey estimates • 2 TW of exploitable wave power worldwide • 50% of the total European power consumption could be generated from European coastal waters
  • 50. Independent market assessment of wave energy economic contribution to electricity market • Estimated 2,000 TWh/year • 10% of world electricity consumption • Equal to current world-wide large scale hydroelectric projects
  • 51. Ocean Power Delivery (Pelamis) • Pelamis has a similar output to a modern wind turbine • Full-scale prototype is operational • Tested at the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney. • A typical 30MW installation would occupy a square kilometer of ocean and provide sufficient electricity for 20,000 homes • Twenty farms could power a city such as Edinburgh
  • 52. Competitive Price Requirements (wave power level of 15 kw per meter)
  • 53. Can fish continue to feed the world? Campbell, Neil A.: Mitchell, Lawrence G.; Reece, Jane B., Biology: Concepts and Connections, 2nd Edition, © 1997, p. 711. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • 54. Economic sustainability Economic Development and sociocultural protection Economic growth Private profit Conservationism Market expansion Local self-reliance STD Ecological process Social accountability Biological diversity Strengthen Biological resources community identity Carrying capacity Social and cultural sustainability Ecological sustainability Deep ecology 54 http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
  • 56. ¡ Economic viability ¡ Local prosperity ¡ Employment quality ¡ Social equity ¡ Visitor fulfillment ¡ Local control ¡ Community wellbeing ¡ Cultural richness ¡ Physical integrity ¡ Biological diversity ¡ Resource efficiency ¡ Environmental purity 56 Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers, in September 2005 —— released by UNEP and WTO.
  • 57. Potensi Biota laut abitats Sandbanks Rocky Reefs Seagrass Beds
  • 58. The Importance of the Sea • Transport • Heritage • Recreation
  • 59. 44,000 different kinds of plants and animals recorded in UK waters – half UK’s Biodiversity.
  • 60. Human Activities §Land use §Tourism §Oil &Gas §Mariculture §Coastal Defence §Ports & Navigation §Military Activities §Culture §Conservation §Dredging & Disposal §Submarine Cables §Fishing §Renewable Energy §Marine Recreation How do we balance the needs of the §Mineral Extraction environment with our own social and economic needs?
  • 61. Marine Management Organisation Marine plans The Fisheries MMO’s management Marine main functions Licensing Marine nature conservation Emergencies
  • 62. Planning – how does it work High level objectives Live within Achieving a Promote good Use sound science Ensure a strong, environmental sustainable marine governance healthy and just limits economy society Marine Policy Statement (MPS) Marine Plans Licensing
  • 63. Conserving Biodiversity Marine Protected Areas Special Areas Special of Conservation Protection Areas (Habitats (Birds Directive) Directive) Marine Conservation Zones (Marine Act)
  • 64. Potensi Wisata laut dan bio diversity
  • 65. TAMAN LAUT BUNAKEN TAMAN LAUT PADANG RAJA AMPAT PAPUA TAMAN LAUT GILIS LOMBOK TAMAN LAUT FLORES
  • 68. Tantangan masa depan Indonesia • Perubahan struktur kependudukan • Peningkatan daya beli dan penambahan jumlah kelas menengah • Pergeseran aktivitas : makin ke Financial • Peningkatan peran Global • Tumbuhnya simpul simpul baru pertumbuhan, sektor sektor baru • From Green economy to BLUE economy
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  • 73. Membangun kelembagaan BLUE Economy • Peran Angkatan Laut akan menjadi makin besar seiring pengembangan bisnis dan ekonomi Kelautan • Kemajuan utama bersumber pada pengembangan KNOWLEDGE Center, Ocean Training center • Integrasi : Food – Energy - Ocean management • 70 % penduduk akan berjarak 60 km dari pantai dan pesisir
  • 74. Peran Angkatan Laut • Industri maritim akan menjadi besar dan melipat dua dalam kekuatan dalam 15 tahun mendatang • Peran dalam sistim Logistik akan menjadi 3 kali lebih besar karena peningkatan permintaan dan ekspansi usaha • Peran pengembangan dan pengawasan ketahanan /keamanan menjadi makin terpadu dengan pertumbuhan
  • 75. END OF SLIDES THANK YOU Kresnayana Yahya Email: kresna49@yahoo.com Blog: http://www.kresnayana.com Enciety Business Consult 75