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The role of citizen science in environment management

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The role of citizen science in environment management

  1. 1. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The role of citizen science in environment management Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories Luigi Ceccaroni (1000001 Labs) 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress, Marseille (France), October 22, 2013Università di Bologna – Scienze Ambientali, Ravenna (Italy), December 17, 2015, 2 pm 1
  2. 2. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Knowledge of the field of citizen science and current trends that influence it • Understand the principles and practical aspects of a citizen science project • Learn about data quality in citizen science Learning outcomes 2
  3. 3. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Current activities in the area of citizen science online and offline • Typology of engagement in citizen science • Citizen Science in a historical perspective and underlying trends • The case for low resolution in environmental monitoring • Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories Content: an introduction to citizen science 3
  4. 4. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Acquisition, processing, delivery: a new way 4
  5. 5. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection Citizens’ participation via smart devices Tall Ship Regatta 21st Sept. - 4th October 2013: Barcelona - Toulon - La Spezia 5
  6. 6. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Citizens’ participation via smart devices Barcelona World Race 2013-2015: around the world sailboat race • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection 6
  7. 7. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Citizens’ participation via smart devices • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection 7
  8. 8. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information acquisition 8
  9. 9. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 9
  10. 10. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 10
  11. 11. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (WaterWatch) 11
  12. 12. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (WaterWatch) 12
  13. 13. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 13
  14. 14. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 14
  15. 15. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Water-color, oil-spill, river-status measurement • Water transparency via phone pictures and Secchi disc • Retrieval of sensor measurements from low- cost moorings Applications 15
  16. 16. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Improvement of scuba-diving activities • Best beaches’ ranking • Early-warning systems for HABs and bio- chemical hazards Applications 16
  17. 17. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Andromeda • Citclops • CITI-SENSE • Coastwatch • COBWEB • SeaWatchers • Socientize • WaterWatch • WeSenseIt European citizen-science projects: other examples 17
  18. 18. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Coastwatch and Citclops 18
  19. 19. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management SeaWatchers 19
  20. 20. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management COBWEB, CITI-SENSE, WeSenseIt, Omniscientis 20
  21. 21. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Andromeda project 21
  22. 22. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Andromeda project 22
  23. 23. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions. citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an amateur scientist. Citizen Science (Oxford English Dictionary 2014) 23
  24. 24. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Indicators (of environment quality/perturbation) can be measured by citizens in a more or less voluntary, active or conscious way. Typology of engagement in citizen science 24
  25. 25. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Involvement of citizens in: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, conservation, meteorology… • No recognition, viewing volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors, that are better replaced by automated instruments Historical perspective: the era of professional science (late 1800s – 1900s) 25
  26. 26. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Societal trends: • Education and qualifications • Leisure • Sharing economies / peer production systems • Technological trends: • Internet access (broadband) • Mobile devices • Collaborative Web • DIY electronics Historical perspective: the era of opening science (2000s) 26
  27. 27. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • World (data by UNESCO): 95 M – 199 M Increased level of education and qualifications 27
  28. 28. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Italy (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 2.0 M - 1.9 M • Spain (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 1.8 M - 2.0 M Increased level of education and qualifications 28
  29. 29. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Italy (data by OECD): 1850 - 1730 • Spain (data by OECD): 1750 - 1690 Increased level of leisure 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Israel Italy Spain OECD countries Average Annual Hours Worked (per person) 29
  30. 30. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • In many areas, especially in production and sharing of information Increased level of sharing economies 30
  31. 31. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased (fixed) broadband affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 31
  32. 32. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased (mobile) broadband affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 32
  33. 33. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased mobile-subscription affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 33
  34. 34. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Collaborative Web A map of the world, created by people like you and free to use under an open license 34
  35. 35. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management DIY electronics Citclops’s KdUINO monitoring buoy based on Arduino 35
  36. 36. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The case for low resolution 36 with Jaume Piera
  37. 37. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: resolution, accuracy μM = 10−6 mol/dm3 = 10−3 mol/m3 In situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer to measure nutrients Temporal and spatial variability? High accuracy 37
  38. 38. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 1201009080 130 140110 150 20 15 5 10 25 0 Nitrate (μM) Julian days 1 sample every month (at 10 am on the first day of the month) 1 sample every week (at 10 am on the first day of the week) Monterey Bay, California 38
  39. 39. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The sunlight cycle 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) Day Night 39
  40. 40. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every week (at 4 pm on the first day) This is a typical frequency in biological domains 40
  41. 41. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) 41
  42. 42. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 2 samples every day (at 4 pm and 4 am) 42
  43. 43. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management 1.very high 2.high 3.low 4.very low 5.no sunlight Monitoring: resolution vs. Questionnaire to citizens 43
  44. 44. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: resolution 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) Sunlight intensity 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 very high high low very low no sunlight 44
  45. 45. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories 45 with Filip Velickovski
  46. 46. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Extract data from source • Convert to data array Parsing • Convert data into feature vectors + target value Feature preparation • Select feature variables, amount of past time points Feature Selection • Train and test a set of models (decision trees, SVM, Bayesian) Model selection • Evaluate best model on unseen test set Final evaluation Machine-learning pipeline 47
  47. 47. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Converting to three class classification problem 48
  48. 48. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Using mean daily values (example: TSM) 6th May30th Apr 24th May12th May 18th May 2014
  49. 49. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Using mean daily values, sometimes few data points (example: TSM) 50 18th Dec14th Dec 22nd Dec 26th Dec 2013
  50. 50. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Short-term correlation to tide (Dominant semi-diurnal lunar tidal component (M2) with a period of 12:25 h) 51 28th Sep 1st Oct 4th Oct 2013
  51. 51. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Knowledge coming from pre-processing 52 • Clear relation among color, tides, and other drivers: wind (which steers both waves and currents), river/sluice discharge and biology • Short-term forecasting (within a tidal period): not possible without de-tiding the signals • Longer-term forecasting: possibly improved by de- tiding the signals
  52. 52. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Feature and target-variable preparation
  53. 53. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Support Vector Machine • C (soft-margin) : 1.0 • Kernel : radial basis Distribution of target FU classes 415 stabledecrease increase 27% 48% Blind predictor benchmark 48% 25% Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) 53% Wave height Forecasting 54
  54. 54. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Random Forest • n_trees: 10 359 33 % 32 % 35% 35 % 52 % Wave height 55 Blind predictor benchmark Distribution of target FU classes stabledecrease increase Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) Forecasting
  55. 55. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Decision Tree • max depth: 10 345 34 % 31 % 35% 35 % 45 % Wave height 56 Blind predictor benchmark Distribution of target FU classes stabledecrease increase Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) Forecasting
  56. 56. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management http://www.1000001labs.org/ http://www.citclops.eu/ http://eyeonwater.org/ http://ecsa.citizen-science.net/ http://www.coastwatch.org/ http://creekwatch.researchlabs.ibm.com/ http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/index.html http://projectbaseline.org http://crowd.cs.umass.edu/ https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science http://senseable.mit.edu/ http://research.cens.ucla.edu/aquatic/ http://www.secchidipin.org/ http://www.earthobservations.org/geo_me_201211_geo9_ec.shtml http://www.nurp.noaa.gov/Spotlight/Observatory.htm Resources 57
  57. 57. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management 58

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