This presentation provides an introduction to the semantic web for nonprofits and a vision for a "nonprofit social graph." It explains how nonprofts fit into semantic web standards like RDF, Schema.org, Sparql, etc.
Introduction to the Semantic Web and the Nonprofit Social Graph Andrew Sears Executive Director
The Need for the Semantic Web:What are the Online Megatrends? Browser traffic App Traffic General Search Vertical Search Proliferation of Open, Standardized Closed Datasets/APIs Machine Readable DataAll of these trends call for more standardizedAPIs and linked datasets = Semantic Web
App Traffic Growing beyond Browser Traffic Note: Includes all web (desktop and mobile)
Vertical Search through MicroFormats & Schema.org
Proliferation of Nonprofit APIs All for Good Social Actions Brooklyn Museum Sparked Convio WiserEarth CorpWatch CiviCRM DonorsChoose Get Active eTapestry Member-only FirstGiving Reults Plus Global Giving Blackbaud Kintera Institute for Money in State Kiva Politics LetGive Giveness Piryx WiserEarth Guidestar ChristianVolunteering Charity Navigator Let’s Give Dropcash Piryx Global Currents Pitleline Open Aid
What is the Semantic Web? Initiative of World Wide Web Consortium for providing common formats for web data Led by Tim Burners- Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web aka Web 3.0
Semantic Web StandardsAggregators: Freebase, Dbpedia,Zemanta, Kasiba, Calais, Data.gov…Sparql: global query language for RDFSchema.org: schema & ontology of objects in RDF RDF = data sharing format in XML http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web
Schema.org Defines schema of objects relevant to nonprofits in RDF ◦ Organizations ◦ Job Posting ◦ Volunteer Opportunity ◦ Events Will be used by all major search engines to improve search results ◦ Most experts say using Schema.org format could increase click-throughs by 30%
Why Provide Data to Semantic Web Technology Mandate ◦ Given strategy of search engines, it is likely that nonprofit data that do not support the Semantic web will lose 50% of their search engine traffic within 5 years and 90% within 10 years ◦ As more of the web is viewed through apps and vertical search engines, open data is required ◦ There will soon be hundreds of nonprofit APIs, which are too many for programmers to support Government Mandate ◦ It is likely that future government grants will require grantees to provide data to Data.gov Public Mandate ◦ Nonprofits that choose to be closed will likely attract public criticism and lose funders Social Mandate ◦ Providing open data maximizes social RoI
Nonprofit Social Graph Volunteer Opportunities Foundations Jobs Events Organizations People Nonprofit Giving Meta-wiki Requests Causes/Social Actions
SPARQL Endpoints SPARQL Endpoints serve as the primary repository for a source of data ◦ Nonprofit Organizations in USA, Volunteer Opportunities Provides standard API query interface ◦ Two-way update capabilities coming soon Similar to AllForGood API, but using semantic web standards Will require nonprofit community in each country to agree to endpoint ◦ Will probably want to interface with data.gov Sample Endpoints ◦ Data.gov, Data.gov.uk, Dbpedia, Freebase, World Factbook,http://www.w3.org/wiki/SparqlEndpointshttp://www.w3.org/wiki/SPARQLhttp://www.w3.org/wiki/SPARQL/Extensions/Update
Potential Options for Repositories/Sparql Endpoints1. One organization becomes sole repository for organizations, volunteer opportunities2. Different organizations become primary repository for different objects ◦ AllForGood = Volunteer Opportunities ◦ Guidestar = Organizations3. National/Global Sparql Endpoint becomes sole repository (i.e. Data.gov) ◦ All data sources feed into Data.gov as a central repository/Sparql endpoint provider ◦ Data.gov probably will not accept third-party data
Schema.org: Organization Property Expected Type Description Properties from Thing description Text A short description of the item. image URL URL of an image of the item. name Text The name of the item. url URL URL of the item. Properties from Organization address PostalAddress Physical address of the item. The overall rating, based on a collection of reviews aggregateRating AggregateRating or ratings, of the item. contactPoints ContactPoint A contact point for a person or organization. email Text Email address. employees Person People working for this organization. Upcoming or past events associated with this place events Event or organization. faxNumber Text The fax number. founders Person A person who founded this organization. foundingDate Date The date that this organization was founded. A count of a specific user interactions with this item—for example, 20 UserLikes, 5 UserComments, interactionCount Text or 300 UserDownloads. The user interaction type should be one of the sub types of UserInteraction. location Place or PostalAddress The location of the event or organization. members Person or Organization A member of this organization. reviews Review Review of the item. telephone Text The telephone number.More specific types: Corporation, EducationalOrganization, GovernmentOrganization,LocalBusiness, NGO, PerformingGroup, SportsTeam
Step Toward Nonprofit Social Graph:Organizations Organize a working group of key stakeholders Decide who will be the primary organization endpoint ◦ Guidestar or Data.gov or both Provide input into Schema.org’s organization and NGO standards ◦ i.e. missing charity id, tax id, etc. ◦ May want to extend standard beyond Schema.org Provide Sparql Endpoint for Organization data Data.gov latest IRS data is 2004 ◦ http://www.data.gov/list/agency/14/15/catalog/raw/page/1/count/50 http://schema.org/Organization http://schema.org/NGO
Organization Data Providers Guidestar NetworkforGood Charity Navigator HandsOn Network Idealist.org United Way/Truist ChristianVolunteering.org VolunteerMatch.org 211 Data.gov/IRS
Schema.org: Job Posting Need Volunteer OpportunityProperty Expected Type DescriptionProperties from Thingdescription Text A short description of the item.image URL URL of an image of the item.name Text The name of the item.url URL URL of the item.Properties from JobPostingbaseSalary Number The base salary of the job.benefits Text Description of benefits associated with the job.datePosted Date Publication date for the job posting.educationRequirements Text Educational background needed for the position. Type of employment (e.g. full-time, part-time, contract, temporary, seasonal,employmentType Text internship).experienceRequirements Text Description of skills and experience needed for the position.hiringOrganization Organization Organization offering the job position.incentives Text Description of bonus and commission compensation aspects of the job.industry Text The industry associated with the job position.jobLocation Place A (typically single) geographic location associated with the job position. Category or categories describing the job. Use BLS O*NET-SOC taxonomy:occupationalCategory Text http://www.onetcenter.org/taxonomy.html. Ideally includes textual label and formal code, with the property repeated for each applicable value.qualifications Text Specific qualifications required for this role.responsibilities Text Responsibilities associated with this role. The currency (coded using ISO 4217, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_4217 used forsalaryCurrency Text the main salary information in this job posting.skills Text Skills required to fulfill this role. Any special commitments associated with this job posting. Valid entries includespecialCommitments Text VeteranCommit, MilitarySpouseCommit, etc.title Text The title of the job.workHours Text The typical working hours for this job (e.g. 1st shift, night shift, 8am-5pm).
Steps Toward Nonprofit Social Graph:Volunteer Opportunities Currently data.gov provides some data ◦ http://explore.data.gov/Social-Insurance-and-Human-Services/Federal- Volunteer-Opportunities/svbx-5gin Decide who will be the primary organization endpoint ◦ Very likely to be All for Good Need Volunteer Opportunity standard in Schema.org ◦ Probably an intangible object like JobPosting ◦ Will probably want to relate event object to it for dates, and determine whether there needs to be a new volunteer event ◦ Need to require EIN/org ID to be able to link to organization Provide Sparql Endpoint for Organization data http://schema.org/Organization http://schema.org/NGO
Volunteer Opportunity Data Providers Open = Contributing to Serve.Gov/Data.gov ◦ HandsOn Network, AARP, Idealist.org, United Way, Truist, Habitat for Humanity, Service Nation, Universal Giving, ChristianVolunteering.org, Craigslist, MENTOR, Senior Corps, AmeriCorps, Girl Scouts, YMCA, Up2Us, CatchaFire, Volunteer.gov, Rock the Vote, Citizen Corps, Red Cross, Samaritan Technologies, Catchafire Closed = Not Contributing to Serve.Gov/Data.gov ◦ VolunteerMatch.org Schema Examples ◦ http://www.allforgood.org/spec ◦ http://schema.org/Event
Schema.org: EventProperty Expected Type DescriptionProperties from Thingdescription Text A short description of the item.image URL URL of an image of the item.name Text The name of the item.url URL URL of the item.Properties from Eventattendees Person or Organization A person attending the event. The duration of the item (movie, audio recording, event, etc.) induration Duration ISO 8601 date format.endDate Date The end date and time of the event (in ISO 8601 date format).location Place or PostalAddress The location of the event or organization. An offer to sell this item—for example, an offer to sell aoffers Offer product, the DVD of a movie, or tickets to an event. The main performer or performers of the event—for example, aperformers Person or Organization presenter, musician, or actor.startDate Date The start date and time of the event (in ISO 8601 date format). Events that are a part of this event. For example, a conferencesubEvents Event event includes many presentations, each are subEvents of the conference. An event that this event is a part of. For example, a collectionsuperEvent Event of individual music performances might each have a music festival as their superEvent.
Challenges with other Data Objects No centralized source or independent aggregator with critical mass of objects ◦ Nonprofit Events ◦ Nonprofit Meta-Wiki ◦ Giving Opportunities Lack of common structure ◦ Social Actions/Causes No workable business model ◦ People (will probably default to Facebook and remain private silos for business reasons)
Roles in the Nonprofit Social Graph Nonprofit • Web Portals Websites & • Desktop software Applications • Nonprofit social networks • Nonprofit portals • National Sparql Endpoints • Websites • Data.gov • System Integration • Search Engines Global Sparql Programming • Mobile Apps Standards & • Social Networks Aggregators Endpoints Consultants • Facebook Apps • Places/Maps • Widgets • 211 • Open Source Projects Data Sources • 1,000’s of websites • Volunteer, Jobs, Orgs, etc.
But, Nonprofit Data ProvidersMake Their Money on their Data! The nonprofit social graph must support sustainable business models for nonprofit data providers Freemium business model ◦ Open data will be more limited like an RSS feed ◦ Need to provide enough data for it to be useful or someone will “fork” the data and provide a better open alternative Read Free: The Future of a Radical Price by Chris Anderson
Business Models1. RSS Feed Business model ◦ Share limited data to drive traffic to your website ◦ Traffic can be monetized2. Open Source Software business model ◦ Provide more limited open data to develop consulting business with full data and leveraging expertise with data3. Grants-funded business model ◦ Sharing data maximizes social value to attract funders ◦ Funders will want aggregators to succeed ◦ Nonprofits perceived as “closed” will lose funding
Possible Futures1. Bad. Nonprofits remained closed and the only open data is Data.gov ◦ Data.gov’s data is very poor quality unless nonprofits help improve it ◦ Nonprofit app development will be severely limited and nonprofits will lose visibility online: will digital divide online between nonprofits and for profits2. Better. Most nonprofits contribute, but some do not ◦ Nonprofits with closed data will lose most of their online visibility3. Best. Nonprofits organize and create critical mass ◦ Creates new market for thousands of apps and widgets where nonprofit causes become pervasive in the online world
Potential first Steps toward theNonprofit Social Graph Serve.Gov/AllForGood could require (or strongly encourage) data providers to include EINs linking organizations to volunteer opportunities ◦ Critical missing piece right now to connect to open org data ◦ VolunteerMatch.org re-joins Serve.gov Guidestar could organize a consortium of organization data providers ◦ Define organization standard as input to Schema.org ◦ Provides 2 way API with partners ◦ Provides organization data feed to Data.gov using RDF Idealist.org could start aggregating third party nonprofit jobs (like AllforGood) ◦ Easy sources: SimplyHired.com, Indeed.com ◦ Starts providing nonprofit jobs feed to Data.gov using RDF Other nonprofit data sources start to form standards working groups
For More Information Why Nonprofits Should Care about Linked Data and the Semantic Web ◦ http://www.spaceforgood.org/content/why-nonprofits- should-care-about-linked-data-and-semantic-web en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/ http://www.w3schools.com/web/web_se mantic.asp
Why is TechMission Interested inthe Nonprofit Social Graph? Andrew Sears, Executive Director ◦ Previously co-founded MIT’s Internet Telecoms Consortium supporting open standards ◦ Researched open standards under David Clark (one of the fathers of the Internet) ◦ I personally have a passion for open data Open Data will support nonprofits focused on niches and increase diversity ◦ Largest segment of nonprofit market is the faith- based segment ◦ TechMission is the leading provider of open data related to faith based nonprofits (6,500 volunteer opps, 13,000 orgs, 170,000 wiki articles)
Giving Opportunity Data Sources Kiva JustGive.org Network for Good Changing the Present Donors Choose FirstGiving.com Schema/API Examples ◦ build.kiva.org ◦ developers.firstgiving.com ◦ developer.donorschoose.org
Causes/Social Actions Data Sources Social Actions/Guidestar Causes.com Change.org Schema/API Examples ◦ http://exchange.causes.com/resources/causes-developer-api/ ◦ http://wiki.socialactions.com/w/page/24592876/Social%20Acti ons%20API%20-%20About