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Competition and Broadband Outcomes in the ASEAN-5


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Competition and Broadband Outcomes in the ASEAN-5 by Lourdes O. Montenegro

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Competition and Broadband Outcomes in the ASEAN-5

  1. 1. Competition and Broadband Outcomes in the ASEAN-5 Lourdes O. Montenegro PhD Candidate Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy National University of Singapore Email: 9 January 2016
  2. 2. So near, yet so far... Median client round trip time Source: M-Lab
  3. 3. So near, yet so far... Download throughput Source: M-Lab
  4. 4. So near, yet so far... Upload throughput Source: M-Lab
  5. 5. Other key stats Country International bandwidth in Mbps (October 2015) International bandwidth CAGR (2005-2014) Total broadband subscribers (June 2015) Indonesia 1,117,301 72% 7,405,000 Malaysia 1,746,695 63% 2,906,000 Philippines 747,665 52% 8,671,548 Thailand 957,252 63% 5,950,000 Vietnam 1,024,225 71% 6,698,948 Country Broadband household penetration rate GDP per capita (PPP USD) Population density Indonesia 10.7% 10,033 140 Malaysia 42.4% 23,803 91 Philippines 37.9% 6,661 332 Thailand 26.8% 13,882 132 Vietnam 26.2% 5,370 292 Source: Telegeography, World Bank
  6. 6. Indonesia ● Top ASNs according to advertised IPv4 routes: PT Telekomunikasi (AS7713), PT Mora Telematika (AS23947), and Indosat (AS4761) ● PT Telekomunikasi peers with PT Mora Telematika Source: Telegeography, Hurricane Electric
  7. 7. Indonesia ● Local loop unbundling: legal obligations exist but alternative providers have not pushed to Telkom and Indosat to open their networks ● MCIT Decree No. 33/2004: rules to prohibit abuse of dominant position ● License according to whether network operator, service operator or special operators ● WiMAX auctions in 2009, licenses awarded to 8/73 participants ● Presidential Decree 96/2014: allows spectrum sharing
  8. 8. Malaysia ● Top ASNs: Telekom Malaysia (AS4788), Global Transit Communications – Malaysia (AS24218), Extreme (AS38182) and Time dotCom Berhad (AS9930) ● Time peers with TM Source: Telegeography, Hurricane Electric
  9. 9. Malaysia ● Local loop unbundling: regulated prices for bitstream access since 2005; Telekom Malaysia's new high-speed broadband network is exempted currently ● Licensing: network facilities provider, network services providers, application services providers and content application services providers
  10. 10. Philippines ● Top ASNs: PLDT (AS9299), Eastern Telecom (AS9658), Bayan (AS6648) and Globe (AS4775) ● No observed peering with largest and next largest ASN but Globe and Bayan peers Source: Telegeography, Hurricane Electric
  11. 11. Philippines ● Local loop unbundling: not specific ● Many rules are muddy, including WiMAX allocations ● Licensing is protracted and telecom law viewed as obsolete
  12. 12. Thailand ● Top 3 ASNs by number of IPv4 routes advertised: CAT (AS4651), True Intl. Gateway (AS38082) and TOT (AS38040) ● CAT peers with True Source: Telegeography, Hurricane Electric
  13. 13. Thailand ● Local loop unbundling: private agreements between TOT and service-based operator ● After 2006, licenses for: international internet gateway, national internet exchange, VoIP ● Different ISP license types according to whether service (Type 1) or infrastructure- based (Type 3) ● As of 2014: 23 valid Type 3 licenses issued ● In short, Thailand is broadband market is contestable
  14. 14. Vietnam ● Top ASNs: Viettel (AS7552), FPT (AS18403), VNPT (AS7643) and Mobifone (AS45896) ● Viettel peers with Mobifone Source: Telegeography, Hurricane Electric
  15. 15. Vietnam ● Local loop unbundling: None but planned for 2020 masterplan ● Circular No. 12/2014/TT-BTTT: regulatory standards for fixed land broadband
  16. 16. IP interconnection overview Country IPv4 Peers for largest AS IXP traffic Number of ASNs Indonesia 276 128G 1,010 Malaysia 182 838M 225 Philippines 124 12.9G 383 Thailand 145 3.98G 476 Vietnam 75 24.7G 269 Source: Hurricane Electric, Packet Clearinghouse
  17. 17. Conclusion ● Contestability is key: regulations must facilitate ease of entry ● Need to lower the transaction costs of licensing by simplifying the licensing processes for a variety of internet related services (e.g. removing the requirement for a legislative franchise) Promote “ICT Manifesto for Shared Prosperity”