Introduction toAAC for AAC Bootcamp ESMA 2014


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This slideshow introduces Augmentative Communication to teachers, therapists and school employees who were part of Easter Seals Massachusetts AAC Bootcamp for Professionals in August 2014

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Introduction toAAC for AAC Bootcamp ESMA 2014

  1. 1. Introduction to AAC Kate Ahern, M.S.Ed. AAC Bootcamp Easter Seals MA August 2014
  2. 2. Underlying Principles
  3. 3. Everybody Communicates
  4. 4. AAC Definitions
  5. 5. AAC Augmentative and Alternative Communication
  6. 6. Why do we communicate? • Light, 1988 • Communicate wants/needs • Information transfer • Social closeness • Social etiquette • Beukelman & Mirenda added: • internal dialogue
  7. 7. Can your users communicate for all five?
  8. 8. The Least Dangerous Assumption • “The criterion holds that without conclusive data educational decisions should be based on assumptions which, if incorrect, will provide the least danger for independent functioning.” Anne Donnellan • Behavioral Disorders, v9 n2 p141-50 Feb 1984
  9. 9. We see… what we expect to see.
  10. 10. Without Educational Data: Presume Competence • Situations in which it may be impossible to have evidence • Severe apraxia (Rett Syndrome, some cases of CP, Angelman Syndrome) • Severe physical disabilities • Movement disabilities • Multiple sensory disabilities (Deafblind) • Co-morbid cases of neglect – in the home or educational neglect Cannot physically access communicatio n materials. Presume Competence Dx with condition assumed to cause severe developmental delay Medical condition affect alertness
  11. 11. Check Your Assumptions • Historical Belief of Severe Developmental Disability is NOT Educational Data • Research into many disabilities is proving that many individuals have been underestimated leading to improper interventions, educational and residential placements (Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Deafblind) • Learners with presumed moderate to severe disabilities are more likely to suffer from educational neglect • Data from children who have not been taught to communicate only indicates a lack of teaching/appropriate intervention not a lack of potential to communicate
  12. 12. What if Annie Sullivan did not presume competence? What if you don’t?
  13. 13. Communication Bill of Rights By the National Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities TASH and ASHA
  14. 14. Bill of Rights
  15. 15. Multimodal Communication • Facial expressions • Vocalizations • Body Movements • Eye pointing • Gestures • Verbal Approximations • Speech • Sign Language • Pictures Exchange Communication System (PECS) • Communication Boards/Books • Pragmatic Organization of Dynamic Display (PODD) • High Tech Communication Systems (Tobii, Dynavox, PRC, Saltillo, tablets with apps)
  16. 16. Making Multi-Modal Communication Meaningful • Honor all communication attempts that are meaningful and understandable – don’t force a user to “say it again” with a device (or sign or their voice) • Use multi-modal communication yourself • If you wish to demonstrate how something could be done in another mode, go ahead!
  17. 17. Types of AAC
  18. 18. Types of AAC Unaided • No tools needed • Sign language • Gestures Aided • Use of tools needed • PECS • Communication Boards/Books • Technology based systems
  19. 19. Types of AAC Low/Light Tech High Tech
  20. 20. A few words about symbols: 1. Myth of symbol hierarchy is pervasive (object, photo, drawing, words) 2. Use of objects and photos can lead to lack of generalization and overuse of nouns 3. Studies have shown that both iconicity (transparency) and the meaning assigned to a symbol by adults and peers affect learning symbols for communication
  21. 21. Gestures Enhanced Natural Gestures (ENG) Keyword Sign Signed Exact English (SEE) American Sign Language (ASL) 1. Gestures are motions made by a communicator that send a message, may not be universally understood 2. ENG are non-contact motions taught by shaping a communicators natural movements 3. Keyword Sign Language is the practice of using manual signs to communicate important words in a sentence or phrase 4. SEE is a manual form of spoken English where a sign replaces/matches every word 5. ASL is a unique and full language that is communicated using manual signs, it has its own grammar, idioms and culture
  22. 22. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) 1. A system of Augmentative Communication Instruction that begins with a 2:1 staff to client ratio and focuses on teaching mands through intraverbals through a strict ABA methodology 2. PECS is NOT what picture symbols are called and is NOT any notebook/picture trading systems that is in use 3. Clinicians and partners should be trained by Pyramid Consultants 4. Misused the system can be overly reliant on mands/nouns and miss opportunities for social
  23. 23. Pragmatic Organization of Dynamic Display (PODD) 1. A system and method of Augmentative and Alternative Communication available in both low and high technology versions 2. Vocabulary is arranged so that user can flow through a conversation 3. Methodology focuses on Aided Language Stimulation and communicate partner training 4. Originated in Australia with Gayle Porter, currently one certified trainer in USA, Linda Burkhart 5. System can appear overwhelming to those not trained, there is a learning
  24. 24. Communication Boards
  25. 25. Flipbooks Generally used in conjunction with a static communication board or device Flipbooks often contain words that allow users to expand sentences and provide more context to their communication than using a single board or page alone.
  26. 26. Static Display Devices
  27. 27. Dynamic Display Devices
  28. 28. Other Tools in the AAC Toolbox
  29. 29. Visual Supports Visual supports are any tool presented visually that supports an individual as he or she moves through the day. Visual supports might include, but are not limited to, pictures, written words, objects within the environment, arrangement of the environment or visual boundaries, schedules, maps, labels, organization systems, timelines, and scripts. They are used across settings to support individuals. (National Research Council, 2001).
  30. 30. Classroom Natural Aided Language Communication Boards/Systems 1. Using posters (make at an office store) or decals (CafePress will make them) or just enlarged photocopies you can have a classroom sized communication board for modeling 2. Using a projector or smartboard you can display a communication app or software for use for modeling
  31. 31. Wearable AAC and Reminders
  32. 32. The Latest Research Multiple Modes • Key to successful communication • Light,-Collier,-&-Parnes, 1985 • Blackstone-&-Hunt Berg, 2003 • Light-&-Drager, 2005 • Binger-&-Light, 2006 AAC Does not Impede Speech • AAC has no impact or sometimes (over 80% of the time) increases natural speech • Romski-&-Sevcik,-2005 • Millar,-Light,-and-Schlosser- 2006
  33. 33. The Latest Research The Best System • Research supports using a system with evidence based implementation, no one system is “best” • Mirenda-(2003,-2005) Not Enough Language • Most young children using systems that do not have enough language for communication or to even learn to communicate • Binger-&-Light,-2006 • Hustad-et-al.,-2005
  34. 34. Directions in Research Visual Scenes May Be Helpful • With younger children (1-3) using visual scenes that depict and entire concept with outlined hotspots can be helpful, more research needed • Fallon,-Light,-&-Achenbach,- 2003 • Light-and-Drager-(2005)- Finding a symbol is easier than finding a page • Individuals may need help navigating to the correct page of their book or device, using screen shots of pages may help find the correct page • Drager-et-al.,-2003 • Light,- Drager,-McCarthy,-et-al.- (2004)