Writing The Research Paper A Handbook (7th ed) - Ch 5 computers and the research paper


Published on

Writing The Research Paper Winker - Ch 5 computers and the research paper
Winkler McCuen-Metherell
Seventh Edition

Published in: Education, Technology, Design
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Writing The Research Paper A Handbook (7th ed) - Ch 5 computers and the research paper

  1. 1. 5 Computers and the Research Paper
  2. 2. Computers and the Research Paper • No invention more useful than the computer • Has put global library at the writer’s fingertips • Has automated writing process • Used typewriters before computers – required retyping, footnotes, etc. • With computers can revise as often as you wish
  3. 3. Computers and the Research Paper • Computers have led to the comeback of footnotes • Students often prefer to take notes on a computer (can cut and paste) • Instructors prefer submission by email • Research is sped up
  4. 4. The Internet • Internet consists of millions of computers connected by a common protocol = “way of talking” • Growth has been explosive, since 1969
  5. 5. The Internet • Internet vs. The World Wide Web • The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure • The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet • An information-sharing model built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol.
  6. 6. The Internet • Internet terms: • FTP - File transfer protocol – rules for transferring file • HTML - hypertext markup language– standard language for documents on world wide web • HTTP - hypertext transfer protocol– method computer uses to find a file • ISP - Internet Service Provider – a company that sells access to the internet • URL - uniform resource locator – technical term for internet
  7. 7. The Internet • Understanding Internet Addresses: 1. Protocol 2. Name of Host (domain, can include “www”) 3. Document Path (directory and file) • Best to use “links” and avoid typing address in directly
  8. 8. Online Resources • Best sources online: • Databases • Electronic journals • OPAC (online public-access catalogs • Blogs
  9. 9. Online Resources • Databases: • A collection of data organized and stored for easy retrieval • Available through a fee-based membership, through local or college library • Can be searched in several ways by keyword, author, or title • Examples: • Expanded Academic ASAP • InfoTrac • Galileo • Questia - newspapers, journals, magazines
  10. 10. Online Resources • Electronic Journals: • Serial publications that can be accessed by computer via the internet • Directory of Open Access Journals (www.doaj.org/) • Catalog of over 2,500 journals, 105,000 articles on many topics • Journals can have limited search function • Most databases contain printed journals which are subject to peer review • Article has been reviewed by a panel of experts in the author’s field • Some journals are only available in electronic form
  11. 11. Online Resources • OPAC (online public-access catalogs): • Many library catalogues available online • LibDex: • an index of Libdex is a worldwide directory of library homepages, web-based OPACs • http://www.libdex.com
  12. 12. Online Resources
  13. 13. Online Resources • OPAC (Online Public-Access Catalogs): • OCLC – Online Computer Library Center (www.oclc.org) • A worldwide library cooperative, owned, governed and sustained by members since 1967 • Public purpose is to improve access to the information held in libraries around the globe and find ways to reduce costs for libraries through collaboration • 40,000+ libraries, 76+ countries • Processed over 113 million loan requests • Sometimes listed as “WorldCat” • Free version is at (http://www.worldcat.org/)
  14. 14. Online Resources
  15. 15. Online Resources
  16. 16. Online Resources
  17. 17. Online Resources • Blogs: • Short for Web Log – personal website usually maintained by an individual and reflecting owner’s point of view • Include images, text, conversations • Vary widely, in terms of focus, tone • Can be useful for research paper • Or can be too individualist/opinionated • Some movement towards writing blogs instead of papers
  18. 18. Researching with Search Engines • Researching with Search Engines: • Program that searches the web for specific words related to your topic • Free to use, type in key words • Not case sensitive • “Hits” – results of search • Read the instructions of the search engine • Boolean Logic: • AND (+) – looks for sources where both terms occur • OR (|) – looks for any of the two terms • NOT (-) – exclude a particular term
  19. 19. Researching with Search Engines • Finding a Search Engine: • Many search engines available with millions/billions of hits • Most popular search engines as of September 2013 (www.ebizmba.com)
  20. 20. Researching with Search Engines • Educational Search Engines: • Educational search engines are often maintained by non-profit organizations - Search for Educational Search Engines • Educational Search Engines (http://www.searchengineguide.com/pages/Education) – links to every type of search engine, including searching blogs • English Server (http://eserver.org) – EServer is a digital humanities venture, founded in 1990 and based at Iowa State U, where writers, editors and scholars publish over 35,000 works free of charge • Library of Congress (links to other internet sites) • Searchedu (http://www.searchedu.com) – commercial site which searches academic websites, and has useful links • The Universal Library (http://www.ulib.org) – its primary long-term objective is to capture all books in digital format (eBooks, videos, etc.)
  21. 21. Researching with Search Engines • Useful Search Engines: • There are several types of search engines: • Manual – human powered/compiled (ex. Yahoo!) • Robotic – crawler-based search engines/indexed pages (ex. Google) • Meta – top listings of other search engines • Hybrid / Specialty
  22. 22. Researching with Search Engines • Useful Academic Search Engines: www.educatorstechnology.com
  23. 23. Researching with Search Engines • Useful Academic Search Engines: www.educatorstechnology.com
  24. 24. Usenet, Listserv, Telnet, and Gopher • Usenet - Created in 1979, Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion system • Rapidly declining use compared to WWW • Divided into several major categories: (ex. alt.animals.dogs) • Often have to pay for Usenet • In May 2010, Duke University, whose implementation had kicked off Usenet decommissioned its Usenet server, citing low usage and rising costs
  25. 25. Usenet, Listserv, Telnet, and Gopher • Listserv- manages electronic mailing lists of discussion groups • Commercial mailing list management system that allows you to subscribe to or create, manage, and control an electronic mailing • Messages automatically sent once an update has been made (ex. On Usenet)
  26. 26. Usenet, Listserv, Telnet, and Gopher • Telnet and Gopher – • Telnet is a protocol for connecting computers to internet • Large databases use Telnet as an access system • Sites that use Telnet are now available on the web • Gopher – early form of internet search
  27. 27. Evaluating Internet Sources • Internet is a vast public library with no librarian • No one checks the accuracy of the information posted • Anyone can post virtually anything • Sometimes, you cannot trust what you read on the internet • Solution: Ask where?, who?, and what?
  28. 28. Evaluating Internet Sources • Where was the information found? • Some websites are maintained by individual hobbyists with an ax to grind • Some maintained by universities, some by companies • Who maintains the site? Check the domain name: • .com – A commercial organization • .edu – an educational institution • .gov – nonmilitary government agency/department • .mil – military • .net – network administrator • .org – nonprofit organization
  29. 29. Evaluating Internet Sources • Who maintains the site? • Other domain names: • .aero air-transport industry asia Asia-Pacific region • .biz business .coop cooperatives • .info information .int international organizations • .jobs companies .mobi mobile devices • .museum museums .name individuals, by name • .net network .post postal services • .pro professions .tel Internet communication • .travel travel and tourism industry related sites
  30. 30. Evaluating Internet Sources • Who maintains the site? • Country domain names: • .au Australia .ca Canada • .ch Switzerland .cl Chile • .cn People's Republic of China .de Germany • .eu European Union .fr France • .gb United Kingdom .hk Hong Kong • .ie Ireland .in India • .it Italy .nl Netherlands • .no Norway .nz New Zealand • .se Sweden .sg Singapore • .us United States of America (Commonly used by US State and local governments instead of .gov) • .za South Africa
  31. 31. Evaluating Internet Sources • Who wrote it? • Is the author identified? • Are the authors credentials listed? • Is the author qualified to write on the topic? • Check the biography sources online/at the library • Many instructors do not allow Wikipedia because of unknown authorship
  32. 32. Evaluating Internet Sources • Who publishes it? • What is the goal/mission of the publication? • Is it even-handed? • What are the writer’s sources? • Researcher should ask: Did this really happen? • Stories can sometimes turn out to be fabricated • What kind of tone? • Respect for the research process and opinion of others • Be wary of belligerent tone
  33. 33. Evaluating Internet Sources • What do the writer’s contemporaries have to say? • Majority is not always right, but is often wrong • Don’t reject material just because of a unique point of view or unpopular position • Some authors maintain positions that are wrong • Problem with internet material, is it is often not subject to peer review • Question the accuracy of an electronic source without peer review
  34. 34. Evaluating Internet Sources • What is the writer’s motive? • Writer may hold a certain point of view or a particular opinion not related to research • Sometimes motives are clear, sometimes not clear • Examples: • A whistle blower reviewed by magazine ratted on • Writer fired from prominent magazine • John Smith story of Pocahontas
  35. 35. Evaluating Internet Sources • What is the context of the writer’s opinion? • Context refers to environment in which opinion is formed • Sciences and social sciences are sensitive to context, others are not • Examples: • Eighteenth century literary critic, old fashioned, but not changed by context. • Vietnam War proclamations should be weighed in context • Recent subject can be sensitive – HIV/AIDS (decline in death rate) • Evaluating internet sources is an exercise in editorial judgement
  36. 36. Running a Search / Useful Internet Sites • Computer is a powerful research tool • Can find numerous sources and references in minutes • Internet is volatile and changes quickly • Other useful sites: • Encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com • Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org • RefDesk.com http://www.refdesk.com • Remember to document the sources you site (MLA)