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5 galib scientific writing


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5 galib scientific writing

  1. 1. An Introduction to Scientific Writing Dr. Galib, Assistant Professor, IPGT & RA, GAU, Jamnagar
  2. 2. Need of doing Research
  3. 3.  Current times are of "Publish or Perish"  The career graph of an individual shows growth for those who have publications in Good Indexed Standard Peer reviewed Well distributed Regularly published Scientifically acclaimed journals.
  4. 4.  None is born with it  All have to learn and acquire  It is dynamic skill and changes with time (For Ex. Use of internet)  One has to get trained and keep updated  There are no short cuts. All have to go through the rigors  Journal space is limited and costly hence only good quality contributions are accepted 4 WRITING IS A LEARNT SKILL
  5. 5. 5  .. know your subject well Before Starting You
  6. 6. 6  .. know the pattern well  .. give the a time it requires  .. know what the science expect  .. try hard enough  .. give credits where due
  7. 7. 7 W's of writing: 1. Who: Trained, scientific communicator 2. What: New material of utility, concern to fellow beings 3. When: ASAP after the research is completed. Do not hold it. It looses the charm of timeliness. If you do not publish fast, others will ! Then your work will have low value. 4. Where: Hard copy journals, E-Journals
  8. 8. 8 W's of writing: 5. Why: Writing is transmission of research findings, ideas, opinions. Sharing of knowledge. Getting known for your work. Essential requirement of certain jobs & will be picked up for jobs preferably. Publication gives you sense of attainment and Psychological reward. Build your CV. Optimal utilization of free time.
  9. 9. Why a structure for writing?????
  10. 10. Why a structure for writing????? For the uniformity To avoid confusion To reduce the verbosity / length To clarify specifics
  11. 11. Poor writing results when You:  Don’t know your subject well  Don’t give the manuscript a time it requires  Don’t know the readers & what they expect from you  Don’t know the language well  Don’t write to express your ideas, but try to impress others  Don’t try hard enough
  12. 12.  Flow of manuscript  Sections and Order  References for validity [References of last 5 yrs for scientific studies] [References from web should be current]  Sentence Structure  Grammar The important issues are Style of Presentation Research Idea Essentials of writing:
  13. 13. 13 Introduction Materials & Methods Results And Discussion .......... was introduced during 1972 by American Naional Standards Institute
  14. 14. 14 ABSTRACT The Mini Version of the Paper Structure should be  The Problem (Background)  Purpose of Study  Method  Results  Conclusions Contents should describe  Why the research was conducted  How the research was conducted  What the major results and conclusions are
  15. 15. 15 ABSTRACT  Around 150- 250 words  Well written  Preferably be typed as single paragraph.  Don’t cite references & Don’t use abbreviations.  Emphasize new and important aspects of the study.  Preferably it should be written in the past tense. Abstract is the only part of a research paper that is displayed many times. Hence, should give a succinct summary of entire work and its outcomes.
  16. 16. 16  Important words or short phrases that specifically describe your topic and closely related.  Shouldn’t be long sentences.  The terms people would enter to find.  Terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus. Key Words
  17. 17. 17  First, write one or two sentences about your topic.  Next, underline all the specific words that describe your topic.  Make a separate list of these specific words.  Add to your list any other words that mean the same thing (synonyms) or are related terms.  Think of more words or phrases that describe the larger topic, of which your topic is a part.  Add those to the list. Key Words How to list "good key words"?
  18. 18. 18 Writing Introduction  First section of the text proper. Purpose: to provide sufficient background information to allow readers to understand and evaluate the result of the present study.
  19. 19. 19 Writing Introduction X Be eager to reveal all in intro! X Confuse the readers with complex sentences X Give results and conclusions in intro! X Write junk to fill the space. Do NOT: Try to impress the readers, else you may loose the game because many readers are very sharp and knowledgeable to catch you on wrong foot.
  20. 20. 20 Writing a GOOD Introduction  Review the literature  State clearly the question (Aims & Objectives)  Be brief and convincing.  Should state method of the study.  Reason of selection of the problem.  Do not keep the reader in suspense.  Define abbreviations (if any) in Introduction.
  21. 21. 21 Materials & Methods While going through this section, it becomes easy for others to understand and repeat the same if needed. PURPOSE: To describe the design of the study with enough details. MATERIALS: Exact technical specifications and details followed. In clinical study- criteria of selection, ‘informed consent’ statement. METHODS: This section answers the question: "How was the trial/study done"?
  22. 22. 22 Materials & Methods  Procedures adopted should be written with full details.  If the method is new - provide all of the needed details.  If the method is published - give literature reference.  How is the trial/study is designed?  Ethical aspects  Randomization  Blinding and Grouping  Details of the trial drugs  How were the data is handled  Statistical methods Ensure to write :  Materials and Methods should be written in PAST tense.
  23. 23. 23 RESULTS  Need to be clearly and simply stated  Describe the findings in words in a logical sequence  Build the interest of reader to read further  Illustrations /graphs AUGMENT the written text.  Illustrations /graphs should be self explanatory and able to stand alone  Avoid abbreviations in illustrations/graphs  What is shown in table should not duplicate in illustrations/ graphs Results explain "What did you find" in the work. Usually expected results are reported in manuscripts One must report UNEXPECTED FINDINGS & NEGATIVE FINDINGS.
  24. 24. 24 TABLES  Meant to present original and complete information.  Used when there is a need to present numerical values or summarize / emphasize textual material. A table should be • sufficiently clear • well-labeled • described by its legend • must be able to stand alone and be interpretable All Tables should be referred in the text
  25. 25. 25 DISCUSSION HARDEST SECTION TO WRITE.  Many papers are rejected because of faulty discussion. COMPONENTS:  Highlight the specific aspects of the methods which are responsible in obtaining the unique findings.  Describe the results in comarision to previous works of others with exact references.  Never deny credits to others whose work is quoted.  Point any exceptions or any lack of correlations and define unsettled points.  Discuss the theoretical implications of your work as well as any possible practical applications.  State your conclusion as clearly as possible.  Do not repeat the results in discussion.
  26. 26. 26 References It is always better to keep writing the full references in brackets where ever material is quoted while preparing the draft manuscript, which can be subsequently converted to the format of the publication.
  27. 27. 27 References Pubmed Style U A, R. K. Sesame Meal Administration Attenuates The High - Fat Diet Induced Lipid Peroxidation And Improve Antioxidant Status In Wistar Rat. AJPBR. 2011; 1(3): 273-280. Web Style U A, R. K. Sesame Meal Administration Attenuates The High - Fat Diet Induced Lipid Peroxidation And Improve Antioxidant Status In Wistar Rat. [Access: February 29, 2012]. AMA (American Medical Assoc.) Style U A, R. K. Sesame Meal Administration Attenuates The High - Fat Diet Induced Lipid Peroxidation And Improve Antioxidant Status In Wistar Rat. AJPBR. 2011; 1(3): 273-280. Vancouver/ICMJE Style U A, R. K. Sesame Meal Administration Attenuates The High - Fat Diet Induced Lipid Peroxidation And Improve Antioxidant Status In Wistar Rat. AJPBR. (2011), [cited February 29, 2012]; 1(3): 273-280. Harvard Style U, A. & R., K. (2011) Sesame Meal Administration Attenuates The High - Fat Diet Induced Lipid Peroxidation And Improve Antioxidant Status In Wistar Rat. AJPBR, 1 (3), 273-280.
  28. 28. 28 WRITING A TITLE Title 1: Studies on Amavata Title 2: On the addition to the method of Microscopic Reseach by a New way of producing color contrast between an object and its background or between difinite parts of the object itself
  29. 29. 29 WRITING A TITLE 1Avoid too short or too long title. 2Simple, Clear and should convey the essence. 3Long titles contain ‘waste’ words. Waste words appear right at the start of the title, e.g.- ‘Studies on’, ‘Investigations on’, ‘ Observations on’, A, An, The. 3. Never use abbreviations, chemical formulae, jargons. Title 1: Medhya effect of Brahmi in children Title 2: Effect of Brahmi in Learning Disabilities of Children
  30. 30. 30 WHO WILL BE THE AUTHOR 1Whose name first ? 2No rule. 3Alphabetical Order ?? ‘Laundry list approach’ is to be avoided Who takes the responsibility for the research results being Reported
  31. 31. 31 WHO WILL BE THE AUTHOR 1One who takes intellectual responsibility for the research results being reported 2Each listed author should have made an important contribution to the study being reported. 3Collaborative research work - decide sequence of name before starting the study.
  32. 32. 32 WHO WILL BE THE AUTHOR  All those who contribute significantly on the scientific merit should get co-authorship.  It is always good to decide the authorship order at the protocol writing stage to save heart burn later.  Do not gift authorship to friends, colleagues or for getting authorship reciprocally.
  33. 33. 33 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Acknowledge any significant technical help that you received from any individual.  Acknowledge for outside financial assistance, such as grants, contracts or fellowships.  Be courteous.  Simple assistance could be noted.  Financial assistance is to be acknowledged.  Name and their contribution (after concent)
  34. 34. 35 Start Writing:  Learn well from peers.  Proper planning & practice prevents poor performance  Be prepared to accept early set backs  Have the pleasure of seeing your name in print  Decide the journal to which you need to contribute  Read current copy or visit web site of the journal  Read instructions to authors
  35. 35. 36 Start Writing:  Start writing. All can do it  Write the first draft in IMRAD style  Keep reviewing and correcting it  Discuss it with co-authors  Ask colleagues to correct it  Keep modifying it  Get internal peer review done  Incorporate suggestions  Contribute MS as desired by the journal  Respond to the Editor's decision  Follow the time lines of the journal  Please get back if you have problems.
  36. 36. 37 For patient listening & co-operation