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Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
The role of citizen science
in environment management
Forecasting based on
citizens’ observatories
Luigi Ceccaroni (1000001 Labs)
3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress, Marseille (France), October 22, 2013Università di Bologna – Scienze Ambientali, Ravenna (Italy), December 17, 2015, 2 pm
1
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Knowledge of the field of citizen science and current
trends that influence it
• Understand the principles and practical aspects of a
citizen science project
• Learn about data quality in citizen science
Learning outcomes
2
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Current activities in the area of citizen science online
and offline
• Typology of engagement in citizen science
• Citizen Science in a historical perspective and
underlying trends
• The case for low resolution in environmental
monitoring
• Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories
Content: an introduction to citizen science
3
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Acquisition, processing, delivery: a new way
4
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on
sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data
collection
Citizens’ participation via smart devices
Tall Ship Regatta
21st Sept. - 4th October 2013:
Barcelona - Toulon - La Spezia
5
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Citizens’ participation via smart devices
Barcelona World
Race
2013-2015: around
the world sailboat
race
• Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on
sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data
collection
6
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Citizens’ participation via smart devices
• Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on
sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data
collection
7
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information acquisition
8
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (Citclops)
9
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (Citclops)
10
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (WaterWatch)
11
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (WaterWatch)
12
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (Citclops)
13
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Information delivery (Citclops)
14
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Water-color, oil-spill, river-status measurement
• Water transparency via phone pictures and
Secchi disc
• Retrieval of sensor measurements from low-
cost moorings
Applications
15
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Improvement of scuba-diving activities
• Best beaches’ ranking
• Early-warning systems for HABs and bio-
chemical hazards
Applications
16
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Andromeda
• Citclops
• CITI-SENSE
• Coastwatch
• COBWEB
• SeaWatchers
• Socientize
• WaterWatch
• WeSenseIt
European citizen-science projects: other examples
17
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Coastwatch and Citclops
18
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
SeaWatchers
19
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
COBWEB, CITI-SENSE, WeSenseIt, Omniscientis
20
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Andromeda project
21
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Andromeda project
22
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by
members of the general public, often in collaboration
with or under the direction of professional scientists and
scientific institutions.
citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is
characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the
best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a
member of the general public who engages in scientific
work, often in collaboration with or under the direction
of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an
amateur scientist.
Citizen Science (Oxford English Dictionary 2014)
23
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Indicators (of environment quality/perturbation) can be
measured by citizens in a more or less
voluntary,
active or
conscious way.
Typology of engagement in citizen science
24
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Involvement of citizens in: archaeology, astronomy,
ornithology, conservation, meteorology…
• No recognition, viewing volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’
contributors, that are better replaced by automated
instruments
Historical perspective: the era of professional
science (late 1800s – 1900s)
25
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Societal trends:
• Education and qualifications
• Leisure
• Sharing economies / peer production systems
• Technological trends:
• Internet access (broadband)
• Mobile devices
• Collaborative Web
• DIY electronics
Historical perspective: the era of opening science
(2000s)
26
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• World (data by UNESCO): 95 M – 199 M
Increased level of education and qualifications
27
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Italy (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 2.0 M - 1.9 M
• Spain (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 1.8 M - 2.0 M
Increased level of education and qualifications
28
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Italy (data by OECD): 1850 - 1730
• Spain (data by OECD): 1750 - 1690
Increased level of leisure
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016
Israel
Italy
Spain
OECD countries
Average Annual Hours Worked (per person)
29
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• In many areas, especially in production and sharing of
information
Increased level of sharing economies
30
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Increased (fixed) broadband affordability
Data by the International
Telecommunication Union
(ITU)
31
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Increased (mobile) broadband affordability
Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
32
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Increased mobile-subscription affordability
Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
33
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Collaborative Web
A map of the world, created by people like you and free to use under an open license
34
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
DIY electronics
Citclops’s KdUINO monitoring buoy based on Arduino
35
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
The case for low resolution
36
with Jaume Piera
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: resolution, accuracy
μM = 10−6 mol/dm3 = 10−3 mol/m3
In situ ultraviolet
spectrophotometer to
measure nutrients
Temporal and spatial
variability?
High accuracy
37
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: frequency
1201009080 130 140110 150
20
15
5
10
25
0
Nitrate (μM)
Julian days
1 sample every month
(at 10 am on the first day of the month)
1 sample every week
(at 10 am on the first day of the week)
Monterey Bay, California
38
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
The sunlight cycle
30 35 40
0
50
100
150
200
250
Julian days
Sunlight
intensity
(W/m2h)
Day
Night
39
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: frequency
30 35 40
0
50
100
150
200
250
Julian days
Sunlight
intensity
(W/m2h)
1 sample every week (at 4 pm on the first day)
This is a typical
frequency in
biological
domains
40
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: frequency
30 35 40
0
50
100
150
200
250
Julian days
Sunlight
intensity
(W/m2h)
1 sample every day (at 4 pm)
41
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: frequency
30 35 40
0
50
100
150
200
250
Julian days
Sunlight
intensity
(W/m2h)
2 samples every day (at 4 pm and 4 am)
42
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
1.very high
2.high
3.low
4.very low
5.no sunlight
Monitoring: resolution
vs.
Questionnaire to citizens
43
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Monitoring: resolution
0
50
100
150
200
250
Julian days
Sunlight
intensity
(W/m2h)
1 sample every day (at 4 pm) Sunlight
intensity
25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41
very high
high
low
very low
no sunlight
44
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories
45
with Filip Velickovski
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
• Extract data from
source
• Convert to data
array
Parsing
• Convert data into
feature vectors +
target value
Feature
preparation • Select feature
variables,
amount of past
time points
Feature
Selection
• Train and test a
set of models
(decision trees,
SVM, Bayesian)
Model
selection • Evaluate best
model on unseen
test set
Final
evaluation
Machine-learning pipeline
47
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Converting to three class classification problem
48
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Using mean daily values (example: TSM)
6th May30th Apr 24th May12th May 18th May
2014
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Using mean daily values, sometimes few data points
(example: TSM)
50
18th Dec14th Dec 22nd Dec 26th Dec
2013
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Short-term correlation to tide (Dominant semi-diurnal
lunar tidal component (M2) with a period of 12:25 h)
51
28th Sep 1st Oct 4th Oct
2013
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Knowledge coming from pre-processing
52
• Clear relation among color, tides, and other drivers:
wind (which steers both waves and currents),
river/sluice discharge and biology
• Short-term forecasting (within a tidal period): not
possible without de-tiding the signals
• Longer-term forecasting: possibly improved by de-
tiding the signals
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
Feature and target-variable preparation
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
FU
Chl-a
TSM
Feature
configuration
Number of examples for training
ML
technique
Support Vector Machine
• C (soft-margin) : 1.0
• Kernel : radial basis
Distribution of target FU classes
415
stabledecrease increase
27% 48%
Blind predictor
benchmark
48%
25%
Accuracy (10-fold
cross- validation)
53%
Wave height
Forecasting
54
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
FU
Chl-a
TSM
Feature
configuration
Number of examples for training
ML
technique
Random Forest
• n_trees: 10
359
33 % 32 %
35%
35 % 52 %
Wave height
55
Blind predictor
benchmark
Distribution of target FU classes
stabledecrease increase
Accuracy (10-fold
cross- validation)
Forecasting
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
FU
Chl-a
TSM
Feature
configuration
Number of examples for training
ML
technique
Decision Tree
• max depth: 10
345
34 % 31 %
35%
35 % 45 %
Wave height
56
Blind predictor
benchmark
Distribution of target FU classes
stabledecrease increase
Accuracy (10-fold
cross- validation)
Forecasting
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
http://www.1000001labs.org/
http://www.citclops.eu/
http://eyeonwater.org/
http://ecsa.citizen-science.net/
http://www.coastwatch.org/
http://creekwatch.researchlabs.ibm.com/
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/index.html
http://projectbaseline.org
http://crowd.cs.umass.edu/
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science
http://senseable.mit.edu/
http://research.cens.ucla.edu/aquatic/
http://www.secchidipin.org/
http://www.earthobservations.org/geo_me_201211_geo9_ec.shtml
http://www.nurp.noaa.gov/Spotlight/Observatory.htm
Resources
57
Luigi Ceccaroni
The role of citizen science in environment management
58

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The role of citizen science in environment management

  • 1. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The role of citizen science in environment management Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories Luigi Ceccaroni (1000001 Labs) 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress, Marseille (France), October 22, 2013Università di Bologna – Scienze Ambientali, Ravenna (Italy), December 17, 2015, 2 pm 1
  • 2. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Knowledge of the field of citizen science and current trends that influence it • Understand the principles and practical aspects of a citizen science project • Learn about data quality in citizen science Learning outcomes 2
  • 3. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Current activities in the area of citizen science online and offline • Typology of engagement in citizen science • Citizen Science in a historical perspective and underlying trends • The case for low resolution in environmental monitoring • Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories Content: an introduction to citizen science 3
  • 4. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Acquisition, processing, delivery: a new way 4
  • 5. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection Citizens’ participation via smart devices Tall Ship Regatta 21st Sept. - 4th October 2013: Barcelona - Toulon - La Spezia 5
  • 6. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Citizens’ participation via smart devices Barcelona World Race 2013-2015: around the world sailboat race • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection 6
  • 7. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Citizens’ participation via smart devices • Citizen science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (e.g., scuba diving) in data collection 7
  • 8. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information acquisition 8
  • 9. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 9
  • 10. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 10
  • 11. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (WaterWatch) 11
  • 12. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (WaterWatch) 12
  • 13. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 13
  • 14. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Information delivery (Citclops) 14
  • 15. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Water-color, oil-spill, river-status measurement • Water transparency via phone pictures and Secchi disc • Retrieval of sensor measurements from low- cost moorings Applications 15
  • 16. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Improvement of scuba-diving activities • Best beaches’ ranking • Early-warning systems for HABs and bio- chemical hazards Applications 16
  • 17. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Andromeda • Citclops • CITI-SENSE • Coastwatch • COBWEB • SeaWatchers • Socientize • WaterWatch • WeSenseIt European citizen-science projects: other examples 17
  • 18. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Coastwatch and Citclops 18
  • 19. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management SeaWatchers 19
  • 20. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management COBWEB, CITI-SENSE, WeSenseIt, Omniscientis 20
  • 21. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Andromeda project 21
  • 22. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Andromeda project 22
  • 23. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions. citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an amateur scientist. Citizen Science (Oxford English Dictionary 2014) 23
  • 24. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Indicators (of environment quality/perturbation) can be measured by citizens in a more or less voluntary, active or conscious way. Typology of engagement in citizen science 24
  • 25. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Involvement of citizens in: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, conservation, meteorology… • No recognition, viewing volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors, that are better replaced by automated instruments Historical perspective: the era of professional science (late 1800s – 1900s) 25
  • 26. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Societal trends: • Education and qualifications • Leisure • Sharing economies / peer production systems • Technological trends: • Internet access (broadband) • Mobile devices • Collaborative Web • DIY electronics Historical perspective: the era of opening science (2000s) 26
  • 27. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • World (data by UNESCO): 95 M – 199 M Increased level of education and qualifications 27
  • 28. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Italy (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 2.0 M - 1.9 M • Spain (data by UNESCO): 1.8 M - 1.8 M - 2.0 M Increased level of education and qualifications 28
  • 29. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Italy (data by OECD): 1850 - 1730 • Spain (data by OECD): 1750 - 1690 Increased level of leisure 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Israel Italy Spain OECD countries Average Annual Hours Worked (per person) 29
  • 30. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • In many areas, especially in production and sharing of information Increased level of sharing economies 30
  • 31. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased (fixed) broadband affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 31
  • 32. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased (mobile) broadband affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 32
  • 33. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Increased mobile-subscription affordability Data by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 33
  • 34. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Collaborative Web A map of the world, created by people like you and free to use under an open license 34
  • 35. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management DIY electronics Citclops’s KdUINO monitoring buoy based on Arduino 35
  • 36. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The case for low resolution 36 with Jaume Piera
  • 37. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: resolution, accuracy μM = 10−6 mol/dm3 = 10−3 mol/m3 In situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer to measure nutrients Temporal and spatial variability? High accuracy 37
  • 38. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 1201009080 130 140110 150 20 15 5 10 25 0 Nitrate (μM) Julian days 1 sample every month (at 10 am on the first day of the month) 1 sample every week (at 10 am on the first day of the week) Monterey Bay, California 38
  • 39. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management The sunlight cycle 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) Day Night 39
  • 40. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every week (at 4 pm on the first day) This is a typical frequency in biological domains 40
  • 41. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) 41
  • 42. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: frequency 30 35 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 2 samples every day (at 4 pm and 4 am) 42
  • 43. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management 1.very high 2.high 3.low 4.very low 5.no sunlight Monitoring: resolution vs. Questionnaire to citizens 43
  • 44. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Monitoring: resolution 0 50 100 150 200 250 Julian days Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) Sunlight intensity 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 very high high low very low no sunlight 44
  • 45. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Forecasting based on citizens’ observatories 45 with Filip Velickovski
  • 46.
  • 47. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management • Extract data from source • Convert to data array Parsing • Convert data into feature vectors + target value Feature preparation • Select feature variables, amount of past time points Feature Selection • Train and test a set of models (decision trees, SVM, Bayesian) Model selection • Evaluate best model on unseen test set Final evaluation Machine-learning pipeline 47
  • 48. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Converting to three class classification problem 48
  • 49. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Using mean daily values (example: TSM) 6th May30th Apr 24th May12th May 18th May 2014
  • 50. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Using mean daily values, sometimes few data points (example: TSM) 50 18th Dec14th Dec 22nd Dec 26th Dec 2013
  • 51. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Short-term correlation to tide (Dominant semi-diurnal lunar tidal component (M2) with a period of 12:25 h) 51 28th Sep 1st Oct 4th Oct 2013
  • 52. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Knowledge coming from pre-processing 52 • Clear relation among color, tides, and other drivers: wind (which steers both waves and currents), river/sluice discharge and biology • Short-term forecasting (within a tidal period): not possible without de-tiding the signals • Longer-term forecasting: possibly improved by de- tiding the signals
  • 53. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management Feature and target-variable preparation
  • 54. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Support Vector Machine • C (soft-margin) : 1.0 • Kernel : radial basis Distribution of target FU classes 415 stabledecrease increase 27% 48% Blind predictor benchmark 48% 25% Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) 53% Wave height Forecasting 54
  • 55. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Random Forest • n_trees: 10 359 33 % 32 % 35% 35 % 52 % Wave height 55 Blind predictor benchmark Distribution of target FU classes stabledecrease increase Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) Forecasting
  • 56. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management FU Chl-a TSM Feature configuration Number of examples for training ML technique Decision Tree • max depth: 10 345 34 % 31 % 35% 35 % 45 % Wave height 56 Blind predictor benchmark Distribution of target FU classes stabledecrease increase Accuracy (10-fold cross- validation) Forecasting
  • 57. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management http://www.1000001labs.org/ http://www.citclops.eu/ http://eyeonwater.org/ http://ecsa.citizen-science.net/ http://www.coastwatch.org/ http://creekwatch.researchlabs.ibm.com/ http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/index.html http://projectbaseline.org http://crowd.cs.umass.edu/ https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science http://senseable.mit.edu/ http://research.cens.ucla.edu/aquatic/ http://www.secchidipin.org/ http://www.earthobservations.org/geo_me_201211_geo9_ec.shtml http://www.nurp.noaa.gov/Spotlight/Observatory.htm Resources 57
  • 58. Luigi Ceccaroni The role of citizen science in environment management 58