Bilingual child

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Bilingual child

  1. 1. Chapter 5: The Bilingual Child By:  Teddy Fiktorius (F5221 2025) Postgraduate Study of English Language Education Teacher Training and Education Faculty University of Tanjungpura Pontianak 2013
  2. 2. Outline 1. Introduction 2. Types & Studies of bilingual acquisition in childhood 3. Interference, transfer, and universals 4. Code-switching 5. Personal and attitudinal factors affecting children’s bilingualism 6. Later childhood bilingualism
  3. 3. Introduction routes in bilingual acquisition  Up to age 3 after age 3 or in adolescence adults Focus of this chapter ‘natural’ 6 types Without formal instruction Research finding-based workers e.g. migrant
  4. 4. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 1: Parents One person - one language Each parent has a different native language and a degree of competence in the language of the other Community The language of one parent is the dominant language of the community Strategy Each parent speaks their own native language to the child form the birth The studies: Author Mother language Father language Community language Ronjar (1913) German French French German English Italian Italian Leopold (1939- English 1949) Taeschner German (1983)
  5. 5. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 2: Non-dominant home language Parents have different native languages Parents Community Strategy The language of one parent is the dominant language of the community Both parents speak the non-dominant language to the child and the child is fully exposed to the dominant language only when outside home The study: Author Mother language Father language Community language Fantini (1985) Spanish English English
  6. 6. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 3: Non-dominant home language without community support share the same native language Parents Parents Community The dominant language is not of his parents Strategy The parents speak their own language to the child The studies: Author Mother language Father language Community language Haugen (1953) Norwegian Norwegian English Oksaar (1977) Estonian Estonian Ruke-Dravina (1967) Pavlovitch (1920) Latvian Latvian Swedish/ German Swedish Servian Servian French
  7. 7. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 4: Double non-dominant home language without community support Parents have different native languages Parents Community Strategy The study: Author Elwert (1959) The dominant language is different from either of the parent’s languages The parents speak their own language to the child Mother language Father language Community language English German Italian
  8. 8. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 5: Non-native parents Parents share the same native language Parents Community Strategy The dominant language is the same as that of the parents One of the parents always addresses the child in a language which is not his/her native language The study: Author Mother language Father language Community language Saunders (1982) English English (German) English
  9. 9. Types of bilingual acquisition in childhood Type 6: Mixed languages Parents are bilinguals Parents Community Sectors of community may also be bilingual. Strategy Parents code-switch and mix languages The study: Author Mother language Father language Community language TabouretKeller (1962) Ellul (1978) Smith (1935) French/ German Maltese/ English English French/ German Maltese/ English English French/ German Maltese/ English Chinese Burling (1959) English English Garo
  10. 10. Interference, transfer, and universals Bilingualism Child’s acquisition pattern Cross-linguistic influence Interference One lexical system (in the early stages) Fantini (1985) : fusion Interference separation (of the two systems) ‘truly bilingual’
  11. 11. Code-switching Saunders (1982): ‘triggering’ Unconscious switching Internal linguistic factors e.g. a word belonging to both languages forget which language the speaker is speaking in A trigger continue in the other language e.g. Frank: Mum, what can I have to drink? Mother: Do you want some Prima? An Australian brand of orange juice Frank: Ja, bitte. (‘Yes, please.’) A German word meaning ‘terrific’ a trigger to switch into German ANTICIPATIONAL switching VS CONSEQUENTIAL switching
  12. 12. Saunders (1982): Quotational switching To quote a crucial line in the story Haugen (1953): ‘untranslatable & inimitable punch line’ e.g. Thomas: I know this one, Mum. It’s called Die Wilde Jagd (The Wild Chase). It’s about dome kids and their mugs get filled up all the time by the ghost, he tells them not to tell anyone. But they tell their mother and father, und die Glaser werden nie wieder gefullt (and the glasses are never again filled).
  13. 13. Personal and attitudinal factors affecting children’s bilingualism Children’s bilingualism Receptiveness Child family attitudes extended family school society CASES: Doctor School psychologist Professionals (speech therapist) bilingualism=child’s confusion
  14. 14. Later childhood bilingualism Balkan (1970): Early childhood bilingualism VS later in childhood or adolescence more advantages numerical ability Bilingual VS Monolingual score better Bilingual before age 4 VS Bilingual after age 4 & monolingual verbal & perceptual flexibility general reasoning more superior

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