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A flow battery is an example of a rechargeable electrochemical energy storage system that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Flow batteries consist of two compartments or tanks that store liquid electrolytes externally. The power capacity of the battery depends on the size of the electrode, and the energy capacity of the battery depends on the size of the external storage tank. Since both the power and the energy capacities of the battery are independent of each other, they can be used to provide backup power to large-scale application systems.