Overview Introduction Definitions Benefits Types of Documents: Industries Applications DM Components DM Functionality DM Functionality for the Web Research and Job Opportunities
Introduction Eras of Systems: 1960s and 1970s: Computational Systems (CS) 1980s and 1990s: Database Management Systems (DBMS) Image Management Systems (IMS) Late 1990s: Document Management Systems (DMS) Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) First Decade of 21st Century: Multimedia Management Systems (MMS) Estimated that 90% of an organization’s information is in documents rather than structured databases (Sprague, 1995). True today more than ever.
Introduction Limitations of RDBMS for document management Based on E-R data models Suitable for structured data Traditional business applications, decision support systems, reporting tools No inherent support to manage electronic documents
Introduction•Documents are results of most business processes. They can be made of multiplemedia.•Once you have them, you need to manage them.•Only if you have documents, you can have relationships (hypertext).•If you have a process for creating, reviewing, approving documents, you needworkflow.•When you’ve documents you need ways to retrieve them. Hypertext Workflow Document Management Information Multimedia Retrieval Convergence of enabling technologies
Definitions A document is an artifact resulting from the transformation of a set of ideas by people following a set of processes. An electronic document has the following characteristics (Sprague, 1995): holds information of multiple media: text, graphics, audio, video contains multiple structures: headers, footers, TOC, sections, paragraphs, tables is dynamic: can be updated on the fly may depend on other documents
Definitions Technology People enables change in process Input Process Output Tech nolo gy Change Process: Decision making process, design process, etc. Input: Thoughts, ideas, issues, concerns Output: Documents (memos, news, design documents, white papers, marketing literature, contracts, manuals) People: Executives, Designers, Lawyers, Scientists
Definitions Document Management (DM) (Sprague, 1995): creation, storage, organization, transmission, retrieval, manipulation, update, archival and retirement of documents based on organizational needs.
Benefits Sprague (1995) states that document management systems (DMS) enable: Generation of revenue producing products For publishing industry, documents are a direct source of revenue Organizational Communication Concepts, ideas, decisions are shared in the form of electronic documents to increase efficiency and effectiveness Business Process Re-engineering Current business processes designed around paper documents; electronic documents help to reduce cycle time Organizational Memory Both hard data and soft/tacit knowledge stored as documents providing access to history, design/decision rationale, expertise, best practices, etc.
Benefits Reduce time to create, review, approve and publish mission critical documents Increase accessibility to information; retrieval using business characteristics and full-text searches Ensure currency Provide access and version control Enable enterprise-wide collaboration; reduce email Facilitate workflows (sequential and parallel) Maintain audit trail Increase re-use of components (produce multiple documents from same components) Publish electronic & paper documents simultaneously
Types of Industries & Documents Industry Segment Document Type Automobile, Engineering drawings Construction Pharmaceutical New drug applications to FDA Insurance Claims Financial Product brochures, swaps and derivatives Consulting Contracts and agreements Architecture, Blueprints and photographs Engineering Consumer Products, Marketing literature Financial Lawyers Legal briefs Airlines* Manuals and handbooks All Memos/White Papers * It is said that Boeing ships three plane loads full of manuals for every plane
Applications Financial Product catalogs (marketing information): Org Comm Back-office: confirmation of trades, customized letters and promotions: Revenue Generation Policies: Org Comm Pharmaceutical New drug applications submitted to FDA (approximately 600 volumes of 200 pages each): Business Process Re-engineering Product labeling information: Standard operating procedures, laboratory manuals: Org Comm Organizational knowledge on drug development: Org Memory Regulatory guidelines: Org Memory Competitive intelligence
DM Components Document Management Authors = Title Description Attribute Creation Date Version Number Management Modified Date ……. + Content: Text Content Graphics Management Index Terms
DM Components Document Management Functions Applications Organizational Communication Create/ Retain/ Capture Store/ Archive Organize Org Assemble/ Attributes Control/ BPR Memory Publish/ and Access/ Print Content Version Retrieve/ Transmit/ Synthesize Review/ Route AnnotateCore Components Revenue Generation
DM Functionality Capture/Create Scanning paper, importing electronic documents Capture meta-data or attributes: author, date, title, keywords, document type, purpose, bus characteristics Check-in/Check-Out Locking mechanism to prevent overwriting Store/Organize Compound documents made of components of multiple media types Structured as hierarchies: cabinets/folders Distributed storage of content and meta-data
DM Functionality Access/Version Control Provide access to members with various roles and privileges: author (Read/Write/Delete), reviewer (Read/Annotate), approver (Read, Change Status) Provide version management so that older versions can be accessed for historical or legal reasons Retrieve/Synthesize Powerful retrieval mechanisms based on attributes, concepts, full- text Stored queries that can be executed periodically Automatic change notifications
DM Functionality Transmit/Route Create workflows among stakeholders and monitor status Encrypt/decrypt sensitive information Review/Annotate Enable reviewers to read and annotate documents; merge annotations Assemble/Publish/Print Assemble views by combining components based on audience WYSIWYG displays on screen in native format or printing Retain/Archive Set up rules to retain published and original content (and versions) or to send it to long-term storage (optical disks)
DM Functionality for the Web Immature Web infrastructure for industrial-strength, document- intensive applications Need to extend Web infrastructure using document management functionality (Rein, et al., 1997) IETF Working Group (WEBDAV) defining standards to extend HTTP for: name space management overwrite protection version management meta-data management
DM Functionality for the WebComplementary Technologies Document Management Web Technologies Manage large amounts of material Deliver multiple media Provide consistent and predictable Provide user interface and navigation structure Enable hyper-linking Ensure currency Facilitate non-technical authors with Facilitate non-technical authors with templates WYSIWYG tools Support roles, responsibilities and access control Enable workflow Publish multiple views Enable version control Provide document locking Enable recording of attributes Enable attribute searching using meta-tags Stable, well-defined functionality Continuously evolving
Research and Job Opportunities Reviewing and implementing WEBDAV recommendations to extend Web infrastructure Template management: propagation of changes to documents instantiated out of templates Indexing and retrieval based on concepts, synonyms Increasing number of jobs in pharmaceutical and financial sectors Managing Web content using DMS UI, Server-side programming, Web-DMS gateways Link management