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  1. 1. Sultan Qaboos University College of Education ILT Department Studies in Distance Education & Face To Face Education
  2. 2. Author: J. Barroso1, L. Gómez Cabranes2   Year: 2009 Title: Face to face learning methodologies vs Distance learning methodologies   The target event: International Conference on Multimedia and ICT in Education. Country: Portugal Study one:
  3. 3. Study case: focused on the adult education and the use of ICT as learning tools. The study is supported by the Grounded Theory approach and it uses Atlas/ti software to help organize and analyse the 22 semi-structured interviews that were applied online concerning the different available learning methodologies. The study relies on the answers of the participants that were involved in learning processes, using different kinds of learning methodologies organized by a long life education centre for the past two years. Study one:
  4. 4. Result: There is still some resistance to the new learning methods Based on ICT. The need for human contact and face to face teaching are indicated as being the main Disadvantages of distance learning. Face to face learning methods continue to be preferred by those who are searching not only for new knowledge, but also new friendships and direct contact with the teacher/tutor. Study one:
  5. 5. Comment: We have found out that face to face is preferred in the Educational Process and the author mentioned relative reasons about the majority of preference of face to face more than DE. Study one:
  6. 6. Study Two: Author : John T. E. and Jelfs, Anne     Year : 2007   Title: Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education     The target Institution : The Open University, UK     Country: United Kingdom
  7. 7. Study Two: Study case : The course chosen for study was U213, ‘International development: challenges for a world in transition’. This is a multidisciplinary course at an intermediate undergraduate level, and runs from February to October. It is worth 60 credit accumulation transfer (CAT) points in the UK, and hence equates to 50% of one year’s full-time study. It is assessed by six tutor-marked assignments and an unseen final examination taken at a regional assessment centre.
  8. 8. Study Two: Result : students who received online tuition produced poorer ratings of the quality of tutorial support on the CEQ and the AEF. The data suggested that tutoring was viewed not only as an academic activity but also as a pastoral responsibility that developed and supported students during their course.
  9. 9. Study Two: Comment: All in all, the author supports the process of DE more than face to face and he justified his view by convenient evidences.
  10. 10. Study three: Authors: Connie Schardt & Julie Garrison     Year: 2000   Title: Continuing Education and Knowledge Retention: A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Deliveries     The target Institutions: Seventy-two librarians in USA.     Country: USA
  11. 11. Study three: Study case: Seventy-two practicing librarians, self-selected to participate in either the distance education eight week course or the eight hour face-to-face class. Using a modified version of the Fresno Test of Competence in Evidence-Based Medicine, the authors compared student pre-class, post-class, and six-month post-class assessment scores to assess subject knowledge retention, evaluate student learning, and determine the efficacy of the course delivery methods.  
  12. 12. Study three: Result: When comparing the scores of only those who completed all assessments, the DE students averaged over 10 points higher than the CE group in each test. Based on the raw numbers, it appeared that students in the DE group came into the classroom with a greater knowledge of the subject and retained more knowledge six months after the course had ended. However, after analyzing the data from all participants, the study showed that the differences between the distance education group and face-to-face group were not statistically significant.  
  13. 13. Study three: Comment: In our view, the study introduces realistic justifications to prove that Distance Education has equal effectiveness and effeciency with face to face.