3 hardware


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3 hardware

  1. 1. PENGANTAR TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Perangkat keras komputer (Hardware)
  2. 2. Sistem Komputer Hardware
  3. 3. Hardware (lanj.) Hardware      Input Process (System Unit) Output Storage Communication
  4. 4. Hardware (lanj.) Input  What is an input device?  Hardware used to enter data and instructions
  5. 5. Input Hardware (lanj.)
  6. 6. Input Hardware (lanj.)
  7. 7. Hardware (lanj.) Output  What is an output device?  Hardware that conveys information to a user
  8. 8. Output Hardware (lanj.)
  9. 9. Standar Video Hardware (lanj.)
  10. 10. System Unit Hardware (lanj.)  What is the system unit?  Box-like case containing electronic components used to process data
  11. 11. Motherboard Hardware (lanj.)  What are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a processor Carries out instructions that tell computer what to do Memory Temporary holding place for data and instructions
  12. 12. Storage Hardware (lanj.)  What is storage?  Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage media Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions, Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored and information are stored Storage device Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from Records and retrieves items to and from aastorage medium storage medium
  13. 13. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.)  What is storage media?
  14. 14. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.) Satuan Kapasitas
  15. 15. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.)  What is a floppy disk?  Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell  A USB flash drive is portable, and has much greater storage capacity
  16. 16. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.)  What is a flash drive?  Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk  Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket
  17. 17. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.)  What is a hard disk? Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or USB flash drive  Housed inside the system unit 
  18. 18. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.)  What is a compact disc?  Flat, round, portable metal disc     CD-ROM CD-RW DVD-ROM DVD+RW
  19. 19. Storage Media Hardware (lanj.) Microfilm
  20. 20. Hardware (lanj.) Syatem Unit  What is the system unit?  Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data  Sometimes called the chassis
  21. 21. Hardware (lanj.) Syatem Unit  What are common components inside the system unit?  Processor  Memory Adapter cards  Sound card  Modem card  Video card  Network card Ports Drive bays Power supply     power supply drive bays processor memory ports sound card network card modem card video card
  22. 22. Motherboard Hardware (lanj.)  What is the motherboard? adapter cards  Main circuit board in system unit  Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips  Also called system board processor chip memory chips memory slots Expansion slots for adapter cards motherboard
  23. 23. Chip Hardware (lanj.)  What is a chip?  Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched dual inline packages (DIP) holds memory chips Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board   pin grid array (PGA) package holds processor chips
  24. 24. Hardware (lanj.)  What is the central processing unit (CPU)? Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer  Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer  Arithmetic logic unit Input (ALU) performs Devices arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations  Also called the processor CPU  Processor Control Control Unit Unit Arithmetic Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Logic Unit (ALU) Instructions Data Informatio n Data Memory Instructions Data Informatio n Storage Devices Information Output Devices
  25. 25. Hardware (lanj.)  What is a machine cycle? Siklus Mesin  Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle Step 1. Fetch Obtain program instruction or data item from memory Step 2. Decode Memory Step 4. Store Translate instruction into commands Write result to memory Processor ALU Control Unit Step 3. Execute Carry out command
  26. 26. Hardware (lanj.) Siklus Mesin  What is pipelining?   CPU begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for first instruction Results in faster processing
  27. 27. Hardware (lanj.) Coprocessor  What is a coprocessor? Chip that assists processor in Chip that assists processor in performing specific tasks performing specific tasks One type is a floating-point coprocessor, also One type is a floating-point coprocessor also coprocessor, coprocessor known as a math or numeric coprocessor known as a math or numeric coprocessor
  28. 28. Paralel Processing Hardware (lanj.)  What is parallel processing?  Using multiple processors Control Processor simultaneously to execute a program faster  Requires special Processor 1 Processor 2 Processor 3 Memory Memory software to divide Memory problem and bring results together Results combined Processor 4 Memory
  29. 29. Hardware (lanj.)  How do computers represent data? Digital  Most computers are digital  Recognize only two discrete states: on or off  Use a binary system to recognize two states  Use Number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits)
  30. 30. Hardware (lanj.)  How is a letter converted to binary form and back? Digital Step 1. The user presses the capital letter D (shift+D key) on the keyboard. Step 4. After processing, the binary code for the capital letter D is converted to an image, and displayed on the output device. Step 2. An electronic signal for the capital letter D is sent to the system unit. Step 3. The signal for the capital letter D is converted to its ASCII binary code (01000100) and is stored in memory for processing.
  31. 31. Hardware (lanj.)  What is memory? Memory    Electronic components that store instructions, data, and results Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board Each byte stored in unique location called an address, similar to seats on a passenger train Seat #2B4 Seat #2B3
  32. 32. Hardware (lanj.)  Where does memory reside? Memory   Resides on small circuit board called memory module Memory slots on motherboard hold memory modules
  33. 33. Hardware (lanj.)  How much RAM does an application require? System Requirements  Software package Windows XP Home Edition/Professional • Intel Pentium processor at 233MHZ or higher typically indicates • AMD K6 (Athlon Duron Family processor at 233MHZ or higher • 64 MB of RAM RAM requirements  For optimal performance, you need more than minimum specifications Memory ®
  34. 34. Memory Hardware (lanj.)  How much RAM do you need?  Depends on type of applications you intend to run on your computer RAM Use 128 to 256 MB 256 to 1 GB 1 GB and up • Home and business • Users requiring more advanced • Power users creating users managing personal finance • Using standard application software such as word processing • Using educational or entertainment CD-ROMs • Communicating with others on the Web multimedia capabilities • Running number-intensive accounting, financial, or spreadsheet programs • Using voice recognition • Working with videos, music, and digital imaging • Creating Web sites • Participating in video conferences • Playing Internet games professional Web sites • Running sophisticated CAD, 3D design, or other graphics-intensive software
  35. 35. Memory Hardware (lanj.)  What is cache?  Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data  Also called memory cache  L1 cache built into processor  L2 cache slower but has larger capacity  L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip  L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)
  36. 36. Hardware (lanj.) Memory  What is read-only memory (ROM)? Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions Nonvolatile memory, it is not lost when computer’s power is turned off EEPROM (electrically Three types: erasable programmable read-only memory)— PROM Firmware— Type of PROM (programmable containing microcode Manufactured with read-only permanently written programmer memory)— data, instructions, can erase Blank ROM or information chip onto which a programmer can write permanently
  37. 37. Hardware (lanj.)  What is flash memory? Memory   Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed Used with PDAs, digital cameras, digital cellular phones, music players, digital voice recorders, printers, Internet receivers, and pagers Step 3. Step 1. Purchase and download MP3 music tracks from a Web site. With one end of a special cable connected to the system unit, connect the other end into the MP3 player. Flash memory chip To headphones Plug the headphones into the MP3 player, push a button on the MP3 player, and listen to the music through the headphones. From computer Flash memory card Step 2. Instruct the computer to copy the MP3 music track to the flash memory chip in the MP3 player. MP3 Player
  38. 38. Hardware (lanj.) Adapter Card  What is an adapter card?   Enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals Also called an expansion card Types of Adapter Cards
  39. 39. Expansion Slot Hardware (lanj.)  What is an expansion slot?   An opening, or socket, on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card With Plug and Play, the computer automatically configures cards and other devices as you install them
  40. 40. Card Hardware (lanj.)  What are PC cards and flash memory cards?  A PC card adds memory, storage, sound, fax/modem, communications, and other capabilities to notebook computers  A flash memory card allows users to transfer data from mobile devices to desktop computers  Hot plugging allows you to insert and remove cards while computer is running
  41. 41. Hardware (lanj.)  What are ports and connectors?  Port  Port connects external devices to system unit Connector joins cable to peripheral  Available in one of two genders: male and female
  42. 42. Serial& Paralel Port Hardware (lanj.)
  43. 43. USB & Firewire Port Hardware (lanj.)
  44. 44. Hardware (lanj.) Konektor  What are different types of connectors?
  45. 45. Hardware (lanj.)  What is a bus? Bus  Channel that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other    System bus connects processor and RAM Bus width determines number of bits transmitted at one time Word size is the number of bits processor can interpret and execute at a given time
  46. 46. Hardware (lanj.)  What is a bay? Bay   Open area inside system unit used to install additional equipment Drive bays typically hold disk drives