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  1. 1. Internet and The Research Process Carolyn Foote
  2. 2. Information Literacy <ul><li>“ All which the school can or need do for pupils, so far as their minds are concerned, is to develop the ability to think.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Dewey as quoted in Mancall, et al. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Educating Students to Think” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Information Literacy <ul><li>Focus has been on “technological literacy” not on information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>the “physical” internet vs. “intellectual” internet </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Process <ul><li>Carol Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process as a model </li></ul>Carol Kuhlthau “ Information Search Process”
  5. 5. The Process <ul><li>“’ Being there involves seeing the research through, from beginning to end…. They also need guidance in learning useful strategies to apply at various stages in the process.” </li></ul><ul><li> Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Process Approach to Library Skills Instruction” </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Process <ul><li>assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students have the skills and vocabulary in a particular content area to do a search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students are able to determine what they need to know and choose relevant information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students readily transfer skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reporting = researching and information = knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students know everything about the internet and know how and where to search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ross Todd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Research Column 3, 1997” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Formulating the question
  8. 8. The question <ul><li>Formulating the question/topic </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Kuhlthau--mood </li></ul><ul><li>Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students don’t know how to form questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study showing that students have trouble figuring out what they know and using it </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The question <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher and Librarian as coach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming--techniques /tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential questions (Ted Sizer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How are things, events, or people connected to each other? How do they fit together? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what? Why does this matter? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s new and what’s old? Have we run across this idea before? What’s different? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Asking the Essential Questions” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The search
  11. 11. The Search <ul><li>Student factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Students ability to complete or even begin a successful search is closely linked to their ability to design search paths.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>novice vs. expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content vs. strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celeste McNicholas and Ross J. Todd </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New kids on the box: is it worth the effort and investment? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Search <ul><ul><li>“ Thinking is not demonstrated by how many answers students know; rather, it is demonstrated by how they behave when they don’t know.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arthur L. Costa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Search <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey students--verbalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do they begin when they don’t know? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What sites do they use? Why? What do they do when they hit roadblocks? How do they regroup? When do they seek help? The role of serendipity? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sorting and Selecting
  15. 15. Sorting and Selecting <ul><ul><li>“ I just pick the first good site I come to if it has the information I’m looking for.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7th grader </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sorting and Selecting <ul><ul><li>“ How do we develop in students this important skill of discrimination, evaluation, and selection so that they can manage the vast, ambiguous Internet?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celeste McNicholas and Ross J. Todd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ New kids on the box: is it worth the effort and investment?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sorting and Selecting <ul><ul><li>“ If ever there was a need for coaching students to use their minds well, it’s now….It’s naïve to think that even with technology kids are going to be able to make meaning of this incredible glut of information without learning to make connections between things, ask the right questions, make logical selections.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kathy Juarez in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Technology in the Essential School” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sorting and Selecting <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting--Print only one article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting--Harvest, and then rank articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using bookmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling--How to select sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website evaluation activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress checksheet--What source did you pick today and why? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Using Information
  20. 20. Using Information <ul><li>The problem--The buffet--Jamie McKenzie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We see students..downloading and saving files in a great rush of data gorging which rarely includes reading. Hundreds of files and pages accumulate without sorting, sifting or discrimination. They search the web, find twenty thousand hits and light up with joy. Confusing quantity and sheer volume of information with success, they greedily scoop up everything within their reach….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jamie McKenzie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Deep Thinking and Deep Reading in an Age of Info- Glut, Info-Garbage Info-Glitz and Info-Glimmer” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Using Information <ul><li>“ We must not let information displace wisdom….If you approach information without good habits of mind you only become its victim.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Gordon </li></ul><ul><li>“ Asking the Essential Questions: Curriculum Development” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Using Information <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies show that “rarely is there enough time for students to work through the process under the guidance of librarians and teachers.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Information Search Process” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Using Information <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>***Time*** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress journals/blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did you find out today? What else do you need to know? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Synthesis <ul><li>Incubation time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We must step out of the activities long enough to consider the meaning of what we are finding.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jamie McKenzie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Deep Thinking and Deep Reading in an Age of Info-Glut, Info-Garbage Info-Glitz and Info-Glimmer” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Synthesis <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Making our way toward inspiration and illumination-the “Aha!” phenomenon - usually requires much time and a supportive environment, an incubation period during which the elements of the new idea dance and spin around each other….this musing cannot be forced or rushed.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Jamie McKenzie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Deep Thinking and Deep Reading in an Age of Info-Glut, Info-Garbage Info-Glitz and Info-Glimmer” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Synthesizing <ul><li>Progress check- </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging as journal </li></ul><ul><li>Coveritlive or Chatzy discussions </li></ul>
  27. 27. Evaluation <ul><li>“ What has frequently been diagnosed as a writing problem in student research papers is actually a thinking problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have not sufficiently thought through their topics to write an intelligent research paper. The thoughts need to be developed during the library research process.” </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Kuhlthau </li></ul><ul><li>“ Information Search Process” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluation <ul><li>Evaluate the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>survey students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progress journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>class discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation as a learning tool </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Next Steps <ul><li>“ We must take our schools and students way past Information to understanding, wisdom and insight.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jamie McKenzie </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deep Thinking and Deep Reading in an Age of Info-Glut, Info-Garbage Info-Glitz and Info-Glimmer” </li></ul>
  30. 30. On the web <ul><li>Westlake High School Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of presentation for Internet Librarian West Conference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carolyn Foote </li></ul></ul>