Ene rg y and its transfo rmatio n● ENERGY SOURCES *Household uses :operating household appliances, heating systems, means of transfort, etc. *Industrial uses: the operation of factories and businesses, construction, agricultura, etc. *by avaavailabity in nature : renewable or non -renewale. *By origin: primary or secondary. *By use: Conventional or non-conventional. *By environmental impact: Clean or polluting.
1.1 Electricity.*its capacity to be easily transformed into otherforms of energy*the possibility of transporting it long distances atlow cost
Electric power plants● The turbine converts mechanical energy into the rotating movement of a shaft *The alternador is connected to the turbine shaft. As the shaft moves, it produces alternating electrical current
2 electric power plants● 2.1. in thermal power plants water is heated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel (natural gas,coal or petroleum) *Combined cycle power plants obtain electricy as the result of two combined cycles: a cycle that uses air and gas, and conventional thermal cyle.
2.1 Conventional poewer plamts● Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission reactor that productes heat to generate the pressurised steam needed to move the turbine rotor. *Hydroelectric power plants use the potential energy providedby the height of the water stored in a dam, converting in into kinetic energy.
2.2 Non-conventional power plants● Wind farms use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower this referred to as wind turbine
2.2 Non-conventional power plants● Solar power plants use the suns energy .there are two types photo -thermal power plants are thermal power plants in which steam is produced by solar radiation,while photovoltaic power plants transfor solar radiatio directly into electricity uisng panels of photovoltais cells.
2.2.● Biomass consist of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes.
2.2.● Geothermal power plants use the heat found at deep layers in the Earth, while ocean power plants use the energy from the oceans and seas: tides, waves or thermal gradient.
3 environmental impact● 3.1environmental repercussions *the exploitation of fossil fuels and nuclear energy leads to the depletion of resources.furthermore,fuel extraction processes are sometimes harmful to the environment *petroleum is transported by means of oil pipelines and oil tankers both can have accidents which means the risk of a spill.
3.1● Large hydroelectric power plants change the natural cycle of rivers, flood large areas and deteriorate the ecosystem. *Conventional thermar power plants producter air pollution, gives off large amounts of CO2 whitch increases the greenhouse and amit gases that cause acid rain.
3.1● Nuclear thermal power plants are companied by the risk of a nuclear accident and the problem of nuclear waste. *The fuel we use in motor vehicles and heating systems gives off gases and pollutants.
Waste managementIn order to reduce the waste generated bythermal power plants we can install filters,usecoal with low sulphur cntent and protect largeeforested areas*some solutionsenergy efficiency*reduce the cosumption habits taht are morerespectful*renewable energy sources