One of agricultural poisons.
It is a neurotoxic - organochlorine insecticide.
It is an endocrine disruptor & is highly toxic.
Banned in more than 50 countries including INDIA,
BRAZIL & AUSTRALIA.
WHAT IS ENDOSULFAN????
A toxic organochlorine pesticide of moderate
mammalian toxicity which doesn’t accumulate in the tissues
of man or animals to any significant extent.
But undiluted Endosulfan is slowly and incompletely
absorbed in the GIT of warm blooded animals.
In INDIA, Hindustan Insecticide Lmtd
is the producer of Endosulfan.
Sold under trade names -
TOXICITY : NEUROTOXIC
COLOUR : BROWN
STATE / FORM : SOLID,CRYSTALS
ODOUR : SLIGHT SULPHURDIOXIDE
NATURE : CNS stimulant
GROUP : chlorinated cyclodiene insecticide
Effective against a wide range of insects like beetles,
caterpillars, woolly apple aphid, colorado beetle, leaf hoppers &
cabbage worms - by contact & stomach action.
Used as a pre-harvest insecticide on fruits, nuts, vegetables,
field & grain crops including rice & ornamentals.
Also used on non- food crops such as tobacoo & cotton.
TIME OF APPLICATION
Applied when insects first appear .
Repeated applications can be done as necessary.
Minimum intervals between last treatment & harvest vary
from 15-42 days.
RULES & REGULATIONS
Endosulfan should be sprayed at a height of not more than 2-3 m
above foliage .
Prior information has to be given to people in the area ,
advising them to keep away from the area of application for
a period of 20 days.
All water bodies should be covered before spraying endosulfan.
Harms by affecting semen quality, sperm count,
spermatogenic cells, sperm morphology & other defects.
Puberty delayed in boys.
Infertility among men.
Girls attain menarche early.
Menstrual disorders are frequent.
Endosulfan is experimentally shown to have estrogenic
• Directly affects CNS & prevents it from working
• Causes nausea, dizzines, headache, convulsions or even
status epillepticus in adults if exposed to higher doses.
• Learning disabilities, low IQ, scholastic backwardness.
• Severe poisoning may result in death within hours or
Endosulfan ingestion affects the kidneys & liver.
It inhibits leukocyte & macrophage migration.
It damages RBC at concentrations of 1 ppb-1ppm.
It causes mutations in mammals & may induce
mutations in man if exposure is great.
It is also a potential tumor promoter.
Birth defects have been seen in offspring of animals
ingesting endosulfan during pregnancy.
Released in to the environment as a result of its use as
Can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere,
but the compound is relatively immobile in soils.
Endosulfan on crops, usually breaks down in a few weeks, but
it sticks to soil particles & may take years to completely break
It can build up in bodies of animals that live in endosulfan
FIRST AID MEASURES AND
Treatment is symptomatic.
aimed at controlling convulsions and managing coma
& respiratory depression.
Cardio-vascular function must be monitored.
EEG monitoring must be instituted.
Do not give fats ,oils or milk.
the patient is conscious.
it is less than 1 hr after ingestion.
a large quantity is ingested.
Perform gastric lavage provided the air way is protected
by endotracheal intubation. This should be followed by
intragastric administration of activated charcoal slurry.
In the case of skin contact, remove & discard
contaminated clothing & wash exposed skin including hair
& nails with soap & copious amount of water.
Opiates , adrenaline, nor-adrenaline should be
given with extreme caution.
Atropine, oily laxatives should not be
Rescuers must take precautions not to contaminate
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Endosulfan ‘victim’ dead:
KASARAGOD: A nine-year-old girl, Jumaila, allegedly a victim of Endosulfan, died on
Online edition of India's National Newspaper
Monday after years of treatment.
Thursday, Jul 19, 2007 Kerala
Jumaila, the youngest daughter of N. Muhammad, a resident of Bevincha, Chengala, had
been on artificial respiration for the last few days. The family was living at Muliyar near the
Plantation Corporation estate where spraying of Endosulfan was held when Jumaila was
Jumaila began to show symptoms of Endosulfan poisoning when she was six months old.
Her bones lost their strength and growth became stunted. Her father, an agricultural
labourer, was finding it very difficult to find funds for her treatment.
The neighbours of the family said Jumaila did not get benefit from the relief fund
announced by the State Government for Endosulfan victims
THE LIVING DEAD…………
Kerala`s endosulfan victims…