Professional Development - Leadership


Published on

Published in: Business, Education

Professional Development - Leadership

  1. 1. Leadership: Traits and Characteristics TechMission Corps Camille S. Britton March, 2008
  2. 2. Leadership Defined <ul><li>Leadership – </li></ul><ul><li>The ability “to get people to follow voluntarily” </li></ul><ul><li>Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader </li></ul>*
  3. 3. Leadership: Styles of Leadership <ul><li>Charismatic Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Participative Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The Quiet Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Servant Leadership </li></ul>*
  4. 4. Leadership: True or False <ul><li>A person cannot be a born leader, leaders are cultivated. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admirable (Visionaries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-belief (Believe in their vision) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eloquent/excellent oratorical skills (rhetoric) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Charismatic Leadership: Leading the team <ul><li>*Charismatic Leaders who are building a group, whether it is a political party, a cult or a business team, will often focus strongly on making the group very clear and distinct, separating it from other groups. They will then build the image of the group, in particular in the minds of their followers, as being far superior to all others. </li></ul><ul><li>*The Charismatic Leader will typically attach themselves firmly to the identity of the group, such that to join the group is to become one with the leader. In doing so, they create an unchallengeable position for themselves. </li></ul>http://
  7. 7. Charismatic Leaders
  8. 8. Leadership: True or False <ul><li>When you are in a position of leadership you must no longer consult with others (autocratic). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Participative Leadership <ul><li>*Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul>*
  10. 10. Participative Spectrum *ttp:// Autocratic decision by leader Leader, proposes decision, listens to feedback, then decides Team proposes decision, leader has final decision Joint decisions with team as equals Full delegation of decision to team Not Participative Highly Participative
  11. 11. “ Relationship Between [Leadership] Decision-Making Style and Job Satisfaction” <ul><li>* “As business has focused increasing attention on workplace and management practices that enhance employee satisfaction and productivity, the benefits of participative decision making (ie, that cultivates employee input into decisions and that recognizes the value of employee opinions) have been endorsed. 1 Studies in various organizational settings have found a moderately strong relationship between managers using participative decision making and employee job satisfaction. 2-12 …studies confirm that participative decision making is associated with greater professional satisfaction and growth, less sick leave, and higher retention... 13-24 ”. </li></ul>*
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it”. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Theodore Roosevelt ~ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Situational Leadership <ul><li>*Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different leadership styles are better in different situations, and that leaders must be flexible enough to adapt their style to the situation they are in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A good situational leader is one who can quickly change leadership styles as the situation changes. </li></ul></ul>*
  14. 14. Situation Leadership: Blanchard and Hersey <ul><li>According to Blanchard and Hersey, one’s leadership style and the success of the given tasks depends upon the development level of the follower. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, situational leaders can be cultivated and successful if the Blanchard and Hersey model is implemented. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The [Paul] Hersey and [Ken] Blanchard Leadership Model <ul><li>Quadrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1: Directing/Telling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2: Coaching/Selling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3: Supporting/Participating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4: Delegating </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Hersey and Blanchard Model: Leadership-Follower <ul><li>Directing/Telling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders define the roles and tasks of the 'follower', and supervise them closely. Decisions are made by the leader and announced, so communication is largely one-way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Competence, High Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally lack the specific skills required for the job in hand. However, they are eager to learn and willing to take direction. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hersey and Blanchard Model: Leadership-Follower <ul><li>Coaching/Selling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders still define roles and tasks, but seek ideas and suggestions from the follower. Decisions remain the leader's prerogative, but communication is much more two-way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Competence, Low Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They may have some relevant skills, but won't be able to do the job without help. The task or the situation may be new to them. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hersey and Blanchard Model: Leadership-Follower <ul><li>Supporting/Participating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders pass day-to-day decisions, such as task allocation and processes, to the follower. The leader facilitates and takes part in decisions, but control is with the follower. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Competence, Variable Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are experienced and capable, but may lack the confidence to go it alone, or the motivation to do it well or quickly. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hersey and Blanchard Model: Leadership-Follower <ul><li>Delegating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders are still involved in decisions and problem-solving, but control is with the follower. The follower decides when and how the leader will be involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Competence, High Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are experienced at the job, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. They may even be more skilled than the leader. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Style: Development as Leader: Follower <ul><li>The leader is the one who must constantly adapt and not the follower. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, A new person joins your team and you're asked to help him through the first few days. You sit him in front of a PC, show him a pile of invoices that need to be processed today and then excuse yourself to a meeting. He is at level D1, and you've adopted S4, an obvious mismatch. Everyone loses because the new person feels helpless and demotivated and you don't get the invoices processed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another example, imagine you're handing over your duties to an experienced colleague before you leave for a holiday. You've listed all the tasks that need to be done and given him a detailed set of instructions on how to carry out each one. He is at level D4, and you've adopted S1. The work will probably get done, but your colleague will despise you for treating him like an idiot. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>“ Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things”. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Peter F. Drucker ~ </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transactional Leadership <ul><li>*Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishments/Rewards are used to control the motivation of the individual </li></ul></ul></ul>*
  23. 23. Transactional Leadership <ul><li>*Contingent Reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the leader provides rewards if, and only if, subordinates perform adequately and/or try hard enough. It contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Manager by Exception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MBE is a conservative approach whereby additional resources are applied in response to any event falling outside of established parameters. It seeks to minimize the opportunity for exceptions by enforcing defensive management processes. </li></ul></ul>*
  24. 24. <ul><li>My grandfather once told me that there were two kinds of people: those who do the work and those who take the credit. He told me to try to be in the first group. There is much less competition. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Indira Gandhi ~ </li></ul>
  25. 25. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>*Four dimensional leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealized Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspirational Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Consideration </li></ul></ul>*
  26. 26. Four Dimensions to a Transformational Leader <ul><li>Idealized Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the leader behaves in admirable ways that cause followers to identify with the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic leaders display convictions, take stands and appeal to followers on an emotional level. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaders have a clear set of values and demonstrate these values in every action; thereby, providing a role model for their followers. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders with inspirational motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge followers with high standards, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicate optimism about future goals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide meaning for the task at hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. It is also important that this visionary aspect of leadership be supported by communication skills that allow the leader to articulate his or her vision with precision and power in a compelling and persuasive way. </li></ul></ul>*
  27. 27. Four Dimensions to a Transformational Leader <ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the leader: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>challenges assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solicits followers' ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders with this trait stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. This also encompasses the need to respect and celebrate the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team (it is the diversity of the team that gives it its true strength). test Apart from its central role in transformational leadership theory, charismatic leadership has been the basis of its own distinct literature (Weber, 1921/1947, House (1997). Transformational leadership and charismatic leadership theories have much in common and complement each other in important ways. </li></ul>*
  28. 28. <ul><li>One of the tests of leadership is the ability to recognize a problem before it becomes an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>~Arnold Glasgow~ </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Quiet Leader <ul><li>*Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The actions of a leader speak louder than his or her words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are motivated when you give them credit rather than take it yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego and aggression are neither necessary nor constructive. </li></ul></ul>*
  30. 30. The Quiet Leader’s Style <ul><li>*The approach of quiet leaders is the antithesis of the classic Charismatic (and often Transformational) leaders in that they base their success not on ego and force of character but on their thoughts and actions. Although they are strongly task-focused, they are neither bullies nor unnecessarily unkind and may persuade people through rational argument and a form of benevolent Transactional Leadership. </li></ul>*
  31. 31. “ Level 5 Leaders” <ul><li>*In his book Good To Great , Jim Collins, identified five levels of effectiveness people can take in organizations. At level four is the merely effective leader, whilst at level five the leader who combines professional will with personal humility. The 'professional will' indicates how they are far from being timid wilting flowers and will march against any advice if they believe it is the right thing to do. In 'personal humility' they put the well-being of others before their own personal needs, for example giving others credit after successes but taking personal responsibility for failures. </li></ul>*
  32. 32. <ul><li>Delegating work works, provided the one delegating works, too. </li></ul><ul><li>~Robert Half~ </li></ul>
  33. 33. Servant Leadership <ul><li>*Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader has responsibility for the followers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are disadvantaged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who want to help others best do this by leading them. </li></ul></ul>*
  34. 34. Servant Leadership: Style <ul><li>*There are two criteria of servant leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people served grow as individuals, becoming 'healthier, wiser, more autonomous and more likely themselves to become servants' (Greenleaf, 1977). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which the leadership benefits those who are least advantaged in society (or at least does not disadvantage them). </li></ul></ul>*
  35. 35. Servant Leadership: Style Cont. <ul><li>*Principles of servant leadership defined by the Alliance for Servant Leadership are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation as a vehicle for personal and institutional growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal growth as a route to better serve others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling environments that empower and encourage service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service as a fundamental goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trusting relationships as a basic platform for collaboration and service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating commitment as a way to collaborative activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community building as a way to create environments in which people can trust each other and work together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurturing the spirit as a way to provide joy and fulfillment in meaningful work. </li></ul></ul>*
  36. 36. Ernest Shackleton <ul><li>*A 20th century explorer who, after his ship became frozen in the Antarctic life, brought every one of his 27 crew home alive, including an 800 mile journey in open boats across the winter Antarctic seas. It took two years, but Shackleton's sense of responsibility towards his men never wavered. </li></ul>*
  37. 37. Servant Leaders
  38. 38. Leadership <ul><li>A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way </li></ul><ul><li>~John C. Maxwell~ </li></ul>
  39. 39. Web Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>