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  1. 1. ENDOSULFAN ....
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION One of agricultural poisons. It is a neurotoxic - organochlorine insecticide. It is an endocrine disruptor & is highly toxic. Banned in more than 50 countries including INDIA, BRAZIL & AUSTRALIA.
  3. 3. WHAT IS ENDOSULFAN???? A toxic organochlorine pesticide of moderate mammalian toxicity which doesn’t accumulate in the tissues of man or animals to any significant extent. But undiluted Endosulfan is slowly and incompletely absorbed in the GIT of warm blooded animals.
  4. 4. In INDIA, Hindustan Insecticide Lmtd is the producer of Endosulfan. Sold under trade names - THIONEX ENDOCIL PHASER BENZOEPIN.
  5. 5. FATAL DOSE Poorly characterized. TOXICITY ACUTE : 1)ADULTS - 0.015 mg/kg. 2)CHILDREN – 0.0015 mg/kg. CHRONIC: 1)ADULTS - 0.006mg/kg. 2)CHILDREN – 0.0006 mg/kg.
  7. 7. USES Effective against a wide range of insects like beetles, caterpillars, woolly apple aphid, colorado beetle, leaf hoppers & cabbage worms - by contact & stomach action. Used as a pre-harvest insecticide on fruits, nuts, vegetables, field & grain crops including rice & ornamentals. Also used on non- food crops such as tobacoo & cotton.
  8. 8. TIME OF APPLICATION Applied when insects first appear . Repeated applications can be done as necessary. Minimum intervals between last treatment & harvest vary from 15-42 days.
  9. 9. RULES & REGULATIONS Endosulfan should be sprayed at a height of not more than 2-3 m above foliage . Prior information has to be given to people in the area , advising them to keep away from the area of application for a period of 20 days. All water bodies should be covered before spraying endosulfan.
  10. 10. HEALTH EFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Harms by affecting semen quality, sperm count, spermatogenic cells, sperm morphology & other defects. Puberty delayed in boys. Infertility among men. Girls attain menarche early. Menstrual disorders are frequent. Endosulfan is experimentally shown to have estrogenic effects.
  11. 11. NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS: • Directly affects CNS & prevents it from working properly. • Causes nausea, dizzines, headache, convulsions or even status epillepticus in adults if exposed to higher doses. • Learning disabilities, low IQ, scholastic backwardness. • Severe poisoning may result in death within hours or days.
  12. 12. OTHER SYSTEMIC EFFECTS Endosulfan ingestion affects the kidneys & liver. It inhibits leukocyte & macrophage migration. It damages RBC at concentrations of 1 ppb-1ppm. It causes mutations in mammals & may induce mutations in man if exposure is great. It is also a potential tumor promoter. Birth defects have been seen in offspring of animals ingesting endosulfan during pregnancy.
  13. 13. Environmental effects Released in to the environment as a result of its use as an insecticide. Can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere, but the compound is relatively immobile in soils. Endosulfan on crops, usually breaks down in a few weeks, but it sticks to soil particles & may take years to completely break down. It can build up in bodies of animals that live in endosulfan contaminated water.
  14. 14. FIRST AID MEASURES AND TREATMENT Treatment is symptomatic. aimed at controlling convulsions and managing coma & respiratory depression. Cardio-vascular function must be monitored. EEG monitoring must be instituted. Do not give fats ,oils or milk.
  15. 15. IF: the patient is conscious. it is less than 1 hr after ingestion. a large quantity is ingested. Perform gastric lavage provided the air way is protected by endotracheal intubation. This should be followed by intragastric administration of activated charcoal slurry. In the case of skin contact, remove & discard contaminated clothing & wash exposed skin including hair & nails with soap & copious amount of water.
  16. 16. Opiates , adrenaline, nor-adrenaline should be given with extreme caution. Atropine, oily laxatives should not be administrated. Rescuers must take precautions not to contaminate themselves.
  17. 17. Thank you…
  18. 18. Believe them….
  19. 19. It was in feb 2001 dat ... “DOWN TO EARTH“ broke the story…
  20. 20. A story of sufferin` & tragedy in PADRE village, kasargod………….
  21. 21. Kasargod…. Pride with itzzz cashew plantations…….
  22. 22. It was the life for many………….
  23. 23. Pesticides!!!!! A toxic time bomb in our midst………
  24. 24. Pesticides!! A bitter harvest????????
  25. 25. News: ePaper | Front Page | National | Tamil Nadu | Andhra Pradesh | Karnataka | Kerala | New Delhi | Other States | International | Opinion | Business | Sport | Miscellaneous | Engagements | Advts: Classifieds | Jobs | Kerala Endosulfan ‘victim’ dead: Staff Reporter KASARAGOD: A nine-year-old girl, Jumaila, allegedly a victim of Endosulfan, died on Online edition of India's National Newspaper Monday after years of treatment. Thursday, Jul 19, 2007 Kerala Jumaila, the youngest daughter of N. Muhammad, a resident of Bevincha, Chengala, had ePaper been on artificial respiration for the last few days. The family was living at Muliyar near the Plantation Corporation estate where spraying of Endosulfan was held when Jumaila was born. Jumaila began to show symptoms of Endosulfan poisoning when she was six months old. Her bones lost their strength and growth became stunted. Her father, an agricultural labourer, was finding it very difficult to find funds for her treatment. The neighbours of the family said Jumaila did not get benefit from the relief fund announced by the State Government for Endosulfan victims
  26. 26. THE LIVING DEAD………… Kerala`s endosulfan victims…
  27. 27. Human face of pesticides….
  28. 28. Sainaba- whozz overgrowth of head caused her death.
  29. 29. A cry for life………………….
  30. 30. I love to walk,,,, but……
  31. 31. How can I deny u, my son????
  32. 32. How can we leave our school…….
  33. 33. I’ll strike back through education…….
  34. 34. Babyz in womb xposed to gender bending chemicalzz……
  35. 35. I will crab u…..
  36. 36. Say ‘NO’ to endosulfan……
  37. 37. Stop endosulfan… Stop pesticide poisoning!!!!!
  38. 38. Letzzz pledge together……. NO more ENDOSULFAN!!!!!!!!