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Technology, Cross-Cultural
Organizations and the Poor
Andrew Sears
Course Goals
1. Understand low-cost business models and common strategies
applied by businesses serving the Base of the Py...
Outline
 Part 1: Technology and Low-Cost Business
Models
◦ Google Hangout with Google Access
 Part 2: Technology and Cro...
Final Project
 30-35 Pages; Work on it each week
 Summary: Demonstrate achievement of course goals
 Create research rep...
Part 1: Technology & Low-Cost
Business Models
-
200,000,000
400,000,000
600,000,000
800,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,200,000,000
1,400,000,000
1,600,000,000
1,800,000,000
2,...
1900 1970 2000 2007 2025
South 21% 59% 86% 91% 99%
West 79% 41% 14% 9% 1%
21%
59%
86%
91%
99%
79%
41%
14%
9%
1%
0%
20%
40%...
Characteristics of Low-Cost
BoP Business Models
 Priority is 1) Cost 2) Speed 3) Quality
 High volume is needed to achie...
Project Management Triangle & the Poor
Cost
Scope/
Quality
Time
Cost is the determining factor.
Decrease scope/quality and...
Technology as Culture across Generations & Class
1. Record Labels/Publishing
• Closed & Majority Culture
• Priorities: 1. ...
Low-Cost Project Management Approach
 Highest Cost
◦ Waterfall (highly structured and planned)
 Medium Cost
◦ Agile, Scr...
 Before the Internet: 80% of profit comes from 20% of
products
 After the Internet: 60% of profit comes from 40% of
prod...
Effects of the Long Tail & Missions
 Long Tail Increases Diversity of Videos
◦ Blockbuster Video: 80% of rentals are rece...
Part 1: The Main Ideas
1. The most aspect of tech strategies to serve
the poor is understanding tech strategies of
low-cos...
Recap: Key Lessons from Part 1
 Most Bottom of the Pyramid lessons apply to serving the poor in the
US
 There are thousa...
Examples of How to Apply Principles
 Rescue Missions/Salvation Army
◦ Time Not Money = Thrift Stores, Recycling
◦ Seek em...
Part 2: Technology and
Cross Cultural Ministry
Cultural Distance
 E0 – Renewal to Christians of same culture
 E1 – Evangelism to people of same culture
 E2 – Cross-Cu...
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
 Power distance index
 Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism
 Uncertainty avoidance
 Mas...
Needs of the Poor vs. Middle Class
Reconciliation Across Social Class by Andrew Sears
Common Class Value
Tensions in Ministry
Non-Dominant Class Value
 Low Cost
 Low Cost
 Relational
 Relational
 Spontan...
Dimensions of Cross Cultural Technology
 Front End
◦ Language
◦ Types of media (text, images, audio, video)
◦ Graphics
◦ ...
Ethnic Identity Development Process
Description Goal
Stage 1.
Unawarene
ss
Unaware of racial and
social identity.
Become a...
Jesus
Christian Social Sector
AGRM, CCDA, Salvation Army,
Teen Challenge, UYWI, World Vision
Job Boards
Internships.com
Si...
Ministry
with the
Poor
The Poor
Christian
s in
Secular
Tech
Tech
Ministry
Tech
Ministry
with the
Poor
Secular
Tech
Diffusi...
Part 2: Main Ideas
1. Understand the concept of cultural distance (E0-E3)and
different measures of it (culture, class, eth...
Part 2 Assignment
 Cross Cultural Ministry Assignment
◦ List the cultural dimensions of you and your
organization
◦ Histo...
Part 3: Diffusion of Innovation,
Digital Divide, Knowledge Divide
and the Christian Response
Diffusion of Innovation
 Consequences of Innovation
◦ Desirable vs. Undesirable
◦ Direct vs. Indirect
◦ Anticipated vs. U...
Types of Injustice
Individual
Collective/
Systemic
Intentional Unintentional
• Bigotry
• Selfishness
• Bullying
• Unjust l...
Injustice
Resource
Divide
Innovation
Divide
Knowledg
e Divide
Digital
Divide
Three Waves of History
Agricultural Industrial
Informatio
n
Rural Urban Virtual/Digital
Sunday School
Primary/Secondary Sc...
Source: (US. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014)
Mismatch of Jobs & Education
Jobs in
2018
People in
2012 Difference
Less than High
School 10% 12.42% -2.4%
High School
Deg...
“Human history becomes more
and more a race between
education and catastrophe.”
- H.G. Wells
Image from Wikipedia
38.9 pt. growth
4.5 pt. growth
4.1 pt. growth
19 pt. growth
Bachelor’s Attainment by Income
Adequate Education:
winning th...
Percent of Population 25 Years and Over Who Have
Completed High School or College
www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/minorities_less-educated_workers_see_staggering_rates_of_underemployment
Changing Trends in Imprisonment
Changing Trends in Unwed Births
Figure 12. Increasing Cost of Higher
Education over Time
Figure 14. Distribution of Total Student Debt
by Level of Household Net Worth
Changing our Educational Trajectory
Adequate Education
Winning the race with automation
Mass
Unemployment
(catastrophe)
Tech
Christians
Globally
Tech
Christians
in U.S.
Tech in
Christian
Orgs
Tech
Christians
Serving
the Poor
(1,000’s)
• 77,50...
Mechanisms of Diffusion of Innovation
 Conferences, workshops, webinars
 Formal education: degrees, courses, lectures
 ...
Jesus
Christian Social Sector
AGRM, CCDA, Salvation Army,
Teen Challenge, UYWI, World Vision
Job Boards
Internships.com
Si...
Ministry
with the
Poor
The Poor
Christian
s in
Secular
Tech
Tech
Ministry
Tech
Ministry
with the
Poor
Secular
Tech
Diffusi...
Part 3: Main Ideas
1. Most injustice is systemic requiring the systemic
response of new institutions
2. The transition fro...
Part 3 Assignments
 Brain Drain: exploiting or contributing expertise
 Identifying and mapping sources and clients of
in...
Part 4: Diffusion of Innovation &
Case Studies of
Technology and the Poor
Diffusion of Innovation Case Studies
 Snowmobiles & Ski-Doo
 Oral Rehydration Therapy
 Steel Axes for Aborigines
 Iris...
Appropriate Technology Movement
 Movement to prioritize technology that is small-scale,
decentralized, labor-intensive, e...
Christian Education Globally
 Christian Colleges and Universities globally
 7,200+ Bible & Theological Schools globally
...
One Laptop Per Child
 Initiative of MIT’s Media Lab to provide one
laptop to each child in the world
 Strengths
◦ Raised...
Computer Learning Centers
 1990-2005
◦ Community Technology Centers Movement: CTCNet
◦ Association of Christian Community...
Best Practices of Christian Computer Centers
 Operate as a part of an adult or youth program
in a well-funded Christian s...
Universal Christian Wikis
 UrbanMinistry.org and StrategicNetwork
 Problems
◦ Cost of Maintenance too high. Assumption: ...
Crossing the Chasm
1. Amara’s Law: We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short
run and underestimate t...
Assessing Online Social Ventures
 What scale of resources are needed? Is it a…
◦ $10,000 problem
◦ $100,000 problem
◦ $1 ...
Examples of Resources Needed
 Christian Social Network: $100 million
 Christian Social Graph: $100 million
◦ Global Chur...
Law of Network Effects
𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 =
𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑥 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘2
𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑠2
Va...
Open Education
 Many educational materials are being
commoditized or made free
 Future could be an “app store” with tens...
Audio/Visual Gospel
 The Problem
◦ 2/3rds of the world are “oral” communicators
◦ 50% of world is illiterate
 Jesus film...
Emerging Opportunities
 Microfinance/Microenterprise
 Clean Water
 Ultra-low Cost Higher Education
 Mobile Banking in ...
Key Principles of Case Studies
 Most people underestimate the scale needed to
effectively serve the poor
 Cultural Misma...
Final Project
1. Literature Review (6-8 pages, 10% of grade)
2. Project (20-25 pages, 85% of grade)
3. Self Reflection (5%...
Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor
Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor
Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor
Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor
Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor
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Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor

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Presentation of Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor for course as a part of the Technology and Ministry Masters program in City Vision College.

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Technology Cross Cultural Organizations and the Poor

  1. 1. Technology, Cross-Cultural Organizations and the Poor Andrew Sears
  2. 2. Course Goals 1. Understand low-cost business models and common strategies applied by businesses serving the Base of the Pyramid and poor communities and apply those into organizational strategy. 2. Analyze the cultural and power implications of key trends such as social/peer production, the long tail, mobile and online education that have major implications for the poor and to create organizational strategies to respond to these trends. 3. Apply principles of cross-cultural ministry in developing organizational strategies and new product designs. 4. Understand the digital divide, knowledge divide to be able to develop strategies for Christian organizations to effectively respond. 5. Analyze case studies of organizations and business strategies that were successful in serving the poor and apply that toward organizational strategy.
  3. 3. Outline  Part 1: Technology and Low-Cost Business Models ◦ Google Hangout with Google Access  Part 2: Technology and Cross-Cultural Ministry ◦ Google Hangout with Lightsys  Part 3: Digital Divide, Knowledge Divide and the Christian Response ◦ Google Hangout with Denver Rescue Mission  Part 4: Case Studies & Final Project
  4. 4. Final Project  30-35 Pages; Work on it each week  Summary: Demonstrate achievement of course goals  Create research report and strategic plan for a new division at work using technology for the poor ◦ Apply concepts from course across each of the 4 parts of the course  Example Projects ◦ Adult Education Center or Youth Tech Program Plan ◦ Adult Basic Education, GED and Career Readiness System ◦ Technology & Missions Organization Plan ◦ Christian Consulting Company
  5. 5. Part 1: Technology & Low-Cost Business Models
  6. 6. - 200,000,000 400,000,000 600,000,000 800,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,200,000,000 1,400,000,000 1,600,000,000 1,800,000,000 2,000,000,000 1800 1900 1970 2000 2007 2025 Christian Membership by Region West South Status of Global Mission 2014, Todd Johnson http://www.gordonconwell.edu/resources/documents/statusofglobalmission.pdf
  7. 7. 1900 1970 2000 2007 2025 South 21% 59% 86% 91% 99% West 79% 41% 14% 9% 1% 21% 59% 86% 91% 99% 79% 41% 14% 9% 1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Growth of Christianity by Region Status of Global Mission 2014, Todd Johnson http://www.gordonconwell.edu/resources/documents/statusofglobalmission.pdf
  8. 8. Characteristics of Low-Cost BoP Business Models  Priority is 1) Cost 2) Speed 3) Quality  High volume is needed to achieve low cost  Labor/time is cheap  Pay as you go better than high up front
  9. 9. Project Management Triangle & the Poor Cost Scope/ Quality Time Cost is the determining factor. Decrease scope/quality and time to decrease cost.
  10. 10. Technology as Culture across Generations & Class 1. Record Labels/Publishing • Closed & Majority Culture • Priorities: 1. Quality 2. Speed 3. Cost • Cost Structure: $100-$1 million per item created • Website is interactive brochure • Optimized to promote brand 2. Apple/iTunes • Closed & Mono-cultural • Priorities: 1. Quality 2. Speed 3. Cost • Cost Structure: $500-$1 million per item created • Website is an online store • Optimized to maximize profit 3. Static Org Website • Closed/Reflects Org Culture • Priorities: 1. Cost 2. Speed 3. Quality • Cost Structure: $10-$100 per item created • Website is low-quality brochure • Website optimized for low cost 4. Craigslist, Wikipedia & Android • Open & Diverse • Priorities: 1. Cost 2. Speed 3. Quality • Cost Structure: < $.50 per item created • Website is a sharing community • Optimized to maximize social value Older Generation Younger Generation Upper/MiddleClassUnder-Resourced
  11. 11. Low-Cost Project Management Approach  Highest Cost ◦ Waterfall (highly structured and planned)  Medium Cost ◦ Agile, Scrum  Low Cost ◦ Lean, Worse is Better, Kanban, Lightweight, RAD, Cowboy Coding, Hack, Quick-and-dirty
  12. 12.  Before the Internet: 80% of profit comes from 20% of products  After the Internet: 60% of profit comes from 40% of products = increased content diversity Effect of the Long Tail: 80/20 Rule Becomes the 60/40 Rule
  13. 13. Effects of the Long Tail & Missions  Long Tail Increases Diversity of Videos ◦ Blockbuster Video: 80% of rentals are recent “blockbusters,” only carries 75 documentaries ◦ Netflix: 30% of rentals are “blockbusters” and carries 1,180 documentaries ◦ Amazon: carries 17,061 documentaries (of a possible 40,000)  Long Tail of Search Terms (TechMission Websites) ◦ Top 500 search terms provide 19.5% of visitors ◦ 604,916 search terms provide 80.5% of visitors  Missions Implication ◦ Non-Western culture voices are almost entirely on the long tail. ◦ The Internet extends the long tail. It decreases the proportion controlled by big media from 80% to around 60% which gives more room for non- Western voices. ◦ Open strategy maximizes visibility of non-Western voices.
  14. 14. Part 1: The Main Ideas 1. The most aspect of tech strategies to serve the poor is understanding tech strategies of low-cost business models 2. The long tail, open source and zero marginal cost are reducing the costs of production, and we should use these trends to serve the poor 3. Reduced cost of production can both help the poor and reverse the trend of secularization and Westernization of media
  15. 15. Recap: Key Lessons from Part 1  Most Bottom of the Pyramid lessons apply to serving the poor in the US  There are thousands of tech concepts to learn, but those selected in Part 1 are among the most important to understand when serving the poor ◦ We need to understand and partner with these forces ◦ Common theme: they all reduce costs of production and the price to consumers ◦ Read the books related to these concepts to fully understand them  Three keys to success in business “Location, Location, Location” is replaced with “Cost, Cost, Cost” in serving the poor.  World is “divided between people who have money but no time and people who have time but no money” ◦ What opportunities are there for people with “time but no money”
  16. 16. Examples of How to Apply Principles  Rescue Missions/Salvation Army ◦ Time Not Money = Thrift Stores, Recycling ◦ Seek employment onramps in freelance economy ◦ What are the digital analogies of key aspects of your business model and how do they change? Bell ringing, thrift stores  Tech Consultants ◦ How to partner with tech Christians in the developing world? ◦ How to provide reduced cost consulting to ministries serving the poor?  Education ◦ Partner with open education and long tail resources whenever possible to reduce costs and promote diversity
  17. 17. Part 2: Technology and Cross Cultural Ministry
  18. 18. Cultural Distance  E0 – Renewal to Christians of same culture  E1 – Evangelism to people of same culture  E2 – Cross-Cultural missions  E3 – Cross-Cultural missions to radically different culture If there are Christians indigenous to a culture, the role of tech should be to support E1 evangelism (indigenous leaders)! Ralph d. Winter - The New Macedonica: A Revolutionary New Era in Mission Begins
  19. 19. Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions  Power distance index  Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism  Uncertainty avoidance  Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity  Long-term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation  Indulgence versus restraint  Apps ◦ http://geert-hofstede.com/mobile-apps.html Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory
  20. 20. Needs of the Poor vs. Middle Class Reconciliation Across Social Class by Andrew Sears
  21. 21. Common Class Value Tensions in Ministry Non-Dominant Class Value  Low Cost  Low Cost  Relational  Relational  Spontaneous  Subjective  Intense  Hierarchical  Trauma is Common  Any Lower Class Culture/Values Dominant Class Value  High Quality  Speed  Structured/Orderly  Efficient  Detached/Objective  Objective  Reserved  Egalitarian  Trauma is Avoided  Any Middle/Upper Class Culture/ Values Reconciliation Across Social Class by Andrew Sears
  22. 22. Dimensions of Cross Cultural Technology  Front End ◦ Language ◦ Types of media (text, images, audio, video) ◦ Graphics ◦ Information access (open, restricted or pay) ◦ Device  Back End & Development ◦ Cost ◦ Content Economics (who owns, creates, distributes & consumes) ◦ Information Architecture (hub-spoke, distributed, open vs. closed)
  23. 23. Ethnic Identity Development Process Description Goal Stage 1. Unawarene ss Unaware of racial and social identity. Become aware of racial/social identity Stage 2. Awareness Growing awareness of race, culture and racism, but most processing is on a head-level Become aware of racism and other forms of social injustice to provide basis for entering immersion Stage 3. Immersion Immersion and identification with minority culture Process on an emotional level and heal the effects of racism and social brokenness through action, relationships and forgiveness Stage 4. Holiness Secure, consistent racial/ social identity while integrating strengths from other cultures Continue reconciliation by addressing social injustice, bringing social healing and addressing personal cultural brokennessEthnic Identity Development
  24. 24. Jesus Christian Social Sector AGRM, CCDA, Salvation Army, Teen Challenge, UYWI, World Vision Job Boards Internships.com Simply Hired Christian Higher Ed for Justice Bakke U, UCC, Eastern, Fuller Azusa, Acton, NET Institute, Christian ABE Open Education Straighterline.com, MOOCs, EdX Coursera, Udacity Nonprofit Recruiting AllforGood, Idealist VolunteerMatch, Guidestar, FB Causes Tech & Missions ICCM, Lightsys, MAF, GEM, EMI, WIN, OB VisionSynergy, AIBI Wycliffe IT, CheckItOut Tech & Ministry Internet Evangelism Day, Mobile Ministry Forum, YouVersion, ABS, Cru MSTSM Program Tech-Justice Sector (secular) Jesus Tech Sector (Word) Jesus Justice Sector (Deed) City Vision College ChristianVolunteering City Vision Internships Tech Christian Colleges AccessED, ACU, Calvin, Taylor, Baylor Biola, Olivet, Fuller, Wheaton, Liberty Christian Technologists Christians Engineering Society, Intervarsity Faculty, Cru Faculty ISCAST, Code for the Kingdom Christians in Tech (FB & LinkedIn) Christian Recruiting MeetTheNeed, ChristianJobs ShortTermMissions, Missions Christian Media Christianity Today, Publishers, Radio & TV Tech Philanthropy Google Grants, LinkedIn Facebook, Salesforce, Microsoft Open Source Drupal, Moodle Church Tech & IT LifeChurch, Menlo Park Saddleback, Willow Creek Christian Recovery NACR, Celebrate Recovery Urban Internships Mission Year Churches of the Poor Christian Higher Ed In Developing Countries Low Cost Online Training Lynda.com, Skillshare, Pluralsight Parachurch IT Cru, Intervarsity Open Data/Content Wikipedia, Open Gov’t, Semantic Web Christian Funders Foundations, Individuals Secular Funders Foundations, Individuals, Government, Corporations
  25. 25. Ministry with the Poor The Poor Christian s in Secular Tech Tech Ministry Tech Ministry with the Poor Secular Tech Diffusion of Innovation: Ministry with the Poor Justice Ministry & Tech Tech Secular Nonprofit Tech Nonprofit Tech TechJustice Tech Ministry & Resources Ministry TechJustice Tech E1-E2 E2-E3 (rarely effective) E1-E2
  26. 26. Part 2: Main Ideas 1. Understand the concept of cultural distance (E0-E3)and different measures of it (culture, class, ethnicity, etc) 2. Understand the importance of using technology to either a) support indigenous leaders E1 (if there are indigenous Christians) or b) supporting cross-cultural missions E2-E3 (if there are not). 3. There are many dimensions to consider in using technology in cross-cultural settings, making it very complex. 4. We need to find our own role as bridge builders and form partnerships to maximize the diffusion of innovation and leverage existing cultural competencies.
  27. 27. Part 2 Assignment  Cross Cultural Ministry Assignment ◦ List the cultural dimensions of you and your organization ◦ History of Ministry (E0, E1, E2 or E3) ◦ What communities do you serve as a bridge builder between and how can you make that more effective?  Final Project ◦ In the Book Review section of your final project, you should plan to write one paragraph on each handout or video with the key “takeaways” and lessons as they apply to your context
  28. 28. Part 3: Diffusion of Innovation, Digital Divide, Knowledge Divide and the Christian Response
  29. 29. Diffusion of Innovation  Consequences of Innovation ◦ Desirable vs. Undesirable ◦ Direct vs. Indirect ◦ Anticipated vs. Unanticipated  Equality & Innovation 1. Level of Good 2. Equality of Distribution of Good
  30. 30. Types of Injustice Individual Collective/ Systemic Intentional Unintentional • Bigotry • Selfishness • Bullying • Unjust laws • Policies creating an unequal playing field • Exploitation • Unjust War • Imperialism • Not understanding culture • Not understanding perspective • Unintended offense • Cultural encroachment & assimilation • Second-order effects (urban decay) • Natural momentum of systems 1 2 3 4 People assume injustice comes from quadrant 1, but most comes from quadrants 3 and 4. Often due to effects of diffusion of innovation.
  31. 31. Injustice Resource Divide Innovation Divide Knowledg e Divide Digital Divide
  32. 32. Three Waves of History Agricultural Industrial Informatio n Rural Urban Virtual/Digital Sunday School Primary/Secondary School Higher Education
  33. 33. Source: (US. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014)
  34. 34. Mismatch of Jobs & Education Jobs in 2018 People in 2012 Difference Less than High School 10% 12.42% -2.4% High School Degree 28% 30.72% -2.7% Some College 12% 16.97% -5.0% Associate’s Degree 17% 9.45% 7.6% Bachelor’s Degree 23% 19.49% 3.5% Graduate Degree 10% 10.95% -0.9%
  35. 35. “Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe.” - H.G. Wells Image from Wikipedia
  36. 36. 38.9 pt. growth 4.5 pt. growth 4.1 pt. growth 19 pt. growth Bachelor’s Attainment by Income Adequate Education: winning the race with automation Catastrophe Source: US. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014
  37. 37. Percent of Population 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed High School or College
  38. 38. www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/minorities_less-educated_workers_see_staggering_rates_of_underemployment
  39. 39. Changing Trends in Imprisonment
  40. 40. Changing Trends in Unwed Births
  41. 41. Figure 12. Increasing Cost of Higher Education over Time
  42. 42. Figure 14. Distribution of Total Student Debt by Level of Household Net Worth
  43. 43. Changing our Educational Trajectory Adequate Education Winning the race with automation Mass Unemployment (catastrophe)
  44. 44. Tech Christians Globally Tech Christians in U.S. Tech in Christian Orgs Tech Christians Serving the Poor (1,000’s) • 77,500 full-time IT staff • $12.5 Billion IT Budget • 6.3 million Christians in STEM jobs (71% in computing) • 50-100 million Christians in STEM jobs Size and Scope of Christians in Technology
  45. 45. Mechanisms of Diffusion of Innovation  Conferences, workshops, webinars  Formal education: degrees, courses, lectures  Media: books, videos, websites, magazines, software, open resources  Employment: Staff training  Networks: Professional networks & associations, informal networks of peers  Programs, products and their replication  Personal: Consulting, word of mouth  Open source software/open content Who are the leaders in innovation?
  46. 46. Jesus Christian Social Sector AGRM, CCDA, Salvation Army, Teen Challenge, UYWI, World Vision Job Boards Internships.com Simply Hired Christian Higher Ed for Justice Bakke U, UCC, Eastern, Fuller Azusa, Acton, NET Institute, Christian ABE Open Education Straighterline.com, MOOCs, EdX Coursera, Udacity Nonprofit Recruiting AllforGood, Idealist VolunteerMatch, Guidestar, FB Causes Tech & Missions ICCM, Lightsys, MAF, GEM, EMI, WIN, OB VisionSynergy, AIBI Wycliffe IT, CheckItOut Tech & Ministry Internet Evangelism Day, Mobile Ministry Forum, YouVersion, ABS, Cru MSTSM Program Tech-Justice Sector (secular) Jesus Tech Sector (Word) Jesus Justice Sector (Deed) City Vision College ChristianVolunteering City Vision Internships Tech Christian Colleges AccessED, ACU, Calvin, Taylor, Baylor Biola, Olivet, Fuller, Wheaton, Liberty Christian Technologists Christians Engineering Society, Intervarsity Faculty, Cru Faculty ISCAST, Code for the Kingdom Christians in Tech (FB & LinkedIn) Christian Recruiting MeetTheNeed, ChristianJobs ShortTermMissions, Missions Christian Media Christianity Today, Publishers, Radio & TV Tech Philanthropy Google Grants, LinkedIn Facebook, Salesforce, Microsoft Open Source Drupal, Moodle Church Tech & IT LifeChurch, Menlo Park Saddleback, Willow Creek Christian Recovery NACR, Celebrate Recovery Urban Internships Mission Year Churches of the Poor Christian Higher Ed In Developing Countries Low Cost Online Training Lynda.com, Skillshare, Pluralsight Parachurch IT Cru, Intervarsity Open Data/Content Wikipedia, Open Gov’t, Semantic Web Christian Funders Foundations, Individuals Secular Funders Foundations, Individuals, Government, Corporations
  47. 47. Ministry with the Poor The Poor Christian s in Secular Tech Tech Ministry Tech Ministry with the Poor Secular Tech Diffusion of Innovation: Ministry with the Poor Justice Ministry & Tech Tech Secular Nonprofit Tech Nonprofit Tech TechJustice Tech Ministry & Resources Ministry TechJustice Tech E1-E2 E2-E3 (rarely effective) E1-E2
  48. 48. Part 3: Main Ideas 1. Most injustice is systemic requiring the systemic response of new institutions 2. The transition from agricultural to industrial to information economies is creating a knowledge divide 3. Our partnership strategy will determine whether we are a part of the problem or the solution in the knowledge divide 4. Decreasing costs of knowledge production is creating an opportunity for Christians to reverse the secularization trend in education
  49. 49. Part 3 Assignments  Brain Drain: exploiting or contributing expertise  Identifying and mapping sources and clients of innovation and knowledge ◦ Create MindMap ◦ Summarize MindMap in Forum Post ◦ Write strategy for improving diffusion of innovation
  50. 50. Part 4: Diffusion of Innovation & Case Studies of Technology and the Poor
  51. 51. Diffusion of Innovation Case Studies  Snowmobiles & Ski-Doo  Oral Rehydration Therapy  Steel Axes for Aborigines  Irish Potato Famine  Organic Farming
  52. 52. Appropriate Technology Movement  Movement to prioritize technology that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally controlled  Strengths ◦ Established the dominant perspective in academia on using technology with the poor ◦ Provides many key principles useful when serving the poor  Weaknesses ◦ Largely a movement of left-leaning, upper-middle class in developed economies which can result in prioritizing the environment and being small over practical impact on the poor ◦ Scale is needed for many technologies for the poor, so the definition of appropriate technology overlooks most digital technologies (like mobile phones)
  53. 53. Christian Education Globally  Christian Colleges and Universities globally  7,200+ Bible & Theological Schools globally  K-12 Christian Schools ◦ About 7% of US students  Community Education Programs  Home schooling ◦ 3.4% of US growing at 75% per decade
  54. 54. One Laptop Per Child  Initiative of MIT’s Media Lab to provide one laptop to each child in the world  Strengths ◦ Raised visibility of vision for technology for the global poor  Weaknesses (reasons for failure) ◦ Eclipsed by Android smartphone & tablet markets ◦ Leaders were too removed from cultural contexts they were serving ◦ Media Lab’s core competency is creating “sexy” tech projects not creating change in low-income communities ◦ Prioritized technology over more basic needs
  55. 55. Computer Learning Centers  1990-2005 ◦ Community Technology Centers Movement: CTCNet ◦ Association of Christian Community Computer Centers (AC4)  2005 to 2014 ◦ Access moved to libraries and homes ◦ Training moved to adult education and youth programs in large organizations  Lessons ◦ Android, Crossing the Chasm
  56. 56. Best Practices of Christian Computer Centers  Operate as a part of an adult or youth program in a well-funded Christian social service organization  Consider strategies for virtualizing machine images  Use Open DNS or router-based filtering for client machine  Consider using Google Apps and/or Office 365  Provide structured educational time using online educational tools (courses, GED, youth education)
  57. 57. Universal Christian Wikis  UrbanMinistry.org and StrategicNetwork  Problems ◦ Cost of Maintenance too high. Assumption: 1% of visitors would contribute, but actually < .001% contribute ◦ Value of other networks (Wikipedia) superseded value of independent network  Conclusion ◦ Scale needed for Christian social networks & wikis is too high to compete ◦ For Christian organizations, wikis are just another type of content management system ◦ Unless… you have captured a semi-closed audience
  58. 58. Crossing the Chasm 1. Amara’s Law: We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.” 2. The Chasm: The organizational culture to meet the needs of early adopters is entirely different than the culture to meet the needs of later adopters. Hype
  59. 59. Assessing Online Social Ventures  What scale of resources are needed? Is it a… ◦ $10,000 problem ◦ $100,000 problem ◦ $1 million problem ◦ $10 million problem ◦ $100 million problem ◦ $1 billion problem  How does it scale? ◦ How does revenue scale? ◦ How does in-kind resources scale? ◦ How does social value scale? ◦ How does earned income scale? ◦ How do expenses scale?
  60. 60. Examples of Resources Needed  Christian Social Network: $100 million  Christian Social Graph: $100 million ◦ Global Church Directory: $50 million ◦ Global Parachurch Directory: $10 million ◦ Global Volunteer/Missions Directory: $10 million  Christian Wikipedia: $10 million  Christian YouTube: $10-50 million  Christian TED Talks: $10-50 million How do you build a $100 project when you only have a few million dollars?
  61. 61. Law of Network Effects 𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑥 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘2 𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑥 𝑆𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑁𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑠2 Value Time Wikipedia Universal Christian Wiki
  62. 62. Open Education  Many educational materials are being commoditized or made free  Future could be an “app store” with tens of thousands of accredited courses available at almost no cost  Christian schools can build on open and low- cost educational resources to bring education to the world  Has potential to reverse secularization trend of education
  63. 63. Audio/Visual Gospel  The Problem ◦ 2/3rds of the world are “oral” communicators ◦ 50% of world is illiterate  Jesus film ◦ Billions have watched with 200 million+ indicated decisions for Christ  Faith Comes by Hearing ◦ Translating audio Bible of every Bible translation  Lesson ◦ Technology is useful if you start with the needs of the people you are trying to reach
  64. 64. Emerging Opportunities  Microfinance/Microenterprise  Clean Water  Ultra-low Cost Higher Education  Mobile Banking in Developing Countries  Solar in Developing Countries  Mobile Health
  65. 65. Key Principles of Case Studies  Most people underestimate the scale needed to effectively serve the poor  Cultural Mismatch: ◦ The poor are often reached after “crossing the chasm” ◦ Many tech initiatives for the poor are lead by innovators or early adopters
  66. 66. Final Project 1. Literature Review (6-8 pages, 10% of grade) 2. Project (20-25 pages, 85% of grade) 3. Self Reflection (5% of grade)

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