DL: Distance Learning ID: Individualize Learning Definition of Distance learning Technology & interaction Educational Relationship DL & Individualize learning Types of Distance learning Limitation of media and Technology
Objectives <ul><li>You will be able to write your own definition of Distance learning. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to identify the deferent types of Distance learning. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to give examples for the types of DL. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to relate DL to individualize learning. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to present you own opinion about the media and technology used in distance learning. </li></ul>At the end of this presentation: .
Defining DL What is distance education or distance learning? Distance education is defined as ….
Defining DL <ul><li>Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is physically separated from the teacher by space and time. Rumble (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Distance education materials are often structured in ways that facilitate learning at a distance. Rumble (1989) </li></ul>
Defining DL 3- Moore and Kearsley (1996) ‘ the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviors are executed apart from the learning behaviors, so that communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic or other devices.
Defining DL 4-The process of extending learning, or delivering instructional resource-sharing opportunities, to locations away from a classroom, building or site, to another classroom, building or site by using AV, computer, multimedia communications, or other traditional delivery methods.
Defining DL 5- ‘The essential criteria’ 1. Distance education implies that the majority of educational communication between(among) teachers and student(s) occurs non-contiguously. 2. Distance education must involve two-way communication between (among) teacher and student(s) for the purpose of facilitating and supporting the educational process. 3. Distance education uses technology to mediate the necessary two-way communication.
Defining DL From above : 1. The separation of teacher and learner; 2. The separation among learners; 3. The use of one medium (or more) to deliver the subject matter (e.g., print and post, broadcasting and tapes, etc.); and 4. The use of a communication channel to facilitate interaction and support learners (e.g., post, telephone, teleconferencing, etc).
In face-to-face education : The teacher can play an essential role in facilitating learning and supporting students. prepare lessons, discuss students, manage the class, select the needed technology, suggest activities, assess students and provide reinforcement. Educational Relationship
In distance education: Although DE is recognised by the separation between the tutor and learners, an important role can be played by distance tutors. suggest learning resources, deliver the instruction, determine the degree of interaction, select the appropriate form of assessment. Educational Relationship
<ul><li>In distance education: </li></ul><ul><li>The distance tutor may visit the distant site, or students may take a trip to a central site. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The distance tutor may use technology (e.g., telephone, e-mail or discussion boards) tom interact and support students. </li></ul>Educational Relationship
Educational Relationship The educational relationship in distance education in the absence of two-way communication technology (Shale and Garrison, 1990)
Educational Relationship The educational relationship in distance education using two-way communication technology
Types of DL Open Schedule An open schedule can be taken anywhere and gives students the most freedom possible. In this plan, students are given a set of deadlines that they must meet within a certain amount of time, but they can work anytime and anywhere to meet the course requirements. This program is ideal for independent workers and people who don’t struggle with procrastination.
Types of DL Blended Learning The second most common strategy used in distance learning is one that offers an open schedule, but requires students to communicate in an established location. This could mean that students are able to complete assignments on their own time, but they are required to meet in a classroom or computer chat room to touch base.
Types of DL Computer Based Learning Computer Based Learning is the strictest version of distance learning, requiring students to participate at designated times and places. This means that students must touch base at a designated computer lab, or even meet in an actual classroom at a pre-determined time.
Types of DL Fixed Time E-Learning The most common form of distance learning is a program that sets a pre-determined schedule that can be kept from any location. This could mean that students are able to work from home, school, or the office, as long as they log onto the online learning site at a designated time. These programs often include a live online forum.
Synchronous technology is a mode of online delivery where all participants are "present" at the same time. Requires a timetable to be organized. Asynchronous technology is a mode of online delivery where participants access course materials on their own schedule. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Media & Technology
Synchronous technologies: Telephone , Videoconferencing Web Conferencing , Audio conferencing , Internet chat. Asynchronous technologies: Audiocassette, E-mail ,Message Board Forums ,Print Materials, Voice Mail/fax Videocassette Broadcast video, Radio, CD-ROM Media & Technology See video
Interaction <ul><li>Interaction at a Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>A process that happens between the learner and the learning environment (the tutor, students and the learning content) in which the learner takes a more positive role . </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity has been described as a key to success in traditional classroom to enhance learning and motivate learners. </li></ul>
Interaction Types of Interaction Social interaction Learner-instructor interaction Learner-learner interaction Individual interaction Learner-content interaction
Interaction Types of Social Interaction Time-dependent (synchronous) Using real-time communication technology (e.g., telephone, video conferencing, chatting…) Time-independent (asynchronous) Using communication tools (e.g., fax, e-mail, discussion boards…).
Interaction Encouraging interaction at a distance: Learner-instructor interaction Learner-learner interaction Learner-content interaction How?
<ul><li>Limitation of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting does not have many of the features available in printed materials, such as learner control and self pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Although broadcasting is considered as a powerful tool for bringing the real world into the classroom, programmes often lack strategies for involving learners. </li></ul>limitation
<ul><li>Limitation of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Certain types of experiences cannot be transmitted by broadcasting, such as face-to-face contacts and abstract ideas that need interaction and deep explanation, like mathematical concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>The costs of production, equipment and transmission per hour are very high in comparison with other media. </li></ul>limitation
WEB e.g. <ul><li>http://www.universities.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.capella.edu/distance_learning.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.otago.ac.nz/courses/distance_study/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uofa.edu/academicEvaluation.asp?sec=academicEvaluation&gclid=CLus4OChpJkCFQqbnAodjAs5uw </li></ul>