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Presented by,
PRIYANKA PUSHKARAN,
2006 Batch.
Nirukti
 vÉÔsÉÉÌlÉ sÉÉåMüÌlÉÌiÉ vÉÔsÉ: //

Shoola is formed by the combination of

 vÉÔsÉ ÂeÉÉrÉÉqÉç (kÉÉiÉÑ )+ Mü(mÉëirÉrÉ)

 Generally shoola refers to any type of pain like
 karna soola, sirasoola, netra soola etc
 Shoola can appear as roopa or upadrava of a
  disease.
 Shoola and roga both have same meaning ie,
 pain giving.
Shoola is classified as swatantra shoola &paratantra
shoola

Paratantra shoola is considered as updrava of a
disease.

Swatantra soola is defined as a vyadhi itself.

Caraka and Vagbhata did not mention shoola as a
swatantra vyadhi
Susruta has explained shoola as “abdominal pain”
in his uttara tantra (ch.42).He has also explained
shoola as the upadrava of gulma in the same
chapter.



Madhava kara has explained about shoola in his
Madhava nidanam.



We will also get references of shoola in kasyapa
samhita khila stana ( ch 18 )
TYPES OF SHOOLA

Madhavakara has described 8 types of shoola roga
  Vataja , pittaja, kaphaja,vatapittaja, vatakapha,
 pittakapha, sannipathaja, amaja.

[ Later each of these were described as:
 vatajaparinama soola, pitajaparinama soola; kaphaja
 parinama soola; vatapittaja parinamasoola; vatakaphaja
 parinama soola; pittaja kaphaja parinama soola ;
 sannipathaja parinamasoola; annadrava soola.]
In all types, vata is the predominant causative factor.
Susruta has described                Later he described 7
                                      types of shoola i.e.
  4 types of shoola
                                        parsva shoola,
 according to dosa                     kukshi shoola,
 involved i.e.                         hrit shoola,
 vataja,                               vasti shoola,
 pittaja                               mootra shoola,
                                        vit shoola,
 Kaphaja
                                       avipaka/anna dosaja
 Sannipataja                           shoola
o Madavakara has described 8 types of shoola

o Susruta has explained another 11 types of shoola
VATAJA SOOLA
“Vyayama yana atimaidhuna…………”
                            (M.N.26/2-5)

Over indulgence in physical exercise, riding
,keeping awake at night, sexual inter course ,intake
of incompatible foods, suppression of urges of urine
semen and feces, grief ,starvation or fasting ,
excessive laughing and speaking etc, all will
increase vata in the body which produces shoola;
which is found in the region of heart, flanks, back,
waist and urinary bladder , get exacerbated during
or after the digestion of food, in the evenings,
during cloudy and cold weather -
pain increases or decreases of its own accord
frequently, of pricking or tearing in nature, there
is obstruction to the movement of feces and
flatus, pain gets reduced by use of hot
fomentation, oil massage, fatty and warm foods
and drinks.
PITTAJA SHOOLA
  “ ksara ati tikshna ……….” (M.N.26.6)

•        Over-indulgence of food which are alkaline, heat
producing, very hot, causing burning sensation during
digestion, oil cakes etc anger, exposure to fire, fatigue,
prolonged exposure to hot sun, sexual intercourse and irritating
food, make increase of pitta and in turn produce colic
•          Thirst, delusion, burning sensation near the
umbilicus, perspiration, fainting, giddiness, localized burning
•-
sensation ;
•Pain exacerbates during midday or mid night, during digestion
of food and in any rainy weather ;gets reduced by cold comforts
and cold sweet foods and drinks.
KAPHAJA SHOOLA
“Aanupa varija kilata………………”(M.N.26.9-10)

Over indulgence in foods that are prepared out of flesh
of marshy animals and those living in water, milk and
milk products etc such other foods and habit that
increases kapha,produces kaphaja shoola.




Oppression in chest , cough, debility, anorexia,
salivation, pain near the stomach, fullness and loss of
movement in the abdomen ,heaviness of the head, pain
is severe soon after taking food, in the mornings at
sunrise, in sisira and vasanta ritus
In vata kaphaja shoola there will be pain in heart
and flanks

In kapha pittaja shoola there will be pain in
kukshi, hridaya and nabhi

In vata pittaja shoola there will be severe pain in
nabhi and vasti.
SANNIPATAJA SHOOLA


“Sarveshu dosheshu cha……”(M.N.26.11)



  The colic produced by the combination of all the
  three dosas together will have all the symptoms in
  severe form, during all the times, powerful and hard
  to treat like poison or fit to be refused treatment.
PROGNOSIS OF SHOOLA

“Ekadoshothida saadhyaha…….”(M.N.26.14)

• Shoola produced by the increase of any one of
the dosa is easily curable,
• That produced by the combination of any two
dosas is curable with difficulty,
• That produced by the combination of all the
three dosas, that which is very severe and
associated with many complications is
impossible to cure.
AMAJA SHOOLA
“Aatopa hrillasa …………”(M.N.26.12)

 Gurgling in the intestine, oppression in the
 chest, vomiting, feeling of heaviness, loss of
 movement and distention of the abdomen,
 salivation and shoola having the symptoms
 similar to those of kaphaja type are also
 found in Amaja shoola.
PARINAMA SHOOLA
•“Svanidhanir prakupito vayu…………” (M.N.26.16-17)

•The consumption of food items which have similar properties
to that of vata leads to its vitiation in its seat.

•It gets strengthened at the end of digestion
(pachyamanavastha) and causes aavarana of kapha & pitta;
leading to colic pain.

•Since this pain occurs at the end of digestion it is called
parinama shoola.
PARINAMA SHOOLA DUE TO VATA

Abdominal distension, gurgling noise in the intestine,
obstruction to the movement of feces and urine,
restlessness, severe suffering of pain gets reduced
by fatty and warm foods

PITTAJA PARINAMA SHOOLA

Thirst, burning sensation, restlessness, perspiration,
pain increases by use of pungent, sour and salty
foods ; but reduced by cold foods and comforts.
KAPHAJA PARINAMA SHOOLA

  Vomiting , nausea, delusion, long continued mild pain
  get reduced by pungent and bitter foods.

  .
PROGNOSIS OF PARINAMA SHOOLA

•Appearance of symptoms of two or three dosas together
are seen in conditions of increase of two or three dosas
respectively.
•The tridosaja type associated with emaciation, loss of
strength and digestion is considered as impossible to
cure
ANNADRAVA SHOOLA
o    Pain occurs at the time of digestion, after digestion
  or before digestion
o     Do not subside on keeping the stomach empty or
  by taking food
o    There will be continuous pain, & subsides on
  vomiting

    PARSVA SHOOLA
o By the over indulgence of incompatible foods, the
  vitiated kapha places itself in kukshi & parsva and
  blocks the vata.
o This vata will in turn produce abdominal distention
  with sound& pricking pain in the flank region.
KUKSHI SHOOLA

o When the aggravated vata invades and vitiates the
  digestive fire, then the ingested food stays there long
  without digestion.

o The patient breaths with difficulty, eliminates ama
  mala, suffers from pain often and does not find
  comfort in either sitting, sleeping or standing.

o Kukshi shoola is caused by vata and ama.
HRITH SHOOLA

Vata getting obstructed by kapha and pitta present in
the chest, on combining with rasa present in the heart
,give rise to pain which causes obstruction to
breathing
This shoola is caused by rasa and vata


VASTI SHOOLA
Vata getting aggravated by suppression of urges (of
urine, faces and flatus ) and get placed in vasti give
rise to pain in the vasti, vamshana and nabhi; which
obstruct the elimination of faces, urine and flatus.
 This shoola is caused by vata.
MOOTRA SHOOLA

o Aggravated vata getting localized in the
 areas of umbilicus, groin, flanks, intestine
 and penis, obstruct the elimination of urine
 and produces pain

o Mootra shoola is caused by vata
VIT SHOOLA

o In the person who indulges dry foods, vata obstruct the feces
in the alimentary tract

o Cause weakness of the digestive power

o Gives rise to severe pain either in the right or left portion of the
abdomen; spreads to all other parts moving about accompanied
with noise ,

o increased thirst, giddiness, fainting appears.

o It does not subside even after elimination of feces or urine.
oThis shouldbe understood as vit shoola by the physician ,which
is dreadful.
ANNA DOSAJA SHOOLA.


The digestive fire become weak due to ingestion of
large quantity of food. This food staying long inside,
give rise to aggravation of vata and with the
undigested food produces severe pain accompanied
with fainting, flatulence ,heart burn, more purgation,
vomiting, shaking and unconsciousness.



Anna dosaja shoola is caused by improper digestion
UPDRAVA OF SHOOLA


 Pain ,thirst, fainting, abdominal
distention, heaviness of body,
anorexia, cough etc are its
complications
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Madhava Nidhanam
Susruta Samhita
Text book of Kayachikitsa
Kasyapa Samhita
Caraka Samhita

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Soola

  • 2. Nirukti vÉÔsÉÉÌlÉ sÉÉåMüÌlÉÌiÉ vÉÔsÉ: // Shoola is formed by the combination of vÉÔsÉ ÂeÉÉrÉÉqÉç (kÉÉiÉÑ )+ Mü(mÉëirÉrÉ) Generally shoola refers to any type of pain like karna soola, sirasoola, netra soola etc Shoola can appear as roopa or upadrava of a disease. Shoola and roga both have same meaning ie, pain giving.
  • 3. Shoola is classified as swatantra shoola &paratantra shoola Paratantra shoola is considered as updrava of a disease. Swatantra soola is defined as a vyadhi itself. Caraka and Vagbhata did not mention shoola as a swatantra vyadhi
  • 4. Susruta has explained shoola as “abdominal pain” in his uttara tantra (ch.42).He has also explained shoola as the upadrava of gulma in the same chapter. Madhava kara has explained about shoola in his Madhava nidanam. We will also get references of shoola in kasyapa samhita khila stana ( ch 18 )
  • 5. TYPES OF SHOOLA Madhavakara has described 8 types of shoola roga Vataja , pittaja, kaphaja,vatapittaja, vatakapha, pittakapha, sannipathaja, amaja. [ Later each of these were described as: vatajaparinama soola, pitajaparinama soola; kaphaja parinama soola; vatapittaja parinamasoola; vatakaphaja parinama soola; pittaja kaphaja parinama soola ; sannipathaja parinamasoola; annadrava soola.] In all types, vata is the predominant causative factor.
  • 6. Susruta has described Later he described 7 types of shoola i.e. 4 types of shoola parsva shoola, according to dosa kukshi shoola, involved i.e. hrit shoola, vataja, vasti shoola, pittaja mootra shoola, vit shoola, Kaphaja avipaka/anna dosaja Sannipataja shoola o Madavakara has described 8 types of shoola o Susruta has explained another 11 types of shoola
  • 7. VATAJA SOOLA “Vyayama yana atimaidhuna…………” (M.N.26/2-5) Over indulgence in physical exercise, riding ,keeping awake at night, sexual inter course ,intake of incompatible foods, suppression of urges of urine semen and feces, grief ,starvation or fasting , excessive laughing and speaking etc, all will increase vata in the body which produces shoola; which is found in the region of heart, flanks, back, waist and urinary bladder , get exacerbated during or after the digestion of food, in the evenings, during cloudy and cold weather -
  • 8. pain increases or decreases of its own accord frequently, of pricking or tearing in nature, there is obstruction to the movement of feces and flatus, pain gets reduced by use of hot fomentation, oil massage, fatty and warm foods and drinks.
  • 9. PITTAJA SHOOLA “ ksara ati tikshna ……….” (M.N.26.6) • Over-indulgence of food which are alkaline, heat producing, very hot, causing burning sensation during digestion, oil cakes etc anger, exposure to fire, fatigue, prolonged exposure to hot sun, sexual intercourse and irritating food, make increase of pitta and in turn produce colic • Thirst, delusion, burning sensation near the umbilicus, perspiration, fainting, giddiness, localized burning •- sensation ; •Pain exacerbates during midday or mid night, during digestion of food and in any rainy weather ;gets reduced by cold comforts and cold sweet foods and drinks.
  • 10. KAPHAJA SHOOLA “Aanupa varija kilata………………”(M.N.26.9-10) Over indulgence in foods that are prepared out of flesh of marshy animals and those living in water, milk and milk products etc such other foods and habit that increases kapha,produces kaphaja shoola. Oppression in chest , cough, debility, anorexia, salivation, pain near the stomach, fullness and loss of movement in the abdomen ,heaviness of the head, pain is severe soon after taking food, in the mornings at sunrise, in sisira and vasanta ritus
  • 11. In vata kaphaja shoola there will be pain in heart and flanks In kapha pittaja shoola there will be pain in kukshi, hridaya and nabhi In vata pittaja shoola there will be severe pain in nabhi and vasti.
  • 12. SANNIPATAJA SHOOLA “Sarveshu dosheshu cha……”(M.N.26.11) The colic produced by the combination of all the three dosas together will have all the symptoms in severe form, during all the times, powerful and hard to treat like poison or fit to be refused treatment.
  • 13. PROGNOSIS OF SHOOLA “Ekadoshothida saadhyaha…….”(M.N.26.14) • Shoola produced by the increase of any one of the dosa is easily curable, • That produced by the combination of any two dosas is curable with difficulty, • That produced by the combination of all the three dosas, that which is very severe and associated with many complications is impossible to cure.
  • 14. AMAJA SHOOLA “Aatopa hrillasa …………”(M.N.26.12) Gurgling in the intestine, oppression in the chest, vomiting, feeling of heaviness, loss of movement and distention of the abdomen, salivation and shoola having the symptoms similar to those of kaphaja type are also found in Amaja shoola.
  • 15. PARINAMA SHOOLA •“Svanidhanir prakupito vayu…………” (M.N.26.16-17) •The consumption of food items which have similar properties to that of vata leads to its vitiation in its seat. •It gets strengthened at the end of digestion (pachyamanavastha) and causes aavarana of kapha & pitta; leading to colic pain. •Since this pain occurs at the end of digestion it is called parinama shoola.
  • 16. PARINAMA SHOOLA DUE TO VATA Abdominal distension, gurgling noise in the intestine, obstruction to the movement of feces and urine, restlessness, severe suffering of pain gets reduced by fatty and warm foods PITTAJA PARINAMA SHOOLA Thirst, burning sensation, restlessness, perspiration, pain increases by use of pungent, sour and salty foods ; but reduced by cold foods and comforts.
  • 17. KAPHAJA PARINAMA SHOOLA Vomiting , nausea, delusion, long continued mild pain get reduced by pungent and bitter foods. . PROGNOSIS OF PARINAMA SHOOLA •Appearance of symptoms of two or three dosas together are seen in conditions of increase of two or three dosas respectively. •The tridosaja type associated with emaciation, loss of strength and digestion is considered as impossible to cure
  • 18. ANNADRAVA SHOOLA o Pain occurs at the time of digestion, after digestion or before digestion o Do not subside on keeping the stomach empty or by taking food o There will be continuous pain, & subsides on vomiting PARSVA SHOOLA o By the over indulgence of incompatible foods, the vitiated kapha places itself in kukshi & parsva and blocks the vata. o This vata will in turn produce abdominal distention with sound& pricking pain in the flank region.
  • 19. KUKSHI SHOOLA o When the aggravated vata invades and vitiates the digestive fire, then the ingested food stays there long without digestion. o The patient breaths with difficulty, eliminates ama mala, suffers from pain often and does not find comfort in either sitting, sleeping or standing. o Kukshi shoola is caused by vata and ama.
  • 20. HRITH SHOOLA Vata getting obstructed by kapha and pitta present in the chest, on combining with rasa present in the heart ,give rise to pain which causes obstruction to breathing This shoola is caused by rasa and vata VASTI SHOOLA Vata getting aggravated by suppression of urges (of urine, faces and flatus ) and get placed in vasti give rise to pain in the vasti, vamshana and nabhi; which obstruct the elimination of faces, urine and flatus. This shoola is caused by vata.
  • 21. MOOTRA SHOOLA o Aggravated vata getting localized in the areas of umbilicus, groin, flanks, intestine and penis, obstruct the elimination of urine and produces pain o Mootra shoola is caused by vata
  • 22. VIT SHOOLA o In the person who indulges dry foods, vata obstruct the feces in the alimentary tract o Cause weakness of the digestive power o Gives rise to severe pain either in the right or left portion of the abdomen; spreads to all other parts moving about accompanied with noise , o increased thirst, giddiness, fainting appears. o It does not subside even after elimination of feces or urine. oThis shouldbe understood as vit shoola by the physician ,which is dreadful.
  • 23. ANNA DOSAJA SHOOLA. The digestive fire become weak due to ingestion of large quantity of food. This food staying long inside, give rise to aggravation of vata and with the undigested food produces severe pain accompanied with fainting, flatulence ,heart burn, more purgation, vomiting, shaking and unconsciousness. Anna dosaja shoola is caused by improper digestion
  • 24. UPDRAVA OF SHOOLA Pain ,thirst, fainting, abdominal distention, heaviness of body, anorexia, cough etc are its complications
  • 25. BIBLIOGRAPHY Madhava Nidhanam Susruta Samhita Text book of Kayachikitsa Kasyapa Samhita Caraka Samhita