Writing The Research Paper A Handbook (7th ed) - Ch 7 transforming the notes into a rough draft


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Writing The Research Paper Winker - Ch 7 transforming the notes into a rough draft
Winkler McCuen-Metherell
Seventh Edition

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Writing The Research Paper A Handbook (7th ed) - Ch 7 transforming the notes into a rough draft

  1. 1. 77 Transforming the Notes into a Rough Draft
  2. 2. Preparing to Write the Rough Draft: A Checklist • A practical checklist of things before beginning to write the rough draft: 1. Formulate a thesis: at least have a main idea, thesis will emerge as you write 2. Go over your notes: pick out only material relevant to thesis, don’t try and cram in every note (editorial judgment) 3. Organize your notes in order of appearance in paper, using cards, or cut/paste from computer 4. Write an outline or abstract of the paper: into an ordered list of topics. Juggle the topics until most logical, emphatic order
  3. 3. Preparing to Write the Rough Draft: A Checklist • Writers Block • Important to be enthusiastic/interested in topic • Just write something rough down, and edit late
  4. 4. Preparing to Write the Rough Draft: A Checklist • Writing with a Computer • Can easily edit/rewrite with computer • Avoid “overdoing it” – can revise countless times with a word processor. • Do not use fancy fonts • Use spell and grammar checker • But also check yourself (spell check is “context dumb”)
  5. 5. Using your notes in the paper • Notes, quotations, paraphrases, or summaries as well as personal observations must be embedded in the text and tied to discussion context with a reference • Using notes properly is essential to the success of the paper • Summaries and paraphrases • Summary – condensation of an idea • Paraphrase – restatement of an idea using approximately same number of words as original • See/Read text examples on pg. 97
  6. 6. Using your notes in the paper • Direct Quotation – exact reproduction of someone else’s words • Must be reproduced with the exact phrasing, spelling and punctuation of the original • Modifications indicated with [ ] See Text pg. 98 • Must be blended into surrounding sentences See Text pg. 98 • Indirect Quotation – do not reproduce someone else’s words • Research paper usually mixes both direct and indirect quotations to avoid a choppy style of only direct quotations • Review/Read examples pg. 97-98
  7. 7. Using your notes in the paper • Using brief direct quotations • Can be introduced with a simple word or phrase See pg. 98 • Vary introductions to quotations • “So and so says…” • “In the opinion of one critic…” • If quotation is grammatically part of sentence, the first word of the quotation does not need to be capitalized (even if it is in the original. See pg. 99 • If quotation is used at end of declarative sentence, it’s followed by period, even if period is used in original See pg. 99
  8. 8. Using your notes in the paper • Using long quotations (more than 4 lines • Must be set off from the text: • Introduce quotation with a colon (unless runs on from text) • Do not leave an extra line space between text and start of quotation, double space everything • Indent the quotation ten spaces from the left of margin • With 2 or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each paragraph an additional 3 spaces. • Quotations that are set off with an indentation are not set within quotation marks (except for dialogues, titles, poetry) • Do not leave extra line space between end of quotation and text which follows See pg. 99-100 examples
  9. 9. Using your notes in the paper • Using quotations from poetry • Short passages of poetry should be in quotation marks and incorporated into the text. • Verse quotations of 2 – 3 lines can be part of text, but separate the lines by a slash (space on each side of slash) • Verse quotations of more than 3 lines formatted like long prose quotations: • introduced with colon • separate from text with double spacing • Indented • Do not add quotations marks See pg. 101 examples
  10. 10. Using your notes in the paper • Using quotations within another quotation • Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within another brief quotation • For quotations within long indented quotations, use double quotation marks See pg. 102 examples
  11. 11. Using your notes in the paper • Punctuating Quotations • The rules for punctuating quotations are few and simple: • Place commas and periods inside the quotations marks • Place colons and semicolons outside the quotations marks • Place question marks and exclamation points inside the quotation marks if they are part of the quotation, but outside if they are not • See pg. 102-103 examples
  12. 12. Using your notes in the paper • Handling interpolations in quoted material • Personal comments or explanations within a quotation must be placed in square brackets. • The word sic in square brackets means that the quotation has been copied exactly, including errors • See pg. 103 examples
  13. 13. Using your notes in the paper • Using the ellipsis - Three dots with a space before and after, is used to indicate the omission of material from a quotation • Omissions necessary when only part of quotation is relevant to your point - Still obliged to be faithful of original intent of author’s original text • Omissions within a sentence are indicated by three spaced dots • Omissions at the end of a sentence use a period followed by three spaced dots • Omission of a sentence or more are indicated by four dots ( a complete sentence must both proceed and follow the four dots • Omission of long passages (several stanzas, paragraphs, pages) are marked by a single line of spaced dots • Omissions that immediately follow an introductory statement require no ellipsis • See pg. 104-106 examples
  14. 14. Using your notes in the paper • Overusing quotations • No paper should have a long string of quotations • Mix of summaries, paraphrases, and quotations is smoother and easier to read • Personal commentary • Ensure rough draft reveals your own points of view, beliefs, and conclusions • Make personal notes to record personal viewpoint while taking notes
  15. 15. How to use quotation to explore and discover • How to use quotation to explore and discover • If you agree with an authority opinion say so, and why • If you disagree with an authority opinion say so, and state your case • Thesis should reflect your views or speculations on the topic • Claim your seat on the banquet table of opinion as intellectual equal • Students often feel they should not doubt authority or debate its views • BUT – MUST DO THIS TO BE ORIGINAL • Assert your OPINION • REACT to the research • See text example pg. 108-109
  16. 16. Writing with unity, coherence, and emphasis • Writing with unity, coherence, and emphasis • Notes must be blended smoothly into the natural flow of the paper. • Paraphrases, summaries, indirect quotes must be edited for smoothness • Transitions between ideas should be logical and smooth • Need : • Unity • Coherence • Emphasis
  17. 17. Writing with unity, coherence, and emphasis • Unity - “Sticking to the Point” • Paper should stick to chosen thesis without rambling • Ignore side issues – no matter how interesting • “Kill your babies” • Thesis: • Predicts the content of the paper • Controls its directions • Obligates you to a single purpose • Introduce only material relevant to thesis • Single-mindedness produces unified, easy-to-read paper
  18. 18. Writing with unity, coherence, and emphasis • Coherence – “Sticking together” • Think of the paragraph as expressing a single idea • Sentences contribute bits of meaning • 4 suggestions to write coherent paragraphs: 1. Repeat key words or use clear pronouns – Read pg. 110 2. Use parallel structures – Read pg. 110 3. Use transitional markers – Read pg. 110 - 111 4. Use a transitional sentence – Read pg. 111-112
  19. 19. Writing with unity, coherence, and emphasis • Emphasis • Emphasis requires • more important ideas in main or independent clauses • less important ideas in subordinate or dependent clauses • Read text example pg. 112
  20. 20. Using the proper tense • Using the proper tense • Humanities papers usually written in present tense • Comments are usually still true today (sometimes exceptions) See examples p. 113 • MLA and CMS use present tense to cite a work • APA requires past/present perfect tense to cite work • APA requires perfect tense (has been) for experiments or conditions that have been reported and are still valid
  21. 21. Using graphics in your research paper • Graphics • Students routinely include illustrations in their research papers • Pottery, art, pie chart, block table, graph • Only use graphics if they add significantly to the content of your work • Text examples : pg. 115-118
  22. 22. Writing the abstract • Abstract • A summary of the major ideas contained in your research paper/condense (APA style) • Abstract replaces an outline • Suggest writing from the outline (may not be required to submit) • No more than one page (120 words) • Always on pg. 2 after the title page • Have a running head and page number
  23. 23. Writing the abstract • Abstract – meet the following criteria 1. Reflect accurately the purpose and content paper 2. Explain briefly the central issue or problem of paper 3. Summarize paper’s most important points 4. Mention major sources used 5. State conclusions clearly 6. Be coherent so that it is easy to read 7. Remain objective in its point of view • See text, pg. 119